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Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - NEET MCQ


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20 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 12 - Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT)

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Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 1

Which of the following statements regarding the structure of proinsulin and mature insulin are not correct?
(i) Proinsulin is made up of three polypeptide chains- A, B and C.
(ii) C - polypeptide chain with 33 amino adds is removed prior to insulin formation.
(iii) Mature insulin is made up of 51 amino acids arranged in two polypeptide chains- A and B.
(iv) Polypeptide chain A has 30 amino acids and polypeptide chain B has 21 amino acids.
(v) Polypeptide chains A and B are interconnected by only one S−S linkage.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 1

Human insulin is made up of 51 amino acids arranged in two polypeptide chains: A, having 21 amino acids and B, with 30 amino acids. The two polypeptide chains are interconnected by two disulphide bridges.

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 2

Which of the following statements regarding gene therapy is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 2

Gene therapy is a technique for correcting defective genes responsible for disease development. Under intensive investigation are, disease ranging from the rare genetic diseases caused by single mutations like sickle cell anaemia to killer diseases such as server combined immuno-deficiency (SCID). The first clinical gene therapy was given in 1990 to a 4-years old girl with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency. This enzymes is very important for the immune system to function. ADA deficiency can lead to severe combined immuno-deficiency (SCID).

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Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 3

Read the given statements and select the correct options

Statement 1: In recombinant DNA technology, human genes are often transferred into bacteria (prokaryotes) or yeast (eukaryote).
Statement 2: Both bacteria and yeast multiply very fast to form huge population which expresses the desired gene.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 3

Recombinant DNA is a form of DNA whose nucleotide sequence has undergone alteration as a result of incorporation of exchange with another DNA strand. In recombinant DNA technology, human genes are often transferred into bacteria or yeast because both bacteria and yeast multiply very fast to form huge population, which expresses the desired gene. By doing so, one can observe the phenotypes of the gene more quickly and in a larger scale than by studying the same traist in humans.

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 4

Read the given statements and select the correct option

Statement 1: PCR technique is helpful in detecting bacterial and viral diseases even when symptoms of the disease are not yet visible
Statement 2: Very low concentrations of bacteria or viruses in human body can be detected by amplification of their nucleic acids using the PCR technique

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 4

The technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been applied to detect HIV in suspects AIDS patients and to detect mutations in genes in suspected cancer patients.

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 5

DNA fingerprinting refer to

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 5

DNA fingerprinting technique in which the banding pattern of DNA fragments is compared and can be used in many species, including the human, to indicate relatedness. DNA is digested with restriction enzymes, run on an electrophoretic gel, and blots made from the gel. Such blots are then hybridized with radiolabelled probe DNA consisting of cloned sequences of the short interspersed repeat sequences which are common in vertebrate genomes. Autoradiography provides a distinct banding pattern of DNA fragments containing such DNA sequences.

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 6

Given figure represents the maturation of pro-insulin into insulin. Identify the product A.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 6

A represents polypeptide chain C which is removed prior to insulin formation

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 7

Early detection of a disease is possible by

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 7

Using conventional methods of diagnosis (serum and urine analysis, etc.) early detection is not possible. Recombinant DNA technology, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Enzyme Linked Immuno-sorbent Assay (ELISA) are some of the techniques that serve the purpose of early diagnosis.

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 8

Technique used to detect the DNA in a clone is

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 8

A single stranded DNA or RNA joined with a radioactive molecule (probe) is allowed to hybridise to its complementary DNA in a clone of cells. It is followed by detection using autoradiography. The clone having the mutated gene will not appear on the photographic film, because the probe will not have the complementarity with the mutated gene. 

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 9

Which of the following statements is not correct? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 9

Earlier, insulin used for curing diabetes used to be extracted from pancreas of slaughtered pigs and cattle. This insulin was slightly different from human insulin and caused some undesirable side effects such as allergy. Genetically engineered insulin is a far more efficient.

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 10

What might be an advantage of beginning gene therapy prior to birth?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 10

Gene therapy is a newly emerging branch of biotechnology with tremendous results. It is basically used for correcting genetic disorders. In gene therapy, normal genes are introduced in the cells to replace the missing genes or defective genes. 
Early gene therapy has been proved to be more effective in treating certain brain diseases in humans. They have also shown exemplary results in mice.  
When a child is born, he has its innate immunity, which does not allow any foreign body to settle into its own body easily. But before birth, it has not yet recognized itself, so therapy would be easily accepted.

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 11

Which of the following companies started selling humulin in the year 1983?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 11

In 1983, Eli Lilly an American company, first prepared two DNA sequences corresponding to A and B chains of human insulin and introduced them in plasmids of Escherichia coli to produce insulin chains. Chains A and B were produced separately, extracted and combined by creating disulphide bonds to form human insulin (humulin).

