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Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - NEET MCQ


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35 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 12 - Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events)

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) for NEET 2024 is part of Biology Class 12 preparation. The Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) questions and answers have been prepared according to the NEET exam syllabus.The Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) MCQs are made for NEET 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) below.
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Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 1

Which of the following statements regarding the structure of microsporangium are correct?
(i) Microsporangium is generally surrounded by four wall layers-epidermis, endothecium, middle layers, and tapetum.
(ii) Outer three layers perform functions of protection and dehiscence of anthers.
(iii) Cells of tapetum undergo meiosis and produce microspore tetrads.

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 1

(i) A microsporangium or future pollen sac is a cylindrical sac that appears circular in the transverse section. It consists of two parts, the outer wall, and central homogeneous sporogenous tissue. 
(ii) Microsporangial wall has four types of layers - epidermis, endothecium, 1−3 middle layers, and tapetum. 
(iii) The outer three layers perform the function of protection in the young anther and mechanism of dehiscence in the ripe anther. 

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 2

Read the given statements.
(i) Outer exine is made up of sporopollenin.
(ii) Inner intine is pecto-cellulosic in nature.
(iii) Generative cell is bigger and contains abundant food reserve.
(iv) Vegetative cell is small and floats in the cytoplasm of the generative cell.
Which of the given statements are not true regarding structure of pollen grain?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 2

In a mature pollen grain, the generative cell is smaller and the tube (or vegetative) cell is larger. In the later stages of development of pollen grain, callose dissolves and the naked generative cell comes to lie freely in the cytoplasm of the tube cell. The tube cell has a cytoplasm which is rich in the food reserve (starch, protein, fat with mostly unsaturated fatty acids).

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Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 3

Select the mismatched pair.

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 3

Xenogamy is the cross-pollination between the flowers of different plants. Cross pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther of one flower to the stigma of a genetically different flower. Cross pollination is performed with the help of an external agency.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 4

A dithecous anther consists of ____(i)_______microsporangia, _____(ii)_______ in each lobe.

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 4

A stamen or male reproductive organ of a flower is made up of two parts- a stalk-like filament and a knob like terminal anther. Each anther has two lobes which are attached at the back by a sterile band called connective. When both the anther lobes are present, the stamen is called bithecous (or dithecous). A dithecous anther is tetrasporangiate having four microsporangia. Each lobe has two microsporangia separated by a strip of sterile tissue. When a single anther lobe is present, the stamen is termed as monothecous

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 5

A typical angiospermous ovule is attached to the placenta by means of a stalk called X. Body of the ovule fuses with X in the region called Y. Identify X and Y.

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 5

Ovule is an integumented megasporangium found in spermatophytes which develops into seed after fertilization. An angiosperm ovule is typically an ovoid and whitish structure. It occurs inside the ovary where it is attached to a parenchymatous cushion called placenta either singly or in a cluster. The ovule is stalked. The stalk is called funiculus or funicle. The point of attachment of the body of the ovule with the funiculus is known as hilum.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 6

Select the correct option regarding the ploidy level of different structures of an angiospermous ovule.

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 6

The body of the ovule consists of a mass of parenchymatous cells named nucellus. It is equivalent to megasporangium (2n). Megaspore mother cell or megasporocyte is a diploid (2n) cell which undergoes meiosis to form a linear tetrad of four haploid megaspores (n). Normally, the chalazal megaspore is the functional megaspore while the other three degenerate.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 7

Which of the following options is correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 7

Autogamy (Gk. autos-self, gamos-marriage) is a type of self-pollination in which an intersexual or perfect flower is pollinated by its own pollen.

Geitonogamy is a type of pollination in which pollen grains of one flower are transferred to the stigma of another flower belonging to either the same plant or a genetically similar plant. In geitonogamy, the flowers often show modifications similar to ones found in xenogamy or cross-pollination.

Xenogamy or cross-pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther of one flower to the stigma of a genetically different flower.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 8

Refer to the given characteristics of some flowers.
(i) Light and non-sticky pollen grains
(ii) Exserted stigmas and anthers
(iii) Large, often feathery stigmas
(iv) Flowers colourless, odourless and nectarless
(v) Common in grasses

Above features are the characteristics of 

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 8

Anemophily is a mode of cross pollination or transfer of pollen grains from a mature anther to the stigma of a pistil which is accomplished through the agency of wind.
Example: coconut palm, data palm, maize, many grasