Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - UPSC MCQ
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Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 1
Introduction: Democracy is a system of government in which power is vested in the people, who exercise it directly or through elected representatives. It allows citizens to participate in the decision-making process and ensures their rights and freedoms. However, democracy is not without its challenges and conflicts. Conflicts in Democracy: Democracy often involves conflicts as different individuals and groups have diverse interests, goals, and viewpoints. These conflicts can arise due to various reasons, including: 1. Conflict of Goals: - In a democratic society, people have different aspirations, objectives, and priorities. These conflicting goals can lead to disagreements and conflicts. - For example, some individuals may prioritize economic growth, while others may prioritize social equality. These conflicting goals can create tensions and conflicts within a democratic system. 2. Conflict of Interests: - Democracy is based on the principle of protecting and promoting the interests of the citizens. However, these interests can vary among different groups within society. - Conflicts of interest can arise between various stakeholders, such as businesses, labor unions, environmentalists, and consumer rights groups. These conflicts can be related to economic policies, resource allocation, or social issues. 3. Conflict of Viewpoints: - Democracy encourages the expression of diverse viewpoints and opinions. However, this diversity can also lead to conflicts. - Different individuals and groups may have contrasting perspectives on social, political, and cultural issues. These conflicting viewpoints can result in debates, disagreements, and even polarization within society. Conclusion: Democracy is characterized by conflicts of goals, conflicts of interests, and conflicts of viewpoints. These conflicts are an inherent part of a democratic society where individuals and groups exercise their rights and freedoms. While conflicts can pose challenges, they also provide opportunities for dialogue, compromise, and the development of better policies. It is through the resolution of these conflicts that democracy can evolve and improve.
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 2
How did King Gyanendra take advantage of the weak democratically elected government?
Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 2
Explanation: King Gyanendra took advantage of the weak democratically elected government in Nepal by employing several tactics to consolidate his power. The details are as follows: 1. Dissolving the Parliament: - One of the key moves made by King Gyanendra was the dissolution of the Parliament. - He did this on February 1, 2005, citing the government's failure to address the Maoist insurgency and the unstable political situation. - This move effectively suspended the powers of the elected representatives and consolidated authority under his control. 2. Dismissing the Prime Minister: - Along with dissolving the Parliament, King Gyanendra also dismissed the Prime Minister and his cabinet. - He justified this action by claiming that the government had failed to maintain law and order and address the Maoist rebellion effectively. - This dismissal further weakened the democratically elected government and concentrated power in the hands of the monarchy. 3. Rigging the Elections: - While not explicitly mentioned in the question, it is worth noting that King Gyanendra also manipulated the electoral process to maintain his grip on power. - He imposed strict restrictions on political parties and their activities, limiting their ability to campaign freely. - By doing so, he ensured that his political opponents faced significant obstacles in challenging his authority through democratic means. In conclusion, King Gyanendra took advantage of the weak democratically elected government by dissolving the Parliament, dismissing the Prime Minister, and rigging the elections. These actions allowed him to consolidate power and maintain control over the country.
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 3
Which of the following is a single-issue movement?
Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 3
Single-Issue Movement: Narmada Bachao Andolan - The Narmada Bachao Andolan is a single-issue movement focused on the opposition of large-scale dams on the Narmada River in India. - It was established in 1985 by social activist Medha Patkar to advocate for the rights of displaced communities and the preservation of the environment. - The movement aims to address various issues related to the construction of dams, including the displacement of indigenous communities, environmental degradation, and social injustice. - The Narmada Bachao Andolan has been actively involved in protests, hunger strikes, and legal battles to raise awareness and fight for the rights of those affected by dam construction. - The movement has gained national and international attention and has been successful in bringing attention to the negative impacts of large dams on the local communities and ecosystems. - The Narmada Bachao Andolan remains focused on its core issue and continues to work towards ensuring justice and sustainable development in the Narmada River valley.
