The Nationalist Greeks got the support of the West European nations because :
An event that mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe was the Greek war of independence. Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence amongst the Greeks which began in 1821. Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many West Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation and mobilised public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. The English poet Lord Byron organised funds and later went to fight in the war, where he died of fever in 1824. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.
Why was the Treaty of Vienna drawn up in 1815?
The treaty of Vienna drawn up in 1815 to restore the monarchies. The Treaty of Vienna of 1815, its objective was to undo most of the changes which had come in Europe during the Napoleonic wars.
some of the steps taken by the treaty of Vienna are as follows:
1. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French revolution, was restored to power.
2. A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future.
How did Karol Kurpinski celebrate the national struggle?
Karol kurpinski celebrated national struggle through his music and opera.
He turned dances like polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
Why was the kingdom of Netherlands, which included Belgium, set up in the North?
(i) The Bourbon dynasty was restored to power.
(ii) France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
(iii) A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future.
(iv) Belgium was set up in the north and Genoa was added to Piedmont in the south.
When and who prepared a series of four prints visualising a world made up of 'democratic and social Republics' ?
In the year 1848, a French artist named Frederic Sorrieu prepared a series of four prints visualizing his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social Republics’.
What did the Napoleonic Code of 1804 spell out?
The Napoleonic Code is also called the "French Civil Code of 1804" defined the concept of equality before the law and also secured the right to property. This code abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues as well as improvement in the Transport and communication systems.
Name the act which resulted in the formation of the ‘United kingdom of great Britain’?
Act of Union 1707. The Acts of Union, passed by the English and Scottish Parliaments in 1707, led to the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain on 1 May of that year. The UK Parliament met for the first time in October 1707.
In revolutionary France, who were granted exclusive rights to vote?
Revolutionary France, marked the first political experiment in liberal democracy. The right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to property owning men. Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights.
What marked Greece as an independent nation?
The Τreaty of Constantinople was the product of the Constantinople Conference which opened in February 1832 with the participation of the Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia) on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire on the other
What led to the abolishing of the tariff barriers in the German-speaking regions of Europe and the reduction of currencies?
During the early nineteenth century, Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. In reference to economy this liberalism denotes freedom of market, less restrictions of state on the movement of goods and capitals. To get rid of these economic problems that was the main demand of the new emerged middle class.
Existence of countless small principalities, different currencies, number of customs barriers created obstacles to economic exchange and growth for the new commercial classes. To sort out that problem Prussia including with most of the German states formed a customs union or Zollverein in 1834.
The Zollverein abolished tariff barriers, reduced number of currencies, create network of railways for fast and heavy mobility. So a single solution for all these economic problems was known by the name of Zollverein.
What territories did the Habsburg Empire rule over?
The Habsburg empire ruled over Austria, Hungary, Czech republic, Slovakia, Croatia and other areas like Romania, Poland Ukrain etc.
What was the result of Polish being used as the medium of instruction for preaching in all Church gatherings, in late eighteenth century?
Polish language was used for church gatherings and all religious instructions. As a result, a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by Russian authorities as punishment for their refusal to preach in Russian. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.
What was viewed as obstacle to economic change and growth by new commercial classes?
Following were the conditions that were viewed as obstacles for economic growth and exchange by the new commercial classes during 19th century:-
1.There were many state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods, capital and people across different places.
2.There was no freedom of markets.
3.For example, in the German confederation of 39 states set up by Napolean, all the states had different system of weights and measures and different currencies. Since duties were charged on the basis of weight and measurement of the goods, the process of levying duties was very time consuming.
What seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes in Europe?
Initially many people welcomed French armies as harbingers of liberty. But the initial enthusiasm soon turned to hostility, as it became clear that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom. Increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies as required to conquer the rest of Europe, all seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.
Who said, "When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold"?
If France sneezes, rest of Europe catches cold' was said by Metternich, the Austrian Chancellor. He opined that the political developments in France were stimulative to other countries of Europe. like the French Revolution and the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity.
When were the 'Conservatives Regimes' set up?
In 1815, representatives of the conservative European powers were Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria .
Conservatism as a political ideology arose after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo. The conservative regimes :
- Were autocratic
- Were intolerant to criticism and dissent
- Adopted the censorship of press for curbing the liberal ideals
- Discouraged any questions that challenged their legitimacy
The contribution of Conservatism stands for the preservation of the traditional institutions of state and society such as the monarchy, the church, social hierarchies and family along with the modern changes introduced by Napoleon.
When did Napoleon invade Italy?
Napoleon Bonaparte's fame as a military commander can be dated back to his campaign in Italy in 1796-97, where as the young and relatively unknown commander of a ragged and poorly supported army he managed to defeat a series of much larger Austrian and allied armies, conquer most of northern Italy, and force the Austrians to the negotiating table. Napoleon was appointed to command the French Army of Italy in March 1796. His orders were to invade northern Italy and occupy Lombardy, a move that the French Directory believed would force the Austrians to move troops south from the Rhine front. Napoleon's task was essentially diversionary, for the main offensive for 1796 was expected to take place on the Rhine. Instead the campaign on the Rhine would soon bog down, while Napoleon's whirlwind of activity in northern Italy effectively ended the War of the First Coalition.
Name the Italian revolutionary from Genoa.
Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary. He was born in Genoa and became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari.
(i) At the age of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution.
(ii) He founded two more secret societies, (a) Young Italy in Marseilles (b) Young Europe in Berne.
(iii) Members of these underground societies were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and German states.
(iv) Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives.
What did weavers in Silesia, in 1845, revolt against?
In 1845, weavers of Silesia had led a revolt of against contractors who supplied them raw materials. They gave them order for finished textiles but reduced their payments.
(1) The workers were living in absolute poverty and misery.
(2) On 4 June at 2 P.M., a large crowd of weavers emerged from their homes and marched in pairs up to the mansion of the contractor.
(3) They were demanding higher wages. But, they were treated with scorn and threats.
(4) Then, some of the weavers entered forcefully into the house. They smashed the window panes, furniture and porcelain. They entered the storehouse and tore to shreds the supplies of cloth.
(5) The contractor fled with his family but came back after 24 hours with army. In exchange that followed, eleven weavers were shot.
Who was proclaimed the King of United Italy, in 1861?
King Victor Emmanuel II
The Kingdom of Italy (Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state founded from 1861, when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy, to 1946, when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic.
Women were admitted in the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul, but only as:
When the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul, women were admitted as only observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.
A merchant travelling from Hamburg to Nuremberg, in the first half of the nineteenth century, had to pass through how many customs barriers to sell his goods?
A merchant travelling in 1833 from Hamburg to Nuremberg to sell his goods would have to pass through 11 customs barriers and pay a customs duty of about 5 per cent at each one of them.
Which European country colonized Vietnam ?
France was the European country that colonized Vietnam.
The decision to invade Vietnam was made by Napoleon III in July 1857. It was the result not only of missionary propaganda but also, after 1850, of the upsurge of French capitalism, which generated the need for overseas markets and the desire for a larger French share of the Asian territories conquered by the West.
The political and constitutional changes brought about by the French Revolution were:
France, was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under the rule of an absolute monarch. The political and constitutional changes that came in the wake of the French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens. The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
What was 'Young Italy'?
Young Italy was a secret society or political movement founded in 1831 by Giuseppe Mazzini For dissemination of his goal. The aim of this society was to create a united Italian republic through a general insurrection in the Italian reactionary states and also in the lands occupied by the Austrian Empire.