Select the incorrect pair.
Chemotaxonomy is based upon the characteristics of various chemical constituents of organisms. Chemical constituents of plant species have been found to be unvarying and do not change easily. Chemical characters have also helped in establishing relationships and statistical evaluation of taxonomic information.
Artificial systems of classification were based upon
Artificial systems of classification were based upon morphological characters (such as habit, habitat, colour, number and shape of leaves, etc.) for grouping of organisms, They were mainly based on vegetative characters or on the androecium structure. These systems separated the closely related species since they were based only on a few characteristics. This was not acceptable because vegetative characters are more easily affected by environment
______ systems of classification were based on natural affinities among the organisms.
Natural system of classification takes into consideration comparable study of number of characters so as to bring out natural similarities and dissimilarities and hence natural relationships among the organisms. They include morphological characters, anatomical characters, cytological characters, physiology, ontogeny or development, reproduction, cytochemistry and biochemistry, experimental taxonomy, etc.
Match Column-I with Column-II and select the correct option from the codes given below.
(A) Artificial system of classification
(B) Natural system of classification
(C) Phylogenetic system of classification
(i) Bentham and hooker
(iii) Englar and Prantl
Which out of the following are included under tracheophyta i.e., vascular plants?
Tracheophyta are those plants which possess conducting or vascular tissues, xylem and phloem. Xylem transports water and minerals while phloem conducts organic food. Tracheophytes include pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms.
Match Column-I with Column-ll and select the correct option from the codes given below.
(A) Non-vascular cryptogams
(B) Vascular cryptogams
(i) Gymnosperms, angiosperms
(iii) Algae, bryophytes
Cryptogame refers to plants without seeds and Phanerogamae refers to plants with seeds. Algae and bryophytes are non-vascular cryptogams. Pteridophytes are vascular cryptogams. Gymnosperms and angiosperms are phanerogams.
System of classification that employs numerical data to evaluate similarities and differences is known as
Phenetics is a system of classification based on similarity between organisms without regard to their evolutionary relationships. In this type of classification the organisms are arranged according to over all similarity of existing organisms based on observable characters.
Natural system of classification differs from artificial system in
The natural system of classification differs from an artificial system in bringing out similarities and dissimilarities. The natural system of classification takes into account a study of a number of characters among the organisms. It brings out natural similarities and dissimilarities between organisms. It takes into consideration the natural relationships among the organisms. It considers characters that are relatively constant.
Each character is given equal importance and at the same time hundreds of characters can be considered in
Numerical taxonomy evaluates resemblances and differences or primitiveness and advancement through statistical methods based on a large number of characters obtained from all disciplines of biology. This is followed by assigning them number and code of computer like plus (+) minus (-) followed by computer analysis.
Which of the following is classified as eukaryotic?
All species can be defined as either prokaryotes or eukaryotes. Prokaryotes are always single-celled and have no membrane-bound organelles. All bacteria and archaea are prokaryotes. Eukaryotes can be unicellular or multicellular and have membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus. Protista is a sub-category of eukaryotes that are unicellular.