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Test: Immunity (NCERT) - NEET MCQ


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25 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 12 - Test: Immunity (NCERT)

Test: Immunity (NCERT) for NEET 2024 is part of Biology Class 12 preparation. The Test: Immunity (NCERT) questions and answers have been prepared according to the NEET exam syllabus.The Test: Immunity (NCERT) MCQs are made for NEET 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Test: Immunity (NCERT) below.
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Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 1

Identify the marking A, B, C and D in the figure given below and select the correct option.

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 1

The given figure is a structure of an antibody molecule

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 2

Read the given statements carefully.

(i) Innate immunity is a specific type of defence, that is present at the time of birth.
(ii) Malignant malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum.
(iii) Malaria could be confirmed by Widal test.
(iv) Active immunity is slow and takes time to give its full effective response.
(v) Saliva in the mouth acts as physiological barrier for pathogens.

Which of the above statements are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 2

Malignant malaria is caused by plasmodium falciparum. The incubation period of plasmodium falciparum is about 12 days. recurrence of fever is after every 48 hours. Active immunity is developed when the person's own cells produce antibodies in response to infection.it is slow and takes time to give its full effective response. Saliva in the mouth acts as physiological barrier for pathogens. it contains lysozyme that attacks bacteria and dissolves their cells walls.

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Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 3

Which of the following components does not participate in innate immunity?

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 3

Innate immunity is the type of immunity that is present in the organism by birth. Acquired immunity is the immunity that an individual acquires during life. B-lymphocytes are involved in acquired immunity and produce antibodies.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 4

Use of vaccines and immunisation programmes have controlled which of the following infectious diseases?

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 4

vaccination refers to the administration of a vaccine or toxoid, while immunisation is the process by which the body produces antibodies against the vaccine preventable diseases through administration of specific vaccines. Polio, tetnus, diphtheria and pneumonia have been controlled by vaccines and immunisation

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 5

The first line of defence in the immune system is provided by

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 5

Skin and mucous membrane are the physical barriers that provide the first line of defence or the external defence. These barriers prevent the entry of microorganisms into the body. Outer tough layer of the skin, the stratumm corneum prevents the entry of bacteria and viruses. Mucus secreted by mucous membrane traps the microorganisms and immobilises them.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 6

An antibody consists of

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 6

Antibodies are immunoglobulins produced in response to antigenic stimulation. An antibody is made up of four peptide chains. Of the four chains, there are two long chains, called heavy chains and two short chains called light chains.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 7

Hepatitis B vaccine is produced from

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 7

Hepatitis B vaccine is produced from transgenic yeast by recombinant DNA technology. It is the first commercially available human vaccine that is produced by the genetic engineering technology.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 8

The most abundant antibody produced against allergens is

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 8

The substances to which an exaggerated response of the immune system occurs are called allergens. The antibodies produced to these are of IgE type.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 9

Antibodies are secreted by

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 9

Antibodies are immunoglobulins which are produced in response to antigenic stimulation. Antibodies are produced by B-lymphocytes. Antibodies direct the antibody-mediated immunity

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 10

Primary response produced due to first time encounter with a pathogen is of

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 10

Primary immune response is produced by the initial contact of an animal with an antigen. It takes relatively longer time, is of low intensity and declines rapidly.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 11

Humoral immunity is associated with

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 11

Humoral immunity consists of antibodies that circulate in the blood and lymph. B-lyphocytes produce antibodies that regulate humoral immunity.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 12

Select the correct statements regarding the characteristics of acquired immunity.
(i) Cell-mediated immunity is responsible for acquired immunity.
(ii) It produces a primary response of low intensity.
(iii) Active and passive immunity are types of acquired immunity.
(iv) Polymorphonuclear leucocytes and natural killer cells are involved in acquired immunity.

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 12

Acquired immunity is the type of immunity acquired during life time. Both cell-mediated immunity (mediated by T-cells) and humoral immunity (mediated by B-cells) are responsible for acquired immunity. Acquired immunity is characterised by memory. This means that when our body encounters a pathogen for the first time, it produces a response called primary response which is of low intensity. Active immunity and passive immunity are types of acquired immunity. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes and natural killer cells are involved in innate immunity. These cells phagocytose and destroy microbes.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 13

Read the following statements regarding spleen and select the correct option.
(i) Spleen is a large bean-shaped organ which mainly contains lymphocytes and phagocytes.
(ii) Spleen is a large reservoir of erythrocytes.
(iii) Spleen is a primary lymphoid organ.
(iv) Spleen acts as a filter of the blood by trapping blood-borne microorganisms.