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 12

Which of the following statements is incorrect about gene therapy in ADA deficiency?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 12

As a first step towards gene therapy, lymphocytes from the blood of the patient are grown in a culture outside the body. A functional ADA−cDNA (using a retroviral vector) is then introduced into these lymphocytes, which are subsequently returned to the body of the patient. However, as these cells are not immortal, the patient requires periodic infusion of such genetically engineered lymphocytes.

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 13

The study of all the proteins coded by the genome is called as

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 13

Proteomics is the study of the interactions, function, composition, and structures of proteins and their cellular activities. Proteomics provides a better understanding of the structure and function of the organism than genomics.

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 14

Gene can therapy can be referred to as

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 14

Gene therapy is a collection of methods, that allows correction of gene defect that has been diagnosed in a child/embryo. Correcting of a genetic defect involves delivery of a normal gene into the individual or embryo to take over the function of and compensate for the non-functional gene.

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 15

For effective treatment of a disease

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 15

For effective treatment of a disease, early diagnosis and understanding its pathophysiology is very important. Using conventional methods of diagnosis (serum and urine analysis, etc.), early detection is not possible. Recombinant DNA technology, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Enzyme Linked Immuno-sorbent Assay (ELISA) are some of the techniques that serve the purpose of early diagnosis.

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 16

Some of the steps involved in the production of Humulin are given below. Choose the correct sequence.
(i) Synthesis of gene (DNA) for human insulin artificially.
(ii) Culturing recombinant E.coli in bioreactors.
(iii) Purification of humulin.
(iv) Insertion of human insulin gene into plasmid.
(v) Introduction of recombinant plasmid into E.coli.
(vi) Extraction of recombinant gene product from E.coli.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 16

The correct sequence is
1.Synthesis of the gene for human insulin artificially.
2.Insertion of human insulin.
3.Introduction of recombinant plasmid into E.coli
4. Culturing recombinant E.coli in bioreactors.
5.Extraction of a recombinant gene product from E.
6.Purification of Humulin.
So, the correct option is 'i, iv, v, ii, vi, iii'.

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 17

During the processing of proinsulin into the mature insulin

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 17

Proinsulin is a single polypeptide chain composed of the B and A subunits of insulin joined by the C-peptide region. Proinsulin is converted to insulin during the maturation of secretory vesicles by the action of enzymes.

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 18

Study the following steps which are followed during the process of gene therapy while treating a patient of SCID
(i) Retrovirus infects lymphocytes extracted from bone marrow of the patient and cultured.
(ii) Engineered cells are injected into patient's bone marrow.
(iii) Normal allele is inserted into a retrovirus.
(iv) Retrovirus makes a DNA copy of its RNA. This DNA carrying the normal allele gets inserted into the chromosome of the host cell.

Arrange the above-given steps in correct sequence and select the correct answer.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 18
Correct Sequence of Gene Therapy Steps for SCID

  • (iii) Normal allele is inserted into a retrovirus.

  • (i) Retrovirus infects lymphocytes extracted from bone marrow of the patient and cultured.

  • (iv) Retrovirus makes a DNA copy of its RNA. This DNA carrying the normal allele gets inserted into the chromosome of the host cell.

  • (ii) Engineered cells are injected into patient's bone marrow.


Detailed Explanation

  • Step (iii) involves inserting the normal allele into a retrovirus, which will carry the therapeutic gene.

  • In step (i), the retrovirus infects lymphocytes extracted from the patient's bone marrow and are cultured.

  • After infection, in step (iv), the retrovirus makes a DNA copy of its RNA, which contains the normal allele. This DNA is then inserted into the chromosome of the host cell.

  • Finally, in step (ii), the engineered cells with the therapeutic gene are injected back into the patient's bone marrow.

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 19

A doctor while operating on an HIV (+)ve patient accidentally cuts himself with a scalpel. Suspecting himself to have contracted the virus which test will he take to rule out/confirm his suspicion?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 19

Very low count of bacteria or viruses (when the symptoms of the disease are not yet visible) cab be detected by multiplication of their nucletic acid by PCR (PCR can detect very low amounts of DNA). PCR is usually used to detect HIV in suspected AIDS patients.

Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 20

Second generation vaccines are prepared by recombinant DNA technology. Which out of the following are the examples of such vaccines?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnological Applications in Medicine & Industry (NCERT) - Question 20

Second generation vaccines are the vaccines which are prepared by recombinant DNA technique/ genetic engineering, e.g., hepatitis B virus vaccine, herpes virus vaccine and pneumonia vaccine. The yeast-derived recombinant hepatitis B virus vaccine is the first commercially available human vaccine produced by the genetic engineering technology. Hepatitis B vaccine is produced from transgenic yeast by recombinant DNA technology.

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