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 4
Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 4
The Nepal movement, also known as the Jana Andolan 2006, refers to a series of protests and demonstrations that took place in Nepal in 2006. Here is a detailed explanation of the movement and its timeline: Background: - Nepal was under the rule of King Gyanendra at the time, who had dissolved the parliament and assumed direct control of the government in February 2005. - The King's authoritarian rule led to widespread discontent among the people, leading to increased protests and demands for democracy. The Movement: - The Nepal movement began in April 2006 with widespread protests and demonstrations against the King's rule. - The political parties, civil society organizations, and various other groups joined hands to demand the restoration of democracy and the formation of a constituent assembly to draft a new constitution. - The movement gained momentum as people from all walks of life, including students, professionals, and activists, actively participated in the protests. Key Events: - April 6, 2006: The Seven Party Alliance (SPA), consisting of seven major political parties, organized a mass demonstration in Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. The protest turned violent as security forces opened fire on the demonstrators, resulting in several casualties. - April 21, 2006: The King announced the reinstatement of the parliament and appointed Girija Prasad Koirala as the Prime Minister. - April 24, 2006: The SPA and the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, bringing an end to the decade-long Maoist insurgency. - December 21, 2007: The interim parliament declared Nepal a federal democratic republic, abolishing the monarchy. Conclusion: The Nepal movement, also known as the Jana Andolan 2006, took place in Nepal in 2006. It was a significant movement that resulted in the restoration of democracy and the abolition of the monarchy in Nepal. The movement marked a turning point in the country's history, paving the way for political reforms and the drafting of a new constitution.
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 5
Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 5
Answer: The word MNC is related to the issue of the Bolivia water war. Explanation: The Bolivia water war was a social movement and conflict that took place in Bolivia in the early 2000s. The issue revolved around the privatization of the country's water resources and the role of multinational corporations (MNCs) in this process. Here's a detailed explanation: 1. Bolivia water war: - The Bolivia water war refers to the protests and demonstrations that emerged in response to the government's decision to privatize the water supply in the city of Cochabamba. - The privatization was carried out by a consortium of MNCs, including Bechtel, a US-based company. - The move resulted in significant increases in water prices, causing widespread public outrage and protests. 2. MNCs: - MNCs, or multinational corporations, are companies that operate in multiple countries and have a significant economic presence globally. - In the case of the Bolivia water war, MNCs were involved in the privatization of water resources, leading to conflicts and social unrest. 3. Privatization of water resources: - Privatization refers to the transfer of ownership or control of public assets, such as water resources, to private entities. - In the case of Bolivia, the government's decision to privatize the water supply led to concerns about access to clean water, affordability, and accountability. 4. Social movement: - The Bolivia water war sparked a social movement, with citizens, activists, and organizations coming together to protest against the privatization of water resources. - The movement sought to uphold the right to water as a basic human right and to challenge the influence of MNCs in shaping public policy. In conclusion, the word MNC is related to the issue of the Bolivia water war, where multinational corporations played a significant role in the privatization of water resources, leading to social unrest and protests.
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 6
Which of the following movement was with a specific objective?
Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 6
The movement with a specific objective among the given options is the Nepalese movement for democracy. Here is a detailed explanation: 1. Assam Movement: - The Assam Movement was a political and social movement in the Indian state of Assam. - It was launched to protest against the illegal immigration of foreigners, primarily from Bangladesh, into Assam. - The movement aimed to protect the rights and identity of the indigenous people of Assam. 2. Environmental Movement: - The environmental movement is a broad social and political movement that aims to protect the natural environment and promote sustainable practices. - While it has various objectives, it does not have a specific objective mentioned in the question. 3. Women's Movement: - The women's movement is a social and political movement advocating for women's rights, equality, and empowerment. - While it has specific objectives such as gender equality, ending discrimination, and promoting women's participation in decision-making, it does not have a specific objective mentioned in the question. 4. Nepalese Movement (for Democracy): - The Nepalese movement for democracy refers to the series of protests and movements in Nepal aimed at establishing a democratic system of governance. - The movement was focused on ending the autocratic rule of the monarchy and promoting democratic principles and values. - Its specific objective was to bring about political and social reforms in Nepal and ensure people's participation in decision-making processes. Therefore, the correct answer is option D: Nepalese movement (for democracy).
