Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 3


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QUESTION: 1

Which of the following are the Buddhist pilgrimage sites in India?

1. Sirpur

2. Kushinagar

3. Nagapattinam

4. Karla caves

Select the correct code:

Solution: Some of the Buddhist Pilgrimage site In India
  • Mahabodhi temple, Bodh Gaya (Bihar)

  • The Mahaviharas of Nalanda, Vikramshila, Sompura, Odantapuri, Pushpagiri and Jagaddala

  • Sirpur in Chhattisgarh.

  • Lalitagiri, Vajragiri and Ratnagiri in Odisha

  • Samath, near Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh). Site of the first sermon of Buddha.

  • Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh

  • Sanchi and Bharhut in Madhya Pradesh

  • Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu

  • Bhaja and Karla caves, Pune (Maharashtra)

  • Ajanta, Ellora and Pitalkhora caves, Aurangabad (Maharashtra)

QUESTION: 2

Buddhism is the dominant religion in terms of the majority of the population practising it in which of the following South Asian countries

1. Nepal

2. Bhutan

3. Sri Lanka

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Solution:
  • Nepal is a Hindu majority country. According to the 2011 census, 81.3% of the Nepalese population was Hindu, 9.0% was Buddhist, 4.4% was Muslim, 3.0% was Kiratist (indigenous ethnic religion), 1.4% was Christian, 0.2% was Sikhs, 0.1% was Jains, and 0.6% follow other religions or no religion.

  • Religion in Bhutan:

  • (a) Buddhism (74.7%)

  • (b) Hinduism (22.6%)

  • (c) Bon and other indigenous faith (1.9%)

  • (d) Christianity (0.5%)

  • (e) Islam (0.2%)

  • (f) Other or none (2%)

  • It is estimated that between two-thirds and three-quarters of the Bhutanese population follow Vajrayana Buddhism, the state religion.

  • According to the 2012 census Buddhists make up 70.1% of the population, Hindus 12.6%, Muslims 9.7% and Christians 7.6%. Most of the Sinhalese are Buddhist; most of the Tamils are Hindu, and the Moors and Malays are mostly Muslim.

QUESTION: 3

Which of the following sites is known as Diamond Triangle

1. Lalitgiri

2. Vindhyagiri

3. Ratnagiri

4. Pushpagiri

5. Udayagiri

Select the correct code:

Solution: Buddhist site museum has been inaugurated at Lalitgiri in Odisha. The Diamond Triangle, consisting of the three Buddhist sites of Ratnagiri, Udaygiri and Lalitgiri.

Belonging to the Vajyarayan sect of Buddhism, which is popularly known as the Diamond Vehicle, the name Diamond Triangle.

QUESTION: 4

Which of these was/were some of the most important ideas in Jainism?

1. The entire world is fundamentally inanimate despite the contrary illusion.

2. There are no birth and death cycles as objects come from nothingness and dissolve into nothingness.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Statement 1: The most important idea in Jainism is that the entire world is animated: even stones, rocks and water have life. Non-injury to living beings, especially humans, animals, plants and insects, is central to Jaina's philosophy.

  • Statement 2: According to Jaina teachings, the cycle of birth and rebirth is shaped through karma. Asceticism and penance are required to free oneself from the cycle of karma. This can be achieved only by renouncing the world.

QUESTION: 5

The famous statue of Gommateshwara (Bahubali) can be found in

Solution:
  • It is a 57-feet high monolithic statue situated on Vindhyagiri Hill at Shravanabelagola in Karnataka.

  • Depicting the prolonged meditation of Jain god Bahubali, it was built around 983 AD and is one of the largest free-standing statues in the world. The Ganga dynasty commissioned the construction of the statue.

  • In 2007, the statue was voted as the first of Seven Wonders of India; 49% of the total votes favoured it.

QUESTION: 6

Regarding the Gommateshwara statue, consider the following statements.

1. It is dedicated to the Jain god Bahubali.

2. Hoysala ruler Chavundaraya constructed it.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The statue Gommateshwara is dedicated to the Jain god Bahubali. It was built around 983 AD and is one of the largest free-standing statues in the world.

  • The construction of the statue was commissioned by the Ganga dynasty minister and commander, Chavundaraya. Neighbouring areas have Jain temples known as the basis and several images of the Tirthankaras.

QUESTION: 7

Which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Gommateshwara is one of the world's tallest monolithic free-standing structure made of grey stone at Shravanabelagola.

2. Chavundaraya commissioned it.

3. It is the statue of Bahubali, the son of Adinath.

4. The statue symbolises the attainment of Kevala gyana by Bahubali.

Solution:
  • Gommateshwara statue is a 57 feet (17 m) high monolithic statue situated on Vindhyagiri Hill at Shravanabelagola in the Indian state of Karnataka.

