Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Civil Engineering (CE) MCQ

# Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Civil Engineering (CE) MCQ

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## 10 Questions MCQ Test GATE Civil Engineering (CE) 2025 Mock Test Series - Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2

Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 for Civil Engineering (CE) 2024 is part of GATE Civil Engineering (CE) 2025 Mock Test Series preparation. The Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 questions and answers have been prepared according to the Civil Engineering (CE) exam syllabus.The Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 MCQs are made for Civil Engineering (CE) 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 below.
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Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 1

### A circle of radius 7 m has a standard error of 0.02 m on the radius. The standard error of its area is

Detailed Solution for Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 1

Area of circle
A = πr2
∴ dA/dr = 2πr
Let standard error in radius be er,
∴ Standard error in area,

Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 2

### Geodetic surveying is different from plane surveying because of

Detailed Solution for Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 2
Geodetic Surveying vs Plane Surveying

• Curvature of Earth: In geodetic surveying, the curvature of the Earth must be taken into account when measuring large distances, whereas in plane surveying, the Earth's surface is considered flat for smaller areas.

• Difference of Elevations: Geodetic surveying involves measuring large differences in elevations between various points, while plane surveying is more suitable for flat terrains with minimal elevation changes.

• Coverage of Large Areas: Geodetic surveying is used for covering very large areas such as continents or countries, requiring specialized techniques and equipment, compared to plane surveying which is suitable for smaller areas.

• Undulations of Large Areas: Geodetic surveying deals with the undulations and irregularities of very large areas, ensuring accurate measurements over vast stretches of land, unlike plane surveying which focuses on smaller, flatter regions.

Therefore, the main difference between geodetic surveying and plane surveying lies in their scope, techniques, and objectives, with geodetic surveying being more complex and specialized due to the factors like the curvature of the Earth, large elevation differences, coverage of vast areas, and undulations of expansive terrains.

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Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 3

### The difference between the most probable value of a quantity and its observer value is

Detailed Solution for Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 3

True Error = Actual Value-Observed Value
Weighted Observations = Observations taken with proportion to any quantity like an area
Conditional Error = Error occurring due to certain conditions prevailing. Like temperature error.
Residual Error = Most Probable Value- Observed Value

Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 4

The error due to bad ranging is

Detailed Solution for Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 4

Cumulative Errors occurring in same direction and thus, they aggregate to make a considerable amount of error.
Positive cumulative errors Non Horizontality, sag, bad ranging.
Positive/ Negative cumulative errors Erroneous length of chain, temperature variation.

Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 5

For a well-conditional triangle, no angle should be less than

Detailed Solution for Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 5

For a well-conditioned triangle all the angles must lie in the range of 300-1200.

Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 6

An invar tape is made of an alloy of

Detailed Solution for Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 6

Explanation:

• Invar Tape: An invar tape is made of an alloy called Invar, which is composed of nickel and steel.

• Composition: The alloy composition typically consists of approximately 36% nickel and 64% iron.

• Properties: Invar is known for its low coefficient of thermal expansion, making it ideal for applications where dimensional stability is crucial.

• Usage: Invar tapes are commonly used in precision measurement devices, such as tape measures and surveying tools, due to their stability over a wide temperature range.

Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 7

Offsets are

Detailed Solution for Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 7

In surveying, offsets are lateral measurements taken from the main survey line (baseline) to plot the position of different points or objects. These measurements are generally taken at a right angle to the main survey lines, helping to create an accurate representation of the area being surveyed.

For example, if a surveyor is measuring a piece of land with a building on it, they would first establish the main survey line (baseline) and then measure the distance from the line to the corners of the building. These lateral measurements are called offsets.

Offsets allow surveyors to accurately map the location of various features on a piece of land, such as buildings, fences, or natural features like streams or trees. This information is then used to create maps, plan construction projects, or establish property boundaries.

Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 8

‘Ranging' is the process of

Detailed Solution for Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 8
Explanation:

• Ranging: Ranging is the process of aligning the chain in a straight line between two extremities.

• Steps involved in ranging:

• First, fix ranging rods on the extremities of the area to mark the endpoints.

• Align the chain in a straight line between these two ranging rods.

• Ensure that the chain is taut and straight to get accurate measurements.

• This process helps in determining the length of the area accurately.

• Purpose of ranging: Ranging is essential in surveying to establish straight lines for taking measurements and mapping the area.

Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 9

Theory of probability is applied to

Detailed Solution for Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 9

Laws of accidental errors follow the probability law, which is having a definite law for accidental error occurrence. It defines the errors and helps in expressing them in the form of equations.

Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 10

Systematic errors are those errors

Detailed Solution for Test: Fundamental Concepts, Accuracy & Errors - 2 - Question 10
Understanding Systematic Errors

• Definition: Systematic errors are errors that consistently skew measurements in a particular direction.

• Cumulative Effects: These errors accumulate over time, leading to a significant deviation from the true value.

• Determinable: Unlike random errors, systematic errors can be identified and corrected for by understanding their nature.

• Recognizable Patterns: Systematic errors often exhibit recognizable patterns in data, making them easier to detect.

• Examples: Common sources of systematic errors include instrumental biases, environmental factors, and human errors in measurement techniques.

By understanding the nature of systematic errors and their cumulative effects, researchers can take steps to minimize their impact on experimental results and ensure the accuracy and reliability of their findings.

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