Test: Modes of Failure & Stresses


10 Questions MCQ Test Solid Mechanics | Test: Modes of Failure & Stresses


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QUESTION: 1

 A mechanical component may fail as a result of which of the following

Solution:

A mechanical component may fail i.e. it may be unable to perform its function satisfactorily, as a result of any one of the following three modes of failure:

  1. Failure by elastic deflection.
  2. Failure by Yielding
  3. failure by Fracture

1. Failure by elastic deflection

  • In applications like transmission shaft supporting the gears, the maximum force acting on the shaft, without effecting it performance is limited by the permissible elastic deflection. Sometimes the elastic deflection results in unstable conditions, such as buckling of columns or vibrations. The design of mechanical component, in all these cases, is based on the permissible lateral or torisional deflection. The stresses induced in the component are not significant and properties of the material are not of primary importance. The moduli of elasticity and rigidity are the important properties and dimension of component are determined by the load deflection equation.
  • In short, in a components like : columns, beams, shafts etc.,the torsional deflection in an elastic region is termed as failure of the component

2. Failure by Yielding

  • For ductile material deformation occurs after the yield point, resulting in permanent deformation of the machine element which ultimately breaks at breaking point. Hence for ductile materials, failure is usually considered to have occurred when yielding i.e. plastic deformation reach a limit, when engineering usefulness of the part is destroyed, even through there is no rupture or fracture of machine part. Thus, the yield point is criterion of failure of ductile materials subjected to static loading.
  • In short, when a mechanical component, made of ductile material, undergoes yielding or plastic deformation, its functional utility comes to an end and it is termed as failure of the component. Such failure is known as elastic failure.

3. Failure by fracture

  • In case of brittle materials the yield point and ultimate strain is very nearly equal to unity. So brittle materials are considered to have failed by fracture with little or no permanent deformation.
  • Sudden separation or a breakage of a material along the cross-section normal to the direction of stress is known as fracture. Fracture is a sudden failure without plastic deformation. The failure of components made of brittle material is due to fracture.
QUESTION: 2

Type of load affects factor of safety.

Solution:

Explanation: Dynamic load has higher factor of safety as compared to static loading.

QUESTION: 3

For cast iron components, which of the following strength are considered to be the failure criterion?

Solution:

Explanation: Ultimate tensile strength is the highest stress a component can undergo before failingand hence is used as a criterion.

QUESTION: 4

 For components made of ductile materials like steel, subjected to static loading which of the following strength is used as a failure of criterion?

Solution:

Explanation: In elastic material there is considerable plastic deformation at yielding point.

QUESTION: 5

Pitting occurs on _____ of the component. 

Solution:

Explanation: Pitting is a process in which small holes occur on a surface of component.

QUESTION: 6

 Buckling is elastic instability which leads to sudden large lateral deflection.

Solution:

Explanation: Definition of buckling.

QUESTION: 7

The critical buckling load depends upon which of the following parameters?

Solution:

Explanation: It depends on moment of inertia(which further depends on radius of gyration), elasticity and yield strength.

QUESTION: 8

If there are residual stresses in the material, than lower factor of safety is used.

Solution:

Explanation: Residual stress increases the chance of failure.

QUESTION: 9

Which of the following relationship is true? (p=Poisson’s ratio)

Solution:

Explanation: Formula.

QUESTION: 10

According to principal stress theory, which option represents the correct relation between yield strength in shear (YSS) and the yield strength in tension (YST)?

Solution:

Explanation: Shear diagonal is at 45’ and by equation of shear stress theory, the required relation is obtained.

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