  • Vindhyagiri is one of the two hills in Shravanabelagola in the Indian state of Karnataka; the other is Chandragiri, which is also a seat of several very ancient Jain centres, dating back much older than Gommateshwara statue.

  • The statue Gommateshwara is dedicated to the Jain god Bahubali. Son of Adinatha.

  • It was built around 983, i.e., and is one of the world's largest free-standing statues. The material used is granite.

  • The construction of the statue was commissioned by the Ganga dynasty minister and commander, Chavundaraya.

  • Neighbouring areas have Jain temples known as basadis and several images of the Tirthankaras.

  • One can have a beautiful view of the surrounding areas from the top of the hill. An event known as Mahamastakabhisheka attracts devotees from all over the world.

  • The Mahamastakabhisheka festival is held once in 12 years.

  • Bahubali abandoned his clothes and kingdom to become a Digambara monk and began meditating with great resolve to attain omniscience (Kevala Gyana).

  • He is said to have meditated motionless in a standing posture (kayotsarga) for a year, during that time climbing plants grew around his legs.

QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statements regarding Jain sects.

1. The Svetambara tradition of Jainism traces its lineage through Sthulabhadra.

2. As per the Digambara sect of Jainism, Bhadrabahu was the last Shruta Kevalin.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • By the end of the fourth century BC, there was a deadly famine in the Ganges valley. Many Jain monks led by Bhadrabahu and Chandragupta Maurya came to Sravana Belgola in Karnataka.

  • Some stayed in North India and were led by a monk named Sthulabhadra. He changed the code of conduct for the monks. It led to Jainism's division into two sects, Svetambaras (white-clad) and Digambaras (sky-clad or naked).

  • The first Jain Council was held at Pataliputra by Sthulabhadra at the beginning of the third century BC.

  • According to the Digambara sect of Jainism, there were five Sliruta Kevalins in Jainism-Govarddhana Mahamuni, Vishnu, Nandimitra, Aparajita and Bhadrabahu.

  • Shruta Kevalin is a term used in Jainism for those ascetics who have complete Jain Agama knowledge (texts).

QUESTION: 9

Jainism advocates three principles known as Triratnas (three gems): right faith, right knowledge and right conduct. On the other hand, Buddhism preaches four noble truths and the eightfold path. What is/ are common between the teachings of both religions?

1. Acceptance of the theory that God exists and it has multiple aspects.

2. Understanding that no object possesses a soul and is inanimate in the larger flow of life.

3. To practice ahimsa and abstain from acquiring precious metals like gold and silver.

4. Penance and extreme austerity to punish the body.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Solution:
  • Right knowledge (as per Mahavira) refers to accepting that there is no god and the world has been existing without a creator, and all objects possess a soul.

  • Buddhism sheds any discussion on god and soul as futile. Buddha also taught that the soul does not exist, so there is no meeting ground in this case.

  • Right conduct refers to the observance of the five great vows: not to injure life, not to lie, not to steal, not to acquire property and not to lead an immoral life.

  • Buddhism also forbids its monks from acquiring property (that may bring a sense of ego and pride to its monks and nuns) and injuring life.

  • Only Jainism advocates extreme penance, Buddhism preaches moderation.

QUESTION: 10

The Jain philosophy holds that the world is created and maintained by

According to Jain doctrine, the universe and its constituents, soul, matter, space, time, and principles of motion, have always existed. Universal natural laws govern all constituents and actions.

Solution:
QUESTION: 11

Jains believe that the universe's natural and supernatural things can be traced back to seven fundamental elements. They include

1. Jiva

2. Vinijja

3. Kshati

4. Samvara

5. Nirjana

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Solution: Justification:
  • These are jiva, ajivaa, astikaya, bandha, samvara, nirjana and moksa. Substances like a body, which exist and envelope (like a cover), are astikaya.

  • Anastikayas like 'time' have nobody at all. The substance is the basis of attributes (qualities).

  • The attributes that we find in a substance are known as dharmas. Jains believe that things or substance have attributes.

  • These attributes also change with the change of Kala (time). From their point of view, the attributes of a substance are essential and eternal or unchangeable.

  • Without essential attributes, a thing cannot exist. So, they are always present in everything.

  • For example, consciousness (chetana) is the soul's essence; desire, happiness and sorrow are its changeable attributes.

QUESTION: 12

Jains celebrate five major events in the life of a Tirthankara. They are called Kalyanak (auspicious events). Consider the following regarding them.

