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Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - NEET MCQ


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15 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 11 - Test: Bryophytes (NCERT)

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Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 1

Why are bryophytes referred to as "amphibians of the plant kingdom"?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 1

While bryophytes are primarily terrestrial plants, they require a moist environment for the process of fertilization. Their sperm are flagellated and need water to swim to the egg for fertilization to occur, similar to how amphibians need a water environment for reproduction. However, this does not mean they live in water; rather, they need water for a crucial part of their life cycle.

Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 2

What role do bryophytes play in plant succession on bare rocks/soil?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 2

Bryophytes play an important role in plant succession on bare rocks and soil. They are pioneers in colonizing such areas and contribute to the breakdown of rocks, making the substrate more suitable for the growth of higher plants. Their growth and decomposition processes help enrich the soil over time.

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Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 3

Funaria requires water because 

Detailed Solution for Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 3

Funaria, commonly known as the bonfire moss, is a type of moss that primarily grows in areas with a lot of moisture. It belongs to the Bryophytes group of plants which are known for their dependency on water for the process of fertilization.

  • The reason for this dependency lies in the nature of the fertilization process in Funaria. Unlike many other plant species, Funaria produces motile sperm cells, which need a medium to travel and reach the egg cell for fertilization. This medium is usually water.
  • When the Funaria plant is ready for fertilization, the male gametophyte produces sperm in a structure called the antheridium.
  • The female gametophyte, on the other hand, produces eggs in a structure known as the archegonium.
  • When water is present, the antheridia release the sperm which swim through the water to the archegonia, where fertilization occurs. This results in the formation of a zygote, which eventually grows into a new plant.

Therefore, water is absolutely necessary for the process of fertilization in Funaria. Without it, the sperm would not be able to reach the egg, preventing the continuation of the species.

So, the statement "Funaria requires water because fertilization occurs in water only" is accurate.

Note: This does not mean that Funaria is a hydrophyte, a plant that grows only in water. Funaria can grow in various moist habitats but it needs water for the process of fertilization. Also, while all plants require water for various life processes, Funaria's need for water is particularly critical for its reproductive process.

Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 4

The embryonic development in bryophytes takes place in the

Detailed Solution for Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 4

Like other plants, the embryonic development in bryophytes begins with the process of fertilization. This involves the fusion of male and female gametes, which are produced in the antheridium and archegonium respectively.
 

Role of Archegonium

  • The archegonium is the female sex organ in bryophytes, and it is where the female gametes or eggs are produced.
  • After fertilization, the zygote remains in the archegonium and begins to divide and grow into an embryo.
  • This process takes place within the protective structure of the archegonium, which provides a suitable environment for the developing embryo.
Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 5

Read the given statements and select the correct options. 

Statement 1: Bryophytes play a significant role in plant succession on bare rocks and soil.

Statement 2: They contribute to the breakdown of rocks and enrich the soil, making it more suitable for higher plants.

Detailed Solution for Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 5

The assertion is correct. Bryophytes, including mosses and liverworts, indeed play a significant role in plant succession on barren surfaces like rocks and nutrient-poor soil. They are often the first plants to colonize these environments.

The reason is also correct and provides an explanation for why bryophytes contribute to plant succession. Bryophytes can slowly break down rocks through their growth and the release of organic acids. As they decompose rocks, they release minerals and organic matter into the soil, which enriches it. This enriched soil becomes more hospitable for the growth of higher plants, facilitating the establishment of a more complex plant community.

In summary, bryophytes help initiate plant succession by breaking down rocks and improving soil quality, thereby creating suitable conditions for the growth of higher plants.

Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 6

Resemblances between algae and bryophytes include

Detailed Solution for Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 6

Algae and bryophytes are two different groups of plants, but they share some common characteristics. Here we will discuss the resemblances between them under the following headings:

Thallus-like Plant Body

  • Both algae and bryophytes have a thallus-like plant body. This means they lack true roots, stems, and leaves.
  • They are often referred to as ‘lower plants’ because of this primitive body structure.

Lack of Vascular Tissue

  • Neither algae nor bryophytes have specialized vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) for the transport of water and nutrients.
  • This limits their size and restricts them to moist habitats where water and nutrients can be absorbed directly by all cells.

Autotrophic Nutrition

  • Both algae and bryophytes are autotrophs, meaning they can make their own food.
  • They contain chlorophyll and can carry out photosynthesis, using light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen.

Note: The presence of root-like, stem-like, and leaf-like structures is a characteristic of bryophytes but not of algae. Algae, in contrast, have a simpler, thallus-like body. Also, neither algae nor bryophytes are heterotrophic; they are autotrophic, producing their own food through photosynthesis. Therefore, the correct answer is B: thallus-like plant body, lack of vascular tissue autotrophic nutrition.

Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 7

Select the option that correctly identifies A, B and C in the given figure of female thallus of Marchantia.

Detailed Solution for Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 7

Based on the given figure, the correct option is C: A - Archegoniophore, B-Gemma cup, C-Rhizoids as it correctly identifies the labeled parts.

Fig: Female thallus of Merchantia

  • Archegoniophore: It is a stalk-like structure found in the liverwort plant Marchantia. Archegoniophores carry archegonia on their tops. Archegonia are female sexual organs that produce and release egg cells.
  • Gemma cup: It is a small, cup-shaped structure found on the surface of the thallus in liverworts and certain fungi. They contain gemmae, which are small discs of tissue that can develop into a new plant.
  • Rhizoids: These are hair-like structures found in lower plants like mosses, liverworts, and fungi. They aid in absorption and anchorage.
Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 8

Read the given statements and select the correct options.
Statement 1: Each sperm of moss has two flagella.
Statement 2: Water is essential for fertilization is mosses.