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 7
Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 7
Answer: The movement in Nepal was led by the SPA (Seven Party Alliance). Here is a detailed explanation: 1. Seven Party Alliance (SPA): - The SPA was a coalition of seven political parties in Nepal that came together to oppose the authoritarian rule of King Gyanendra. - The alliance included the following parties: Nepali Congress, Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist), Nepal Workers and Peasants Party, Nepal Sadbhawana Party, Nepal Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist), Nepal Mazdoor Kisan Party, and United Left Front. - The SPA played a crucial role in organizing protests, demonstrations, and strikes against the king's autocratic regime. 2. People's Progressive Alliance (PPA) and Democratic National Alliance (DNA): - The PPA and DNA are not relevant to the movement in Nepal. - These options are incorrect as they do not pertain to the leadership of the movement. 3. None of the Above (D): - The correct answer is not "none of the above" as the movement was indeed led by the SPA. In conclusion, the movement in Nepal was led by the Seven Party Alliance (SPA), a coalition of seven political parties that joined forces to oppose the authoritarian rule of King Gyanendra.
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 8
Which one of the following is the ‘Third Wave’ country that had won democracy in 1990?
Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 8
The 'Third Wave' refers to the global wave of democratization that occurred in the late 20th century. During this wave, many countries transitioned from authoritarian rule to democratic systems. The country that won democracy in 1990 and is part of the 'Third Wave' is Nepal. Explanation: Here is a detailed explanation of each option and why Nepal is the correct answer: A: Bolivia - Bolivia transitioned to democracy in the early 1980s, not in 1990. B: Belgium - Belgium has a long history of democracy and did not transition to democracy in 1990. C: Bangladesh - Bangladesh gained independence in 1971 but had already established a parliamentary democracy before 1990. D: Nepal - Nepal is the correct answer. In 1990, Nepal underwent a significant political transformation, moving from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy with a multi-party system. To summarize, out of the given options, Nepal is the country that won democracy in 1990 as part of the 'Third Wave' of democratization.
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 9
Which of the following is not a feature of a movement?
Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 9
Introduction: A movement is a collective effort by a group of individuals working towards a common goal or cause. Movements often have specific features that distinguish them from other forms of organized activities. In this question, we are asked to identify which of the given options is not a feature of a movement. Features of a Movement: 1. Loose organization: Movements are typically characterized by a loosely structured organization, without a formal hierarchical structure. This allows for greater flexibility and inclusivity within the movement. 2. Informal decision-making process: Movements often make decisions through informal processes such as consensus-building and participatory decision-making. This allows for a more democratic and inclusive decision-making process. 3. Flexible decision-making process: Movements tend to have a flexible decision-making process that can adapt to changing circumstances and needs. This flexibility allows for quick responses to emerging issues and challenges. Identifying the option that is not a feature of a movement: 4. No spontaneous participation: This option stands out as it goes against the very nature of a movement. Movements thrive on spontaneous participation from individuals who are passionate about the cause. The absence of spontaneous participation would hinder the growth and effectiveness of a movement. Conclusion: Therefore, the option D: "No spontaneous participation" is not a feature of a movement. Spontaneous participation is a crucial element that drives the success and impact of a movement.
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 10
Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 1 - Question 10
AITUC: All India Trade Union Congress
What is AITUC:
AITUC is a trade union organization in India. It is one of the largest and oldest trade union federations in the country. It was founded in 1920 and is affiliated with the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC).
Function and Purpose:
AITUC aims to protect and promote the rights and interests of workers in India. It works towards improving the working conditions, wages, and social security of workers across various industries.
Classification of AITUC:
AITUC can be classified as an institutional group. Here's why:
Organizational Structure: AITUC operates as a formal organization with a hierarchical structure. It has a constitution, elected leaders, and various committees.
Legal Recognition: AITUC is a registered trade union under the Trade Union Act of India. It has legal standing and can represent workers in negotiations and disputes.
Collective Bargaining: AITUC engages in collective bargaining on behalf of workers to negotiate with employers for better wages, working conditions, and benefits.
Representation: AITUC represents the interests of workers at national and international forums. It actively participates in policy-making discussions and advocates for workers' rights.
Therefore, based on its organizational structure, legal recognition, collective bargaining activities, and representation of workers' interests, AITUC can be considered an institutional group.
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