Spectrum Test: The Era of Militant Nationalism (1905-1909)


10 Questions MCQ Test Spectrum for Modern History: Summary & Tests | Spectrum Test: The Era of Militant Nationalism (1905-1909)


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QUESTION: 1

What were the basic tenets of the military school of thought? 

1. Hatred for foreign rule 

2. Swaraj to be the goal of a national movement 

3. Indirect political action 

4. Belief in the capacity of the masses 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  

Direct political action was the feature of this Military School. The basic tenets of this school of thought were: 

  • hatred for foreign rule; since no hope could be derived from it, Indians should work out their own salvation; 

  • swaraj to be the goal of national movement; 

  • direct political action required; 

  • belief in the capacity of the masses to challenge the authority 

  • sacrifice is required and a true Nationalist to be always ready for it

QUESTION: 2

Which of the following leaders were the representatives of the militant school of thought?

1. Aurobindo Ghosh

2. Bipin Chandra Pal 

3. Vishnushastri chiplunkar 

4. Ashwini Kumar Dutta 

5. Raj Narayan Bos 

Choose from the following options.

Solution:  
  • By the dawn of the twentieth century, a band of nationalist thinkers had emerged who advocated a more militant approach to political work. 

  • These included Raj Narain Bose, Ashwini Kumar Datta, Aurobindo Ghosh and Bipin Chandra Pal in Bengal; Vishnu Shastri Chiplunkar and Bal Gangadhar Tilak in Maharashtra, and Lala Lajpat Rai in Punjab. Tilak emerged as the most outstanding representative of this school of thought.

QUESTION: 3

Which of the following are correctly matched?

Region of anti-partition movement and their leaders 

1. Pune and Bombay - Tilak 

2. Punjab - Lala Lajpat Rai 

3. Delhi - Ajit Singh 

4. Madras - Chidambaram Pillai 

Choose from the following options

Solution:  
  • The leader of the anti-partition Movement in Delhi was Syed Haider Raja. 

  • On October 16, 1905, the partition formally came into force, was observed as a day of mourning throughout Bengal. 

  • People fasted, bathed in the Ganga, and walked barefoot in processions singing Bande Mataram (which almost spontaneously became the movement's theme song). 

  • Amar Sonar Bangla', the national anthem of present-day Bangladesh, was composed by Rabindranath Tagore and was sung by huge crowds marching in the streets. 

  • People tied rakhis on each other's hands as a symbol of unity of the two halves of Bengal. Later in the day, Surendranath Banerjea and Ananda Mohan Bose addressed huge gatherings (perhaps the largest till then under the nationalist banner). 

  • Within a few hours of the meeting, Rs 50,000 was raised for the movement. Soon, the movement spread to other parts of the country-in Poona and Bombay under Tilak, in Punjab under Lala Lajpat Rai and Ajit Singh, in Delhi under Syed Haider Kaza, and in Madras under Chidambaram Pillai.

QUESTION: 4

Which of the following statements are correct? 

1. The moderates wanted the Swadeshi movement to be taken outside Bengal to other parts of the country 

2. The extremists wanted direct revolutionary action in the Bengal only 

Choose from the following options

Solution:  
  • The militant nationalists led by Tilak, Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh wanted the movement to be taken outside Bengal to other parts of the country beyond a boycott of foreign goods to become a full-fledged political mass struggle to attain swaraj. 

  • But the Moderates, dominating the Congress at that time, were not willing to go that far. However, a big step forward was taken at the Congress session held at Calcutta (1906) under Dadabhai Naoroji, where it was declared that the goal of the Indian National Congress was "self-government or swaraj like the United Kingdom or the colonies" of Australia or Canada. 

  • The Moderate-Extremist dispute over the movement's pace and techniques of struggle reached a deadlock at the Surat session of the Indian National Congress (1907) where the party split with serious consequences for the Swadeshi Movement.

QUESTION: 5

Who was the president of the Indian National Congress annual session in 1905?

Solution:

Indian National Congress annual session in 1905: Gopal Krishna Gokhale

QUESTION: 6

Which of the following events happened during the Swadeshi Movement? 

1. Bengal National College was set up 

2. National Council of Education was set up 

3. A Bengal Institute of Technology was set up 

Choose from the following options.

Solution:  
  • Bengal National College, inspired by Tagore's Shantiniketan, was set up with Aurobindo Ghosh. 

  • Soon national schools and colleges sprang up in various parts of the country. 

  • On August 15, 1906, the National Council of Education was set up to organize a literary, scientific and technical system on national lines and under national control. A Bengal Institute of Technology was set up.

QUESTION: 7

Why Swadeshi movement fizzled out? 

1. Severe government repression

2. Lack of effective organization and disciplined focus 

3. Split in Nationalist ranks 

4. Narrow social base 

5. Leaderless movement 

Choose from the following options.

Solution: Why the Swadeshi Movement fizzled out by 1908: Severe government repression, Lack of effective organization and a disciplined focus. With arrest/deportation of all leaders, the movement left leaderless. Split in nationalist ranks. Narrow social base.

QUESTION: 8

Arrange the acts/events chronologically 

1. Seditious meetings act 

2. Explosive substances act 

3. Indian Press Act 

4. Annulment of partition 

Choose from the following options.

Solution: The Prevention of seditious meetings Act (1907) The Explosives Substances Act (1908) The Press Act (1910) Annulment of the partition (1911).

QUESTION: 9

With the enactment of Morley-Minto Reforms, the legislature could now

1. Ask questions 

2. Pass resolutions 

3. Vote separate items of the budget 

Choose from the following options.

Solution: Legislators could pass resolutions, ask questions and supplementary, vote separate items of the budget.

QUESTION: 10

Which of the following sections of the society participated in the Swadeshi Movement? 

1. Zamindars 

2. Labours 

3. Students 

4. Muslims 

Choose from the following options.

Solution:

Extent of mass participation - students, women, certain sections of zamindari, labour, some lower-middle and middle classes in towns and cities participated for the first time while the Muslims generally kept away.

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