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Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - UPSC MCQ


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10 Questions MCQ Test Indian Polity for UPSC CSE - Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2

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Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 1

The popular struggle in Bolivia ended after _____________.

Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 1

The Popular struggle in Bolivia against the privatisation of water was started in January 2000 when World Bank pressurized Bolivian government to give up their water right which were then sold to an MNC. People went to strike against imposition of heavy taxes.  the power of the people forced the officials of the MNC to flee the city and made the government concede to all the demands of the protesters. The contract with the MNC was cancelled and water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates.

Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 2

Which of the following is not an agency of organised politics?

Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 2
Answer:

Organised politics:



  • Organised politics refers to the formal structures and institutions that facilitate political activity and decision-making in a society.

  • These agencies play a crucial role in shaping public opinion, influencing policies, and representing the interests of various groups and individuals.


Agencies of organised politics:



  • Political parties: Political parties are organized groups of people who share similar political ideologies and work towards gaining political power through elections.

  • Pressure groups: Pressure groups are organized associations of individuals or organizations that seek to influence government policies and decisions.

  • Movement groups: Movement groups are organized collectives of individuals who come together to advocate for specific social, political, or environmental issues.


Not an agency of organised politics:



  • Popular struggles: Popular struggles refer to mass movements or uprisings by the general public against established authorities or power structures. While they may have political implications, they are not traditionally considered as formal agencies of organized politics.


Conclusion:


Out of the given options, popular struggles is not considered an agency of organised politics. Political parties, pressure groups, and movement groups are all recognized as formal and organized entities within the political system.

Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 3

Pressure groups use the method of

Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 3
Pressure groups use the method of:
There are several methods that pressure groups use to influence public opinion and advocate for their causes. Some of the common methods include:
1. Strikes: Pressure groups may organize strikes to disrupt normal activities and draw attention to their demands. Strikes can be carried out by workers, students, or other members of the group.
2. Dharna: Dharna refers to a form of protest where individuals sit or lie down in a public place, often blocking roads or government buildings. It is a non-violent method used to express dissent and demand action.
3. Protests: Pressure groups often organize protests to raise awareness about their issues and put pressure on decision-makers. These can take the form of rallies, marches, sit-ins, or demonstrations.
4. Lobbying: Pressure groups engage in lobbying activities to influence politicians and policymakers. This can involve meetings, discussions, and providing information or expertise to shape legislation or government policies.
5. Petitions: Pressure groups often collect signatures on petitions to demonstrate public support for their cause. These petitions can be presented to decision-makers as a way to show the strength of public opinion on a particular issue.
6. Public campaigns: Pressure groups often run public campaigns through various media channels, such as television, radio, newspapers, and social media. These campaigns aim to raise awareness, change public opinion, and put pressure on authorities to address their concerns.
7. Direct action: Some pressure groups resort to direct action methods like civil disobedience, occupying buildings, or disrupting public events to draw attention to their cause and force change.
It is important to note that pressure groups may use a combination of these methods depending on their goals, resources, and the political context they operate in.
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 4

Who were Maoists?

Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 4
Who were Maoists?
Maoists were communists who believed in the ideology of Mao Zedong, the former leader of the Communist Party of China. Maoism is a variant of Marxism-Leninism that emphasizes the role of peasants and rural areas in revolution and socialist construction. Here is a detailed explanation of Maoists:
1. Definition:
- Maoists are individuals or groups who adhere to the political and philosophical ideas of Mao Zedong.
- They advocate for a revolutionary path to socialism and believe in the importance of a peasant-based revolution.
2. Ideology:
- Maoists follow the ideology of Mao Zedong, which includes a combination of Marxism-Leninism and Mao's own theories.
- They believe in the necessity of a protracted people's war to overthrow the existing capitalist system and establish a socialist society.
3. Key Principles:
- Mass Line: Maoists prioritize the concerns of the masses and aim to establish a close connection with them.
- New Democracy: Maoists advocate for the establishment of a new democratic system that represents the interests of the working class and peasants.
- Cultural Revolution: Maoists support the idea of continuous revolution and seek to eliminate capitalist and traditional elements from society.
4. International Influence:
- Maoism has had an impact beyond China and has inspired revolutionary movements and guerrilla warfare tactics in various countries, including Nepal, India, Peru, and the Philippines.
5. Criticisms and Controversies:
- Maoism has been criticized for its authoritarian tendencies, human rights abuses, and economic failures during the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution.
- Some argue that Maoism is no longer a significant force in contemporary politics, while others believe it still holds relevance in certain contexts.
In conclusion, Maoists are communists who adhere to the ideology of Mao Zedong and advocate for a revolutionary path to socialism. They emphasize the role of peasants and rural areas in their pursuit of social and political transformation.
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 5

By which of the following party the movement against water privatisation was supported in Bolivia?

Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 5
Party Supporting the Movement Against Water Privatisation in Bolivia: Socialist Party
- The movement against water privatisation in Bolivia was supported by the Socialist Party.
- The Socialist Party played a crucial role in mobilizing and organizing protests against the privatisation of water resources.
- They advocated for the rights of the people to have access to clean and affordable water, and opposed the control of water resources by private companies.
- The Socialist Party believed that water is a basic human right and should be managed by the government for the benefit of the people.
- They argued that privatisation would lead to increased prices, unequal access, and a lack of accountability.
- The movement gained significant support from various sectors of the society, including workers, indigenous communities, and environmental activists.
- Together with other social and political organizations, the Socialist Party successfully campaigned for the repeal of water privatisation laws and the nationalization of water resources.
- The movement's success in Bolivia served as an inspiration for similar struggles against water privatisation in other parts of the world.
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 6

BAMCEF stands for

Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 6
BAMCEF stands for:

  • Backward and Minority Communities Employee Federation


Detailed Explanation:

  • BAMCEF is an organization that works towards the upliftment and empowerment of backward and minority communities in India.

  • It aims to address the social, economic, and educational inequalities faced by these communities and strives to provide them with equal opportunities and representation.

  • The organization works towards creating awareness about the rights and issues faced by backward and minority communities and advocates for their inclusion and progress in various sectors, including employment.

  • BAMCEF organizes various programs, seminars, and workshops to empower and educate individuals from these communities, enabling them to overcome societal barriers and achieve their full potential.

  • Through its initiatives, BAMCEF promotes social justice, equality, and the overall development of backward and minority communities.


Therefore, the correct answer is A: Backward and Minority Communities Employee Federation.
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 7

Which pressure group seeks to promote collective good?

Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 7
Public Interest Group
Public interest groups are pressure groups that seek to promote the collective good and advocate for issues that benefit the general public. They work towards addressing common concerns and improving the overall well-being of society. Here are some key points about public interest groups:
1. Definition: Public interest groups are organizations formed by individuals who come together to pursue a common cause or issue that benefits the public as a whole.
2. Focus on Collective Good: Unlike sectional interest groups that primarily represent the interests of a specific section or industry, public interest groups prioritize the welfare and interests of the broader community.
3. Advocacy and Lobbying: Public interest groups engage in advocacy and lobbying activities to influence public policies, legislation, and decision-making processes. They work towards promoting laws and regulations that are in the best interest of the public.
4. Examples: Public interest groups can encompass a wide range of issues such as environmental conservation, consumer protection, human rights, education reform, and healthcare access. Examples of well-known public interest groups include Greenpeace, Amnesty International, Sierra Club, and Common Cause.
5. Grassroots Mobilization: Public interest groups often rely on grassroots mobilization to raise awareness, gather support, and create public pressure for change. They may organize protests, campaigns, and public awareness initiatives to generate public support for their causes.
6. Nonprofit Status: Many public interest groups operate as nonprofit organizations, relying on donations, grants, and membership fees to fund their activities. This allows them to maintain independence and prioritize the public good over profit-seeking motives.
Overall, public interest groups play a crucial role in advocating for the collective good and ensuring that the concerns and needs of the public are addressed in policy-making processes. They strive to create a better society and improve the lives of individuals on a broader scale.
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 8

