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Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - NEET MCQ


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Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 1

Select the option that contains micronutrients only.

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 1

Microelements (Micronutrients) are those essential which are required by plants in small amounts, equal or less than 0.1 mg/gm of dry matter. Microelements are mostly involved in the functioning of enzymes, as cofactors or metal activators. They are eight in number - Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, CI and Ni. 

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 2

Which of the following are macronutrients?

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 2

Macroelements (Macronutrients) are those essential elements which are present in easily detectable quantities, 1-10 mg per gram of dry matter. Macroelements are usually involved in the synthesis of organic molecules and development of osmotic potential. They are nine in number — C, H, O, N, P, K, S, Mg and Ca.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 3

Micronutrients are present in plant tissues in concentrations less than_____ of dry matter.

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 3

Microelements (Micronutrients) are those essential elements which are required by plants in small amounts, equal or less than 10mmole Kg−1 of dry matter. Microelements are mostly involved in the functioning of enzymes, as cofactors or metal activators. They are eight in number — Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Cl and Ni.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 4

The inorganic essential elements which are obtained from the soil are called as

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 4

Essential elements derived from soil are termed as mineral elements. Example: P, K, S, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Cl and N. Essential elements got from air or water are known as non-mineral elements. Example: C, H, O. In aquatic habitats as well as in soil solution, mineral elements occur dissolved in water. Nitrogen is included in both mineral and non-mineral elements.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 5

More than ____ elements of the _____ discovered so far are found in different plants.

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 5

Out of 105 or more elements discovered so far, 60 elements are found in different plants. Out of 105, only 20 elements have been found to be essential for growth and development of the plants.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 6

Which of the following is not one of the three plants macronutrietns included in most fertilisers?

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 6

Three important elements (i.e., N, P, K — nitrogen, Phosphorus and potassium) need to be replenished in crop fields as they are depleted by repeated cultivation. The common sources of N, P and K are - sodium nitrate, amonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride, urea, calcium ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, bone meal, rock phosphate and calcium magnesium phosphate. Oxygen is not one of these three elements.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 7

Which of the four most abundant elements in most plants (C, H, O and N), does a terrestrial green plant procure mainly through its roots from the soil?

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 7

Hydrogen (H) is mainly obtained from soil water by roots. Oxygen (O) is either derived from the air or from the water. Carbon (C) is derived from atmosphere as CO2. The plants are unable to use atmospheric nitrogen. It is inert and plants cannot make use of it directly. By the process of fixation of atmospheric N2, plants obtain it from soil in the form of nitrites (NO2), nitrates (NO3), ammonium ion (NH+4), etc. These nitrogenous compounds enter plants as nutrients through the roots and are assimilated as organic nitrogen.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 8

Essential elements are 

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 8

An essential element is the one which has a specific structural or physiological role and without which plants cannot complete their life cycle. These essential elements are classified into two broad categories called macronutrients and micronutrients.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 9

Minerals which maintain cation-anion balance in cells are

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 9

Cl- with Na+ and K+ helps in determining solute concentration and anion-cation balance in cells.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 10

Minerals associated with redox reactions are

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 10

Fe is an important constituent of proteins like ferredoxin and cytochromes which are involved in transfer of electrons. It is reversibly oxidised from Fe2+ to Fe3+ during electron transfer. It activates catalase enzyme and is essential for the formation of chlorophyll. Iron is absorbed by the plants from the soil in the form of ferric (Fe3+) ions.
Copper helps in formation of starch. It is required for the overall metabolism in plants. It is associated with certain enzymes involved in redox reactions and is reversibly oxidised from Cu+ to Cu2+. Copper is absorbed by plants as cupric ion (Cu2+).

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 11

Which of the following elements are required for chlorophyll synthesis?

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 11

Magnesium (Mg) is found in the chlorophyll. The chlorophyll does not form in its absence, the leaves become chlorotic, and the growth of the plant is retarded. Iron (Fe) also plays an important role in the formation of chlorophyll, though it is not found in the constitution of the chlorophyll. 

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 12

Match Column-l with Column-ll and select the correct option from the codes given below.

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 12
  • Magnesium is present in phosphoenolpyruvate enzyme.
  • Molybdenum is a key element of nitrogenase as Mo-Fe protein.
  • Zinc is an activator of alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme.
Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 13

Which one of the following essential elements plays an important role in opening and closing of stomata?

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 13

Potassium (K) helps to determine anion-cation balance in cells, and is involved in protein synthesis, opening and closing of stomata, activation of enzymes, and maintenance of turgidity of cells. It is absorbed as K+ ion by plants from the soil.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 14

Sulphur is constituent of which of the following amino acids?

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 14

Sulphur (S) is the constituent of two amino acids, i.e., cysteine and methionine, and hence proteins, several coenzymes, vitamins (i.e., thiamine, biotin), lipoic acid and ferredoxin. Cystine also contains sulphur. It is a dimeric amino acid formed by the oxidation of two cysteine residues that covalently link to make a disulphide bond.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 15

Deficiency symptoms of readily mobilised essential elements will first appear in ______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 15

For elements that are actively mobilised within the plants and exported to young developing tissues, the deficiency symptoms tend to appear first in the older tissues e.g., the deficiency symptoms of nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) are visible first in the senescent leaves. In the older leaves, biomolecules containing these elements are broken down, making these elements available for mobilising to younger leaves. On the other hand, the deficiency symptoms tend to appear first in the young tissues whenever the elements are relatively immobile and are not transported out of the mature organs, for example, elements like sulphur (S) and calcium (Ca) are a part of the structural components of the cell and hence are not easily released. 

