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Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - NEET MCQ


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30 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 12 - Test: Biodiversity (NCERT)

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Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 1

Given pie diagram represents the proportionate number of species of major groups of invertebrates. Identify the groups A and B. 

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 1

Among all the species in the world, approximately 70% are animals and 22% are plants. In animals, insects account for 70% -80%, which is the maximum (represented as A). According to, IUCN (2009) there are 10,25,000 species of insects and 70,000 species of molluscs (represented as B).

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 2

Dodo, passenger pigeon and Steller's sea cow become extinct in the last 500 years due to

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 2

Excessive exploitation of a species, whether a plant or animal reduces size of its population such that it becomes vulnerable to extinction. Dodo, passenger pigeon and Steller's sea cow become extinct in the last 500 years due to over-exploitation by humans.

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Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 3

Species diversity______as we move away from the _______towards_____.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 3

Barring arid/semi-arid and aquatic habitat, biodiversite shows a latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. There is little biodiversity at the poles. It increases in temperate areas but reaches the maximum in tropical rain forests at equator. It is because the tropical rain forests have favorable environmental conditions not only for speciation but also for supporting both variety and number of organisms.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 4

On a logarithmic scale, the species area relationship is a straight line described by the equation log S = log C + Z log A.
What does S, C, Z and A represent in the given equation? Select the correct answer from the codes given below.
Species richness = 1
Slope of the line  = 2
Y- intercept          = 3
Area                    = 4

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 4

The relationship between species richness and area is rectangular hyperbola for a wide variety of taxa whether they are birds, bats, freshwater fishes or flowering plants and the equation can be given as S = CAZ. On a logarithmic scale it is straight line described by the equation logS = logC + ZlogA. Where S is species richness, Z is slope of line or regression coefficient, C is Y-intercept while A is area.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 5

There are four major causes of accelerated rates of species extinction, which are collectively called as 'the evil quartet'. Which one of the following is not included in 'the evil quartet'?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 5

The world is facing acceleration rates of species extinctions, largely due to human interference. There are four major causes collectively called as the evil quarter, it includes (i) Habitat loss and fragmentation, (ii) Oven exploitation, (iii) Alien species invasions and (iv) Co-extinctions.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 6

An exotic species that is introduced to a new area, spreads rapidly and eliminates native species is called

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 6

Lantana, Eichhornia and African catfish. are exotic species. Non-native or exotic species are often uses. They introduced inadvertently for their economic and other uses. They often becomes invasive and drive away the local species. These species are considered to be second major cause of extinction of species are considered to be second major cause of extinction of species. Such invasive exotic species have proved harmful to both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 7

The exotic species, which when introduced in India became notorious weed(s), is/are

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 7

Lantana, Eichhornia and Parthenium are all exotic species, which had been introduced in India. Lantana camara has replaced many species in forests of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Eichhornia (Water hyacinth) has clogged water bodies including wetlands resulting in death of servral aquatic plants and animals. Parthenium has pushed out several herbs and shrubs from open places in the plains.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 8

The given pie diagram represents the proportionate number of species of major taxa of vertebrates. Identify the group A and B.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 8

Among vertebrates, fish account for the maximum share with approximately 26,959 species. Birds have 9,700 identified species and reptiles have 7,150 species.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 9

Identify the groups of organism marked A and B in the given pie diagram representing the proportionate number of species of major taxa of plants.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 9

There are 2,70,000 species of higher plants and 72,000 species of fungi and in the world.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 10

Which of the following fish led to the extinction of an ecologically unique assemblage of more than 200 species of cichlid fish in the take Victoria of E. Africa?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 10

Nile Perch (a predator fish) was introduced in lake Victoria of East Africa. It killed and eliminated ecoligically unique assemblage of over 200 native species of small cichild fish.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 11

Which one of the following fish is being illegally introduced for aquaculture purposes and is posing a threat to the indigenous catfishes of Indian rivers?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 11

Clarias gariepinus, the African catifish has been illegally introduced for aquaculture in India. It is threatening native catfishes of Indian rivers.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 12

When a species becomes extinct, the plant and animal species associated with it in an obligatory way also become extinct. This phenomenon is referred to as

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 12

Extinction of one species automatically causes extinction of the other species in certain obligatory mutualistic relationships. This is called co-extinction, e.g., mutualism between Pronuba yuccasella and Yucca.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 13

Character of a stable community is that it
(a) should not show too much variations in year-to-year productivity
(b) must be resistant to occasional natural or man-made disturbances
(c) should be resistant to invasions by alien species
(d) all of these

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 13

A stable community is self-perpetuating and final biotic community that is in perfect harmony with the physical environment. It does not show much of changes and is usually resilient to natural or man made disturbances. It is also resistant to invasion by alien species.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 14