Bolivia faced

Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 8
Water Struggle in Bolivia:
1. Background: Bolivia faced a water struggle, which refers to a scarcity and lack of access to clean and safe water resources in the country.
2. Water Crisis: The water struggle in Bolivia was primarily driven by several factors, including:
a. Drought: Bolivia experienced severe drought conditions, resulting in reduced water levels in lakes, rivers, and reservoirs.
b. Climate Change: The impact of climate change, including irregular rainfall patterns and increased temperatures, further exacerbated the water crisis.
c. Urbanization: Rapid urbanization and population growth in cities put additional strain on water resources, leading to increased demand and limited supply.
3. Effects:
a. Limited Access: Many communities in Bolivia, particularly in rural areas, faced challenges in accessing clean and safe water for drinking, cooking, and sanitation purposes.
b. Health Issues: The lack of adequate water supply contributed to health issues, such as waterborne diseases and poor sanitation practices.
c. Socioeconomic Impact: The water struggle also had significant socioeconomic implications, affecting agriculture, livelihoods, and economic development in the country.
4. Government Response: The Bolivian government took various measures to address the water struggle, including:
a. Infrastructure Development: Investments were made in water infrastructure projects, such as building reservoirs, pipelines, and water treatment plants.
b. Policy Reforms: The government implemented policies and regulations to improve water management, promote conservation, and ensure equitable distribution of water resources.
c. International Cooperation: Bolivia sought assistance from international organizations and received support for water management initiatives and capacity building.
5. Future Challenges: Despite the efforts made, Bolivia continues to face challenges in ensuring sustainable access to water resources. Some of these challenges include:
a. Climate Change Adaptation: The country needs to adapt to the impacts of climate change, including implementing measures to conserve water and improve water efficiency.
b. Infrastructure Maintenance: Ensuring proper maintenance and management of water infrastructure to prevent water loss and improve service delivery.
c. Community Participation: Engaging local communities in water management and promoting awareness about water conservation practices.
In conclusion, Bolivia faced a water struggle mainly due to factors such as drought, climate change, and urbanization. The government has taken steps to address the issue, but there are still challenges that need to be overcome to ensure sustainable access to clean and safe water resources in the country.
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 9

In which two ways, the Public Interest Groups achieve their aims?
(i) They organise meetings to win Public Support.
(ii) They raise slogans against the Government and disrupt the public.
(iii) They try to influence the media by drawing their attention to their cause.
(iv) They set up the public property on fire.

Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 9

To achieve their aims, Public Interest Groups use various strategies and tactics. Two of the most common ways in which they achieve their aims are:
Organizing meetings to win public support:
- Public Interest Groups often organize meetings, rallies, and protests to raise awareness about their cause and to garner public support.
- These meetings provide a platform for members of the group to share information, discuss issues, and mobilize people to take action.
- By engaging with the public directly, they can create a sense of solidarity and build a strong network of supporters.
Influencing the media:
- Public Interest Groups understand the power of media in shaping public opinion and policy decisions.
- They try to influence the media by drawing their attention to their cause through press releases, interviews, and demonstrations.
- By generating media coverage, they can reach a wider audience and increase public awareness about their issues.
- This media attention also puts pressure on policymakers and authorities to address the concerns raised by the group.
Based on the given options, the correct answer is (i) and (iii) as these two options align with the strategies commonly used by Public Interest Groups to achieve their aims.
Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 10

Which of the following is a Social or Identity group?

Detailed Solution for Test: Popular Struggles & Movements - 2 - Question 10

Social or Identity Groups:



A social or identity group is a group of people who share common characteristics, interests, or beliefs and identify themselves as part of that group. These groups play a significant role in shaping individuals' identities, social interactions, and sense of belonging. Let's analyze the given options to identify which one qualifies as a social or identity group:
A: FICCI
- FICCI stands for the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry.
- FICCI is an industry chamber that represents various sectors of the Indian economy.
- While FICCI brings together businesses and industries, it is not a social or identity group in the traditional sense.
B: Ramakrishna Mission
- The Ramakrishna Mission is a spiritual organization founded by Swami Vivekananda.
- It aims to promote spiritual, educational, and humanitarian activities.
- The Ramakrishna Mission can be considered a social or identity group as it brings together individuals who follow the teachings of Swami Vivekananda and participate in the mission's activities.
C: CII
- CII stands for the Confederation of Indian Industry.
- CII is an industry association that works towards promoting business interests and economic growth.
- Similar to FICCI, CII represents businesses and industries, but it is not a social or identity group in the traditional sense.
D: None of the above
- This option suggests that none of the given options qualify as a social or identity group.
- However, as explained above, the Ramakrishna Mission can be considered a social or identity group.
Therefore, the correct answer is B: Ramakrishna Mission, which is a social or identity group.
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