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 13

Spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 14

 Which one of the following immune system components does not correctly match with its respective role?

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 14

Macrophages are large phagocytic cells that digest the invading orgainsms.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 15

An auto-immune disease is

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 15

If the immune system fails to recognize 'self from non-self and starts destroying the body's own cells, this leads to some malfunctions, which are termed as autoimmune diseases. Both rheumatoid arthritis and myasthenia gravis are autoimmune diseases. In rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation of the synovial membrane in synovial joints occurs. When this membrane, which is the source of synovial fluid, becomes inflamed, it produces too much fluid. Thus, the joints swell and become extremely painful. Myasthenia gravis is a chronic disease marked by abnormal fatigability and weakness of selected muscles. The degree of fatigue is so extreme that these muscles are temporarily paralysed. In this disease, antibodies bind to cholinergic receptors on muscle cells, which impairs the ability of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to induce muscle contraction.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 16

Which out of the following groups represent auto immune disorders?

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 16

Diabetes mellitus (type-l) and rheumatic fever are the auto-immune diseases of B-cells of pancreas and heart cells respectively.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 17

Passive immunity can be conferred directly by

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 17

Transfer of immune products like antibodies and immunoglobulins to a recipient is called passive immunity. Colostrum, a yellowish milk secreted by mother during the initial days of lactation has abundant antibodies to protect the infant. In tetanus, we need to directly inject the preformed antibodies or antitoxin (a preparation containing antibodies to the toxin). These both are examples of passive immunity.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 18

Which form of pathogen is used in vaccination?

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 18

The process of introduction of vaccine into an individual to provide protection against a disease is called vaccination. Vaccine is a preparation or extract of an inactivated/ attenuated (weakened) pathogen of a disease which on inoculation into a healthy person provides immunity by inducing antibodies production.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 19

The antibody which can cross placental barrier is

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 19

IgG is the only maternal immunoglobulin that can cross the placenta and provide natural passive immunity to the fetus. IgG is the most abundant class of immunoglobulins in the body constituting 75% of the lgs.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 20

Which of the following cells actively participate during allergy?

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 20

Allergy is the hypersentivensess of a person to some foreign substance coming in contact with or entering the body. Allergy involvers mainly lgE antibodies and histamine. Histamine is released by mast cells. Mast cells are large cells present in the connective tissue. Their granules contain chemicals heparin, histamine and serotonin which are released during allergic and inflammatory response.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 21

Given below is the diagram of human lymphatic system, where A, B, C and D are lymphoid organs. Select incorrect option regarding the lymphoid organs labelled as A, B, C and D.

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 21

'A'-lymph nodes, 'B'-Thymus, 'C'-spleen, 'D'-Bone marrow. Thymus and bone marrow are the primary lymphoid organs where maturation of T-cells and B-cells take place respectively. Lymph nodes and spleen are the secondary lymphoid organs where T-cells and B-cells undergo proliferation and differentiation.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 22

Which of these glands is large at the time of birth but in adults, it reduces to a very small size?

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 22

Thymus is a soft, pinkish, bilobed mass of lymphoid tissue. It is a prominent gland at the time of birth but it gradually atrophies in the adult. It secretes a hormone thymosin that is involved in producing immunity. It also acts as a primary lymphoid organ where T-cells mature

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 23

Which of the following statements regarding different barriers of innate immunity is not correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 23

Mucous membrane lining the respiratory, gastrointestinal and uriogenital tracts helps in trapping the microbes and constitute physical barriers of our body.

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 24

Vaccine against polio viruses is an example of

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 24

When a host is exposed to antigens, which may be in the form of living or dead microbes or other proteins, antibodies are produced in the host body. This type of immunity is called active immunity. Injecting the microbes deliberately during immunisation/vaccination induces active immunity e.g., polio vaccine

Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 25

The antigen binding site of an antibody is present at

Detailed Solution for Test: Immunity (NCERT) - Question 25

Antibodies are made up of four polypeptide chains two heavy and two light chains. Light and heavy chains are subdivided into variable and constant regions. The variable portion is used for binding to antigen and a constant portion determines its adherence and diffusivity.

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