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 16

The two elements responsible for splitting of H2O to liberate O2 during photosynthesis are

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 16

Manganese (Mn2+) and chlorine (Cl both are micro elements, responsible for photo production of oxygen during photolysis of water in photosynthesis.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 17

Phosphorus (P) is a structural element of

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 17

Phosphorus (P) is a constituent of cell membranes, certain proteins, all nucleic acids and nucleotides and is required for all phosphorylation reactions. It is usually found in nudeoproteins and protoplasm.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 18

Select the incorrectly matched pair.

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 18

Major function of magnesium (Mg2+) is formation of chlorophyll, carotenoids and nucleic, acids, growth, metabolism and nodule formation in legumes Ca2+ is involved in the organisation of mitotic spindle.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 19

Chlorosis, i.e., loss of chlorophyll leading to yellowing in leaves, is caused by the deficiency of

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 19

Chlorosis is non-development or loss of chlorophyll, that leads to yellowing of leaves. Chlorosis is caused due to deficiency of N, K, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn and Mo.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 20

Necrosis mainly occurs by the deficiency of 

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 20

Nacrosis is browning or blackening of tissue due to the death of a cell or group of cells, while still a part of the living plant. It occurs due to the deficiency of calcium (Ca2+) magnesium (Mg2+).

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 21

Deficiency of which of the following elements delay flowering in plants?

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 21

Nitrogen deficiency causes yellowing of older leaves (chlorosis). Deficiency of nitrogen also causes dormancy of lateral buds, late flowering, purple colouration and wrinkling of cereal grains. Molybdenum deficiency causes chlorotic interveinal mottling of the older leaves; flower formation is inhibited and also causes whip tail disease in cauliflower plants. Sulphur deficiency causes yellowing of leaves and delay in flowering.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 22

Select the correct statement regarding manganese toxicity.

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 22

Manganese toxicity (brown spots surrounded by chlorotic veins) is due to
(i) Reduction in uptake of iron and magnesium.
(ii) Inhibition of binding of magnesium to specific enzymes.
(iii) Inhibition of calcium translocation into shoot apex.
Therefore, excess of manganese causes deficiency of iron, magnesium and calcium.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 23

Yellowish edges appear in leaves deficient in

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 23

Potassium (K+) is usually found in the growing regions of plant. It is one of the constituents of the protoplasm. In the scarcity of potassium, the normal edges of the leaves become yellowish, and the stem becomes somewhat thin. The plants take potassium from the soil in the form of potassium nitrate and potassium chloride, etc.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 24

The macronutrient______is a component of all organic compounds but is not obtained from soil.

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 24

Carbon is a macronutrient, and is a major component of all organic compounds but is not obtained from soil Carbon is derived from atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2).

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 25

Which of the following is not a deficiency symptom of minerals?

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 25

Etiolation is the abnormal form of growth observed when plantws grow in darkness or severely reduced lights. Such plants characteristically have branched leaves and shoots, excessively long shoots, and reduced leaves and roots systems.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 26

Which of the following minerals activate the enzymes involved in respiration?

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 26

Magnesium activates the enzymes of respiration, photosynthesis and is involved in the synthesis of DNA and RNA. Manganese activates many enzymes which are involved in photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen metabolism.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 27

Which one of the following helps in absorption of phosphorus from soil by plants?

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 27

Many members of the genus Glomus form mycorrhiza associations with roots of higher plants. The fungal symbiont i.e., Glomus absorbs phosphorus from soil and passes it to the plant.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 28

Premature leaf fall is due to deficiency of

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 28

Phosphorus (P) deficiency causes premature leaf fall. Dead necrotic areas develop on leaves or fruits, and leaves turn dark to blue-green in colour. It also causes delay in seed germination.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 29

Mineral ion concentration in tissues that reduces the dry weight of tissues by about 10% is considered as

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 29

In higher doses, micronutrients become toxic. Mineral ion concentration in the tissues which reduces dry weight of tissues by 10% is called toxic concentration. Critical toxic concentration is different for different micronutrients as well as different plants. For example, Mn2+ is toxic beyond 600μg g−1 for soybean and beyond 5300μg g−1 for sunflower. Toxic effects may be due to an excess of the micronutrient or its interference in the absorption and functioning of other nutrients.

Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 30

Read the given statements and select the correct option.
Statement 1 : Soil serves as a reservoir of essential elements.
Statement 2 : Soil develops, over the years, through physical and chemical weathering of rocks.

Detailed Solution for Test: Essential Mineral Elements (Old NCERT) - Question 30

Soil seves as a reservoir of essential elements. More than sixty essential elements are found in soil. It is the upper weathered humus containing part of Earth's surface which sustains terrestrial plant life. Weathering or breaking of rock into fine powder can occur due to atmospheric changes, mechanical forces, chemical changes and biological breakdown over the years.

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