Detailed Solution for Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 8

Statement 1: Each sperm of moss has two flagella.

  • This statement is correct. The sperm of mosses are biflagellate, meaning they have two flagella that they use to swim towards the egg in the presence of water.

Statement 2: Water is essential for fertilization in mosses.

  • This statement is also correct. Mosses require water for fertilization because the sperm must swim through water to reach the egg for fertilization to occur.

Both statements are correct; however, Statement 2 is not the explanation for Statement 1. They are simply two facts about the reproductive requirements of mosses.

Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 9

Bryophytes include

Detailed Solution for Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 9

Bryophytes include three distinct groups of plants:

1) Mosses

  • Mosses are small, non-vascular plants that typically form dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.

2) Liverworts

  • Liverworts are another type of non-vascular plants and are similar to mosses. They are named for their lobed, liver-like appearance.

3) Hornworts

  • Hornworts are a group of non-vascular plants constituting the division Anthocerotophyta.


Ferns are not included in the bryophyte group. They are vascular plants that have alternating generations and use spores for reproduction. They are part of a different group called Pteridophytes.

Hence, the correct answer is C: Mosses and Liverworts. This is because both mosses and liverworts are included in the bryophyte group, while ferns are not.

Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 10

The female sex organ in Riccia and Funaria is

Detailed Solution for Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 10

The sex organs in bryophytes (Riccia, Funari pteridophytes and gymnosperm (Cycas) are multicellds and jacketed. The jacket of sterile cell around the sperm as egg is an adaptation to a life on land. The male reproduction organs are antheridia and female reproductive organs are archegonia.

Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 11

The mass which forms dense extensive mats on the soil prevents

Detailed Solution for Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 11

Mosses form a protective covering over the crumbling soil of cliffs and prevent the sushing rainwater from cutting deeply into the soil. These grow in dense mats so firmly enterwied around the soil particles that there can be tittle erosion, eve on a steep hill side.

Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 12

Select the option that includes liverworts only.

Detailed Solution for Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 12

Both Riccia and Marchantia belong to Class Hepaticosida/Hepaticae that includes 3 orders, the two genera belong to Order Marchantiales, that has specialized vertical stalks called the archegoniophores and serile cells called elaters in the sporangium. The plant body shows dichotomous branching.

So, the correct answer is 'Riccia, Marchantia'

Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 13

Which of the following is not a moss?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 13

In order to understand why Riccia is not a moss, we first need to understand what mosses are and then how Riccia differs from it.
Characteristics of Mosses:

  • Mosses belong to the division Bryophyta in the plant kingdom.
  • They are small, non-vascular plants that typically form dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
  • They reproduce through spores, which are produced in capsules at the ends of a stalk.
  • Polytrichum, Sphagnum, and Funaria are examples of mosses.

About Riccia:

  • Riccia is not a moss but a liverwort.
  • Liverworts also belong to the Bryophyte division of the plant kingdom but are distinct from mosses.
  • They are usually found in moist, shaded areas but can also thrive in a variety of other habitats.
  • Riccia reproduces through both sexual and asexual means, with asexual reproduction occurring through gemmae - small, lens-shaped pieces of tissue that are dispersed by water or wind.

In conclusion, Riccia is not a moss because it is a liverwort, a different type of bryophyte. Despite both mosses and liverworts being non-vascular and often found in similar habitats, they have distinct characteristics and reproductive processes.

Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 14

Read the following statements regarding bryophytes and select the correct answer.
(i) Lack true roots, stem and leaves.
(ii) Main plant body is haploid.
(iii) Sex-organs are unicellular and non-jacketed.
(iv) Fertilization produces an embryo inside the water.

Detailed Solution for Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 14

Statement (i) Correct: Bryophytes do lack true roots, stems and leaves. Instead, they have structures that perform similar functions. For example, they have rhizoids which are similar to roots, and their main plant body can be thought of as a stem and leaves.

Statement (ii) Correct: The main plant body of bryophytes is haploid, which means it contains only one set of chromosomes. This is because bryophytes reproduce via spores, which are formed by the process of meiosis, reducing the chromosome number by half.

Statement (iii) Incorrect: In bryophytes, the sex-organs are multicellular and jacketed. For example, the male sex organ, antheridium, and female sex organ, archegonium, are both multicellular and surrounded by a layer of sterile cells.

Statement (iv) Incorrect: The fertilization in bryophytes does not produce an embryo inside the water. Instead, the fertilization produces a zygote within the archegonium (female sex organ) which then develops into an embryo.

Therefore, only statements (i) and (ii) are correct.

Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 15

Peat, obtained from Sphagnum moss, is used as

Detailed Solution for Test: Bryophytes (NCERT) - Question 15

Peat as Fuel

  • Peat is a form of fossil fuel that is formed when plant material does not fully decay in acidic and anaerobic conditions. It is harvested from peatlands or bogs. It is considered as a slow-renewing fuel due to the thousands of years it takes to form.

Peat as Manure

  • Peat is also used in gardening and agriculture as a soil amendment or conditioner. It has the ability to retain water and slowly release it over time. This property makes it a valuable resource for improving soil structure and fertility.

In conclusion, peat, obtained from Sphagnum moss, is used both as a fuel and as a manure, making (d) the correct answer.

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