NCERT Based Test: Secondary Growth

20 Questions MCQ Test NCERTs for NEET | NCERT Based Test: Secondary Growth

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Identify the given figure and select the correct labels for A, B and C.


The wood of the older stems (e.g ., Dalbergia, Acacia, etc.) gets differentiated into two zones, ther outer light coloured and functional sapwood or alburnum and the inner darker and nonfunctional heartwood or duramen. The trachelds and vessels of the heart wood get plugged by the ingrowth of the adjacent parenchyma cells into their cavities through the pits. These ingrowths are calles tyloses.


In dicot stems, cambium present between primary xylem and primary phloem is


Intrafascicular or fascicular cambium is present in the form of a narrow strip of primary meristematic cells in between the phloem and the xylem of a vascular bundle. Intrafascicular cambium is primary lateral meristem which helps in increasing girth of the plant. It lies in the vascular bundles of dicot and gymnosperm stems.


Which of the following statements is correct about a woody dicot stem which shows extensive secondary growth?


The primary xylem persists in the center of the axis, secondary xylem forms the bulk of the stem and the primary and older secondary phloem get crushed in a woody dicot stem which shows extensive secondary growth.


In old trees, central dark coloured, non-conducting part of secondary xylem is referred to as


Heartwood (duramen) is the central wood of an old stem. It is dark coloured part of secondary xylem. Living cells are absent here. The tracheary elements are plugged by tyloses and have depositions of tannins, resins, gums, etc. Heartwood is heavier. It is more durable due to its little susceptibility to the attack of pathogens and insects. The outer or peripheral portion of the trunk is soft and lighter in colour. It performs the functions of conduction of water and minerals and is known as sapwood or alburnum.


Which of the following options correctly shows the sequence of different tissues of the periderm starting from periphery?


In order to provide increase in girth and prevent rupturing of the outer ground tissues due to the formation of secondary vascular tissues, dicot stems produce a cork cambium or phellogen in the outer cortical cells. The cells of this phellogen divide peridinally to produce phellem or cork on the outer side and secondary cortex or phelloderm on the inner side. Phellem, phellogen and phelloderm collectively constitute periderm.


Match Column-I with Column-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below.


The bark of Betula is called as Bhojpatra, Quinine is present in Bark of Cinchona, Cork of Quercus suber used as Insulators (soundproofing) and Bark of Cinnamomum consists of Dalchini as a chemical constituent.


Secondary growth usually does not occur in 


Secondary growth is the increase in thickness of root or stem due to the activity of lateral meristems (vascular cambium and cork cambium). With few exceptions most of the dicots and gymnosperms show secondary growth. Roots and stems of monocot plants do not show secondary growth (due to absence of vascular cambium), with few exceptions e.g., Dracaena, Yucca, etc., which exhibit anomalous secondary growth.


Bark does not include


Bark is a non-technical term and used to define all tissues present outside vascular cambium. Bark = Cortex + Pericyle + Primary and Secondary Pholoem.


Match Column-I with Column-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below.


In some grasses, on epidermis, there are some larger thin-walled cells with vacuoles called bulliform cells or motor cells or bubble like cells, which in dry conditions lose water and thus the rolling up of leaves occurs, e.g., in psamma, Poa Agropyron, Amopyron, Amophilla, etc.
Each stoma or pore is guarded by two specialized kidney or dumb-bell shaped guard cells, which regulate along and closing of stomata. The guard cells are also surrounded by other specialized epidermal cells called subsIdiary cells or accessory cells. 
Lenticels are some loosely arranged areas in the periderm. These are the aerating pores present in the bark of plants. Due to more activity of certain portions of phellogen, the /Agent cells are cut off very rapidly and hence these cells are loosely arranged with much intercellular spaces.


During the secondary growth in a dicotyledonous stem, the fusiform initials of vascular cambium give rise to


During secondary drowth in a dicot stem, intrafascicular combium and interfascicular cambium get connected to form a complete ring of vascular cambium. The cells of this vascular cambium are of two types, elongated spindle-shaped fusiform initials and shorter isodiametric ray initials. Ray initials give rise to vascular rays or secondary medu8llary rays. Fusiform initials divide to form seconodary phloem on the outer side and secondary xylem on the inner side.


The terms 'wood' and 'bast' respectively refer to


Xylem is also known as wood. It consists of four types of cells, viz., tracheids, vessels (both tracheary elements), xylem or wood parenchyma and xylem or wood fibres. Phloem is also called bast. It consists of four types of cells, viz, sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem parenchyma and fibres. Heberland phloem and hadrome for the conducting part of xylem.


In the given transverse section of stem showing periderm identify the parts labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4 and select the correct answer.


Cork is impervious to water due to the presence of _______ in its cell wall.


The phellem or cork cells are dead these are impervious tow water due to suberin deposition in the cell wall. Cork prevents the loss of water by evaporation. It also protects the interior against entry of harmful microorganisms, mechanical injury and extermes of temperature. cork is light compressible, nonreactive and sufficiently resistant to fire. it is used as stopper for bottles, shock absorption and insulation.


Bark formed early in the season is called as________ bark and bark formed towards the end of the season is called as _________bark.


Bark that is formed early in the season is called as early or soft bark and the bark formed towards the end of season is called as late or hard bark.


During secondary growth in a dicot root, cork cambium is formed by the activity of


During secondary growth in a dicot root, the pericycle layer, either directly or after a few divisions becomes converted in to a secondary meristem called cork cambium or phellogen.


Match Column-I with Column-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below.


Soft wood is the technical name of gymnosperm wood.
Because it is devoid of vessels it is also called as nonporous wood. Several of the soft woods are very easy to work with (e.g., Cedrus, Pin us species), however all of them are not 'soft'. The softness depends upon the content of fibres and vascular rays. 90 - 95% of wood is made of tracheids. Vascular rays constitute 5 - 10 % of the wood.
Hard wood is the name of dicot wood which possesses abundant vessels. Due to the presence of vessels, the hard woods are also called porous woods. Content of tracheids is very low (less than 5%).


Plants showing anomalous secondary growth include


Anomalous secondary growth is abnormal type of secondary growth that occurs in some arborescent monocots (e.g. Dracaena, Yucca, Agave) and storage roots (e.g., beet, sweet potato etc.).


Bark of which of the following plants yields a drug for the treatment of malaria? 


The only adequate cure of malaria i.e:, quinine is obtained from the thick bark of Cinchona officinalis.


 Which of the following statements is incorrect? 


Each mature sieve tube element has thin or thick cellulose wall surrounding a highly albuminous and viscous content. Cytoplasm occurs in the form of thin lining enclosing a big central vacuole. The nucleus, plastids, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and dictyosomes are absent. Vacuole is filled with albuminous substances.


Match Column-I with Column-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below.

  • Stele: It is the central core of the stem and root of a vascular plant, consisting of the vascular tissue (xylem and phloem) and associated supporting tissue. 
  • Endodermis: It is an inner layer of cells in the cortex of a root and of some stems, surrounding a vascular bundle.
  • Casparian strips: It is a band of cell wall material deposited on the radial and transverse walls of the endodermis and is chemically different from the rest of the cell wall, the cell wall is made of lignin and without suberin, whereas the Casparian strip is made of suberin and sometimes lignin.
  • Bark: Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines, and shrubs.
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