1. Chyavana Kalyanak is the event when the Tirthankara's soul is born.

2. Diksha Kalyanak is the event when the Tirthankara's soul attains true knowledge.

3. Kevaljnana Kalyanak is when Tirthankara's soul leaves the physical existence and becomes a Siddha.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Solution: Justification:
  • Chyavana Kalyanak: This is the event when the Tirthankara's soul departs from its last life and is conceived in the mother's womb.

  • Janma Kalyanak: It is when the Tirthankara's soul is born.

  • Diksha Kalyanak: When the Tirthankara's soul gives up all his/her worldly possessions and becomes a monk/nun (Digambara sect does not believe that women can become Tirthankara or be liberated).

  • Kevaljnana Kalyanak: It is when Tirthankara's soul eradicates the four ghati karmas and attains the Kevala Jnana (absolute knowledge).

  • Celestial angels set Samavasarana for Tirthankaras from where he/she delivers the first sermon, which is the most important event for the entire Jain order. The Tirthankara reinstates Jain Sangh and preaches the Jain path of liberation and purification.

  • Nirvana Kalyanak: When Tirthankara's soul is forever liberated from the worldly physical existence and becomes a Siddha. The Tirthankara's soul destroys the four aghati karmas and attains salvation, which is the state of eternal bliss.

QUESTION: 13

Jainism postulates that time has no beginning or end. It moves like the wheel of a cart. In this context, what are Avasarpini and Utsarpini?

Solution:
  • Time rolls along in eternal cycles of rising and decline. Utsarpini is a 'rising' era in which human morale improves over time.

  • At the end of the Utsarpini, there begins Avasarpini. It is a 'declining' era of the same length, in which human morale and virtues deteriorate.

  • During the middle of every rising and declining era, 24 souls become Tirthankaras.

  • They are humans like us who rise to that level. While accumulating different karmas, they also accumulate special karma called Tirthankara-Nam-Karma in the last 3rd of their life by performing one or more of the 20 special austerities.

  • Tirthankara-Nam-Karma matures in the final life, and it leads the person to become a Tirthankara.

QUESTION: 14

Consider the following about the spread of Jainism.

1. Mahavira allowed both men and women to join Jain Sanghas.

2. The then rulers of southern Indian patronised Jainism.

3. Chandragupta Maurya is said to have persecuted jains on account of their severe ascetic practices.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Solution:
  • To spread his teachings, Mahavira organised the Sangha. Both men and women were admitted in the Sangha, and it consisted of both monks and lay followers.

  • Due to the dedicated work of the Sangha members, there was a rapid spread of Jainism. It spread rapidly in western India and Karnataka.

  • Jainism was patronised by Chandragupta Maurya, Kharavela of Kalinga and the royal dynasties of South India such as the Gangas, the Kadambas, the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas.

  • There was a serious famine in the Ganges valley by the end of the fourth century BC. Many Jain monks led by Bhadrabahu and Chandragupta Maurya came to Shravanabelagola in Karnataka.

  • Those who stayed back in North India were led by a monk named Sthulabhadra. He changed the code of conduct for the monks.

  • This led to the division of Jainism into two sects that are Svetambaras and Digambaras.

QUESTION: 15

The principle of 'Right Faith' as propounded by Mahavira Jain is that

Solution:
  • The three principles or Triratnas of Jainism are right faith, right knowledge and right conduct.

  • Triratna's 3 gems of Jainism

  • (a) Samyak Shradha/Vishwas (right faith): Belief of Tirthankaras

  • (b) Samyak Man or Gyan (right knowledge): Knowledge of Jam belief

  • (c) Samyak Karma/Acharana (right action/ conduct): Practice of 5 vows of Jainism

QUESTION: 16

What would be the parallel in Jainism to Chaityas in Buddhism?

Solution:
  • Sthanakvasi is a sect of Svetambara Jainism founded by a merchant named Lavaji in 1653 AD.

  • The Sthanakvasis do not believe in idol worship at all. They do not have temples but only sthanakas, that is, prayer halls, where they carry on their religious fasts, festivals, practices, prayers, discourses, etc.

  • This is because this sect believes that idol worship is not essential in the path of soul purification and attainment of nirvana/ moksha.

QUESTION: 17

Consider the following statements about certain beliefs of sects of Jainism.

1. According to Digambaras, women cannot achieve liberation without first being reborn as a man.

2. Digambara monks are not allowed any possessions, not even personal begging bowls.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Digambara (meaning sky-clad) sect and the Svetambara (meaning white-clad) sect are the two major sects of jains. Each of these sects is also divided into subgroups.

