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Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - NEET MCQ


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15 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 12 - Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT)

Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) for NEET 2024 is part of Biology Class 12 preparation. The Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) questions and answers have been prepared according to the NEET exam syllabus.The Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) MCQs are made for NEET 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) below.
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Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 1

Which of the following statements regarding antibiotics is not correct?
(i) Antibiotic is the attenuated microorganisms which in small concentrations, can kill or retard the growth of other harmful microorganisms.
(ii) Penicillin was the first antibiotic to be discovered by Alexander Fleming (1928) while working on bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.
(iii) The full potential of penicillin as an effective antibiotic was established by Ernest Chain and Howard Florey.
(iv) Fleming, Chain, and Florey were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1945.

Detailed Solution for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 1

Antibiotics are chemical substances secreted by certain microbes which inhibit the growth and development of other microbes. Most of them produced by actinomycetes and filamentous fungi. Some inportant antibiotics are tetracycline, chloramphenicol, steptomycin etc.

Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 2

Which of the following antibiotics was extensively used to treat American soldiers wounded in World War II?

Detailed Solution for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 2

In 1940, E. Chain and H. Florey obtained a relatively stable preparation of penicillin, which was extensively used to treat wounded American soldiers in World War II. 

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Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 3

Which of the following antibiotics is not correctly matched with the source from which it is obtained?

Detailed Solution for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 3

Streptomycin is obtained from Streptomyces griseus. It is found useful in meningitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis and local infections.

Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 4

______ produced by bacterium Streptococcus and modified by genetic engineering is used as a clot buster for removing clots from the blood vessels of patients who have undergone myocardial infarction leading to heart attack. 

Detailed Solution for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 4

Streptokinase (Tissue Plasminogen Activator or TPA) is an enzyme obtained from the cultures of some haemolytic bacterium Streptococcus and modified genetically to function as clot buster. It has fibrinolytic effect. Therefore, it helps in clearing blood clots inside the blood vessels in patients who have undergone myocardial infarction leading to heart attack, through dissolution of intravascular fibrin.

Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 5

Select the correct option to fill up the blanks.
(i) ___________are used in detergent formulations and are helpful in removing oily stains from the laundry.
(ii) _____________are ripened by growing Penicillium roqueforti on them.
(iii) ___________are produced without distillation whereas,__________are produced by distillation of the fermented broth.
(iv) ___________antibiotic was used to teat American soldiers wounded in world war II.
(v) _______is also called as Kusht rog.

Detailed Solution for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 5

Lipases are used in detergent formulations and are helpful in removing oily stains from the laundry.
Roquefort cheese are ripened by growing Penicillium roqueforti on them.
Wine and beer are produced without distillation whereas, whiskey, brandy and rum are produced by distillation of the fermented broth.
Penicillin antibiotic was used to teat American soldiers wounded in World War II.
Leprosy is also called as Kusht rog.

Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 6

Which of the following options contains the end products formed during anaerobic respiration in Yeast?

Detailed Solution for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 6

Anaerobi respiration in yeast results in the production of ethyl alcohol, carbon dioxide and energy.

Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 7

Which of the following organisms is used in the production of beverages?

Detailed Solution for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 7

The yeast Saccharmyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer's yeast, is used for fermenting malted cereals an fruit juices to produce ethanol (ethyl alcohol). Microbes (yeasts in particular) have been used for the production of beverages, such as wine, beer, whisky, brandy and rum.

Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 8

A drug used for patient A is obtained from the organism B. Identify A and B in the above statement and select the correct answer.

Detailed Solution for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 8

Cyclosporin A is a cyclic oligopeptide obtained through fermentative activity of fungus Trichoderma polysporum. It has anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and immunospuppressive properties. It inhibits activation of T-cells and therefore, prevents rejection reactions in organ transplantation.

Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 9

Which of the following antibiotics is used to cure throat infections?

Detailed Solution for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 9

Among the given antibotics, tetracyclines, auromycins obtained from Streptomyces aureofaciens is used to cure whooping cough. Some other antibiotics  are also found  useful e.g. chloramphenicol, erythromycin.

Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 10

Identify the blank spaces A, B, C and D in the following table and select the correct answer. 

Detailed Solution for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 10

A- Lactobacillus B- Trichoderma polysporum C-Yeast D-Penicillin

Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 11

Stains used for lowering blood cholesterol level are extracted from

Detailed Solution for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 11

Statins are products of fermentation by yeast Monascus purpureus which resemble mevalovate and are competitive inhibitors of β−hydroxy−β−methylglutaryl or HMG CoA reductase. This inhibits cholesterol synthesis. Statins are, therefore, used in lowering blood cholesterol, e.g., lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin.

Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 12

Wine and beer are produced directly by fermentation. Brandy and whisky require both fermentation and distillation. This is because

Detailed Solution for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 12

Beverages of low alcoholic content (less than about 9% alcohol) are fermented from grains and are usually considered to be beers. Wines, on the other hand, are fermented to a higher percentage of alcohol (10 - 18% alcohol) and are usually fermented from fruit juice. Higher levels of alcohol kill or inhibit bacteria stopping spoilage as well as fermentation. Vodka, whiskey, and other alcoholic beverages with alcohol contents well above 20% are produced by distilling alcohol from a yeast-fermented beverage. Many liquors are produced by using distilled alcohol (as high as 95% alcohol) to extract various flavoring materials after which the resulting extract is diluted with water and often sugar to make a flavored alcoholic beverages. Unless the alcoholic content of the resulting beverage is well above 15%, the material will not be stable and may start to ferment or even decay in storage. Hence, most liquors are atleast 20% alcohol.

Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 13

Identify the blank spaces A, B, C and D in the following table and select the correct answer.

Detailed Solution for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 13

Strepokinase is obtained from Streptococcus.
Aspergillus is a fungus.
Tricoderma produces cyclosporin A
Butyric acid is obtained from Clostridium butylicum.
So, the correct answer is ' A-Streptococcus, B-Fungus, c-Cyclosporin A, D- Clostridium butylicum.'

Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 14

Identify the blank spaces A, B, C and D in the table given below and select the correct answer.

Detailed Solution for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 14

Trichoderma polysporum is a fungal species that is known to make cyclosporine A compound. This compound exhibits antifungal and anti-inhibitory properties. The key property of this compound is that it is able to inhibit the activation of T-cells. These cells are involved in recognizing foreign and self elements. During the time of grafting usually, our body rejects the graft as T-cells recognize it as foreign. But using cyclosporine A we can inhibit this rejection by T-cells. So, the medical application of Cyclosporin A is an immunosuppressive agent.
Monascus purpureus is a yeast strain belonging to the fungus that is known to make statin. Statin is a competitive inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis. This means that it negatively affects the cholesterol synthesis process. So, its medical application is that it is used to lower blood cholesterol levels.
Thus, from the above discussion, we can conclude that option A is the correct answer.

Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 15

Yeast is used in the production of

Detailed Solution for Test: Microbes in Industrial Products (NCERT) - Question 15
  • Microbes especially yeasts have been used from time immemorial for the production of beverages like wine, beer, whisky, brandy or rum.
  • For this purpose the same yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae used for bread-making and commonly called brewer’s yeast, is used for fermenting malted cereals and fruit juices, to produce ethanol
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