Which of the following statements describe natural extinction?
(i) Extinctions abetted by human activities
(ii) Slow replacement of existing species
(iii) Also known as background extinction
(iv) A small population is most likely to be extinct

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 14

Natural or background extinction is a slow process of replacement of existing species with the better adapted species due to alternate evolution, changes in environmental conditions, predators and diseases. A small population due to inbreeding depression (reduces genetic variability) and normal population fluctuations during unfavourable periods like drought, harsh winter or severe summer.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 15

Which of the following statements regarding the estimates of number of species found on earth is not correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 15

Animals constitute more than 70% of all the species recorded whereas plants constitute around 22% of total number of species.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 16

What is the decreasing order of the number of animals species as far as India is concerned?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 16

The number of species of aves, reptiles, amphibians and mammals are 1232, 456, 209 and 300 respectively.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 17

How many plant and animal species have been discovered and described so far?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 17
  • The biosphere of Earth is heterogeneous in nature and shows immense diversity.
  • There are more than slightly more than 1.5 million species known and still many species are yet to be discovered and described.
Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 18

Species diversity______as one moves from high to low altitudes.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 18

Biodiversity changes with the changes in altitude. It increases as one moves from higher to lower altitudes. Decrease in temperature and greater seasonal variability are the two major factors responsible for lower diversity at higher altitudes.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 19

What is the total number of species present on earth as estimated by Robert May?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 19

Robert May estimated that about 7 million species are present on earth.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 20

India is one of the 12 megadiversity countries of the world and is being divided into______biogeographical regions.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 20

India is one of the twelve of the twelve megadiversity regions of the world with 8.1% of genetic resources of the world. Wildlife Insitute of India has divided the country into 10 biogeographical regions-1. Trans-Himalayas, 2. Himalayas, 3. Desert, 4. Semi-arid, 5. Western Ghats, 6. Deccan Peninsula, 7. Gangetic Plain, 8. North East, 9. Coasts, 10. Island.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 21

What is the global species diversity according to Robert May?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 21
  • Robert McCredie May is a theoretical ecologist and promoter of science.
  • He estimated that there are almost 7 million species globally.
Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 22

Of all the plant species recorded which class has the minimum number of species?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 22
  • The mutualistic relationship between a fungus and photosynthesizing algae is called lichens.
  • Of all the plant species recorded, lichens have the minimum number of species.
  • They are used in the food industry, making dyes and have medicinal use.
Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 23

Read the given statement and select the correct option.
Statement 1: Tropical rainforests are disappearing fastly from developing countries such as India.
Statement 2: No value is attached to these forests because these are poor in biodiversity

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 23

Tropical rainforests are disappearing fastly from India due to deforestation, habitat loss and fragmentation. These forests are of extreme value since they contain the maximum biodiversity.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 24

Oragnisation responsible for maintaining Red Data Book is

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 24

IUCN is International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, which is now called world conservation Union (WCU). It has its headquarters at Morges, Switzerland. It maintains a Red Data Book or Red List which is a catalogue of taxa facing risk of extinction.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 25

Amazon rainforests are considered as 'lungs of the planet' as they contribute______of the total oxygen in the earth's atmosphere.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 25

About 20% of the world oxygen is produced in the amazon rainforests. They are described as the 'lungs of the planet because they provide the assential world environmental service of continously recycling CO2 into O2.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 26

Introduction of alien species into new area poses a threat to extinction of indigenous species due to 

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 26

In the absence of their natural predators, exotic species flourish better and pose a threat to indigenous species.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 27

Genetic variations affect the production of the drug reserpine in the medicinal plant Rauwolfia vomitoria growing in different Himalayan ranges. What kind of diversity does it indicate?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 27

Genetic diversity is the diversity in the numbers and types of genes as well as chromosomes present in different species and the variations in the genes and their alleles in the same species. The genetic variation in Rauwolfia vomitoria growing in different Himalayan range indicates genetic diversity. Another example is of presence of more than 50,000 genetically different strains of rice, and 1000 varieties of mango in India.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 28

Western ghats have a greater number of amphibian species than the Eastern ghats. What kind of diversity does it represent?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 28

Species diversity is the variety in the number and richness of the species of a region. Western ghats have greater amphibian species diversity as compared to Eastern ghats. The number of the species per unit area is called species richness. Number of individuals of different species represent species evenness or species equitability.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 29

Keystone species deserve protection because these

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 29

Keystone species are those which have significant and disproportionately large influence on the community structure and characteristics. It has often considerably low abundance and biomass as compared to dominant species. Removal of such species causes serious disruption in structure and function of community.

Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 30

Match column I with column II and select the correct option from the given codes.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biodiversity (NCERT) - Question 30

A. Beta diversity - Between community diversity
B. Rich biodiversity - Tropical areas
C. Gamma diversity - Diversity of whole geographical region
D. Extinct species - Dodo
E. Critically endangered species - Great Indian bustard

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