  • The two sects agree on the basics of Jainism but disagree on

  • (a) details of the life of Mahavira

  • (b) the spiritual status of women

  • (c) rituals

  • (d) which texts should be accepted as scripture

  • (e) whether monks should wear clothes

QUESTION: 18

The famous Kalpasutra and the KalakacharyaKatha belong to

Solution:
  • The two prevalent Jain texts Kalpasutra and the Kalakacharya-Katha were repeatedly written and illustrated with paintings.

  • The examples are the manuscripts of the Kalpasutra in the Devasano pado Bhandar in Ahmedabad, the Kalpasutra and Kalakacharya-Katha of about 1400 AD in the Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai, the Kalpasutra dated 1439 AD executed in Mandu, now in the National Museum, New Delhi and the Kalpasutra written and painted in Jaunpur in 1465 AD.

QUESTION: 19

Consider the following statements.

1. The fundamental tenet of the Jain doctrine is that all phenomena are linked in a universal chain of cause and effect.

2. According to Jainism, to be free from karma shackles, a person must stop the influx of new karmas and eliminate the acquired ones.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Jain doctrine's fundamental tenet is that all phenomena are linked in a universal chain of cause and effect. Every event has a definite cause.

  • By nature, each soul is pure, possessing infinite knowledge, bliss and power; however, these faculties are restricted throughout time by the soul's contact with matter.

  • This matter, which produces the chain of cause and effect, of birth and death, is karma, an atomic substance and not a process, as it is in Hinduism and Buddhism. To be free from karma shackles, a person must stop the influx of new karmas and eliminate the acquired ones.

QUESTION: 20

Paryushana is the most important annual holy event for

Solution:
  • Paryushana is the most important annual holy event for jains and is usually celebrated in August or September in Hindi calendar Bhadrapad month's Shukla Paksha.

  • It lasts for 8 days for Svetambara and 10 days for Digambara sect of jains. Jains increase their level of spiritual intensity, often using fasting and prayer/meditation to help.

  • The five main vows are emphasised during this time. There are no set rules, and followers are encouraged to practice according to their ability and desires.

QUESTION: 21

Jain ethical code prescribes five fundamental vows. Which of the following is/are not one of them?

1. Ahimsa

2. Satya

3. Aparigraha

4. Brahmacharya

Select the correct answer using codes below.

Solution:
  • Jain ethical code prescribes two dharmas or rules of conduct—one for those who wish to become ascetic and another for the sravaka (householders).

  • Five fundamental vows are prescribed for both votaries. These vows are observed by sravakas (householders) partially and are termed as anuvratas (small vows).

  • Ascetics observe these fives vows more strictly and therefore observe complete abstinence. These five vows are Ahimsa (non-violence), Satya (truth), Asteya (non­ stealing), Brahmacharya (chastity) and Aparigraha (non-possession).

QUESTION: 22

The Samayasara and the Pravacanasara are considered the bible of

Solution:
  • Digambara ('sky-clad') is the oldest extant universal religion stream and one of Jainism's two major branches.

  • The Samayasara and the Pravacanasara are considered the bibles of Digambaras. The word Digambara (Sanskrit) is a combination of two words: dig (directions) and Bambara (sky), referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space.

  • Digambara monks do not wear any clothes.

QUESTION: 23

Which of the following statement/s is/are correct?

1. The first Jain Council was held at Valabhi at the beginning of the third century BC.

2. It was at the first council that the final compilation of Jain literature was done.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Solution:
  • At the beginning of the third century BC, the first Jain Council was held at Pataliputra by Sthulabhadra, the leader of the Digambaras.

  • In the fifth century AD, the second Jain council was held at Valabhi. The Twelve Angas, which is the final compilation of Jain literature, was completed in this council.

QUESTION: 24

'Right Knowledge' in Jainism refers to

Solution:
  • Right faith is the belief in the wisdom and teachings of Mahavira. Right, Knowledge is the acceptance that there is no god and that the world is existing without a creator and all objects possess a soul. Right conduct refers to the observance of the Five Great Vows:

  • (a) not to injure life

  • (b) not to lie

  • (c) not to steal

  • (d) not to acquire property

  • (e) not to lead immoral life

  • The doctrine of Ahimsa had to be strictly followed by the clergy. Mahavira considered that all objects, both animate and inanimate, have souls and various degrees of consciousness. They possess life and feel pain when they are injured.

  • Mahavira objected to the Vedic rituals and rejected the authority of the Vedas.

QUESTION: 25

Which of the following is wrong about teachings of Mahavira?

Solution: All three statements are the teachings of Mahavira.

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