GC Leong Test: Weathering, Mass Movement And Ground Water - 1


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QUESTION: 1

Which of the following are correctly matched? 

1. Weathering: the gradual disintegration of rocks by atmospheric or weather forces 

2. Erosion: the active wearing away of the earth's surface by moving agents like running water, wind, ice and waves 

3. Transportation: the dumping of the debris in certain parts of the earth, where it may accumulate to form new rocks 

Choose from the following options.

Solution:  

i. Weathering: the gradual disintegration rocks by atmospheric or weather forces; 

ii. Erosion: the active wearing away of the earth's surface by moving agents like running water, wind, ice and waves; 

iii. Transportation: the removal of the eroded debris to new positions; 

iv. Deposition: the dumping of the debris in certain parts of the earth, where it may accumulate to form new rocks.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements about chemical weathering. 

1. Chemical weathering is the basic process by which denudation proceeds 

2. It is a speedy decomposition of rocks due to exposure to air and water

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  
  • Chemical weathering is the basic process by which denudation proceeds. It is the extremely slow and gradual decomposition of rocks due to exposure to air and water. 

  • Air and water contain chemical elements, which though they may be in small quantities, are sufficient to set up chemical reactions in exposed rocks' surface layers.

QUESTION: 3

Consider the following statements about the distinction between the regolith and soil: 

1. Regolith is simply the mineral remains of decomposed rocks, but soil contains organic materials 

2. Regolith forms the basis of soil 

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:  
  • When a rock's surface is weathered, some of the loosened material is removed by erosive agents such as wind or running water, thus exposing a fresh surface to weathering. Still, much of the weathered material or regolith (remains of the rock) may stay in position forming the basis of soil. 

  • Regolith is simply the mineral remains of decomposed rocks. Still, the soil contains organic materials, such as plants, fallen leaves, and small animals such as worms, bacteria, etc.

  • It is the soil's organic content, which makes it fertile and allows crops to be grown.

QUESTION: 4

Consider the following statements. 

1. When a soil cover exists, chemical weathering of the underlying rocks is usually stopped 

2. Pure rainwater acting on bare rock is a strong weathering agent than rainwater acting on the soil 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  
  • When a soil cover exists, chemical weathering of the underlying rocks does not cease; on the contrary, it is usually enhanced. 

  • This is because the soil absorbs rainwater and keeps the underlying rocks in contact with this moisture. 

  • The rainwater absorbs organic acids from the soil and becomes a stronger weathering agent than pure rainwater acting on bare rock.

QUESTION: 5

Consider the following statements. 

1. Limestone is the only rock to suffer from solution 

2. The rate at which solution takes place is affected only by the mineral composition of the rock 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  
  • Limestone, however, is by no means the only rock to suffer from solution. 

  • All rocks are subject to the solution, though the process is much slower than with limestone. 

  • The rate at which solution takes place is affected by the mineral composition of the rock and its structure; Sedimentary rocks often have pore-spaces between the grains in which air and water can lodge and thus attack the rock.

QUESTION: 6

Consider the following statements. 

1. Warm wet climate promotes rapid chemical weathering 

2. Dry climates inhibit chemical and physical weathering 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution: Rates of weathering are also affected by climate. Warm wet climates promote rapid chemical weathering, while dry climates inhibit chemical weathering. Dry climates, however, provide good conditions for physical or mechanical weathering.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements 

1. Oxidation is the reaction of oxygen in air or water with minerals in the rock 

2. Iron oxide crumbles easily and is more easily eroded than the original iron 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  
  • Oxidation is the reaction of oxygen in air or water with minerals in the rock. 

  • Most rocks contain a certain amount of iron when it comes in contact with air is changed to iron oxide, familiar brownish crust or rust. 

  • Iron oxide crumbles easily and is fat more easily eroded than the original iron. 

  • It is thus removed, loosening the overall structure of the rocks and weakening them.

QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statements. 

1. Mechanical weathering is the physical disintegration of a rock by the actual tearing apart of separate particles 

2. Mechanical weathering can happen more easily with a completely fresh rock then already weakened surface by the action of chemical weathering

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution: Mechanical weathering is the physical disintegration of a rock by the actual tearing apart of separate particles. This can happen even with completely fresh rock, but the processes of physical weathering can work much more easily when the action of chemical weathering has already weakened the surface of the rock

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following statements. 

1. In deserts, rocks are exposed to the blazing sun during the day and are intensely heated 

2. The outer layers expand much faster than the cooler interior of the rocks and tend to pull away from the rest 

3. At nightfall the temperature drops rapidly, and the outer layers contract more rapidly than the interior, setting up internal stresses

Which of these statements is/are correct?

In deserts, rocks are exposed to the blazing sun during the day and are intensely heated 

  • The outer layers expand much faster than the cooler interior of the rocks and tend to pull away from the rest 

  • At nightfall, the temperature drops rapidly, and the outer layers contract more rapidly than the interior, setting up internal stresses

Solution:
QUESTION: 10

Consider the following statements. 

1. When the surface layers of rounded boulders gradually split off the process is called onion peeling 

2. The technical term for this processes exfoliation 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  
  • Rectangular blocks are thus gradually rounded by the splitting away of sharp corners. 

  • When the surface layers of rounded boulders gradually split off the process is called onion peeling. 

  • The various layers look like the layers of an onion, peeled off one after another. The technical term for this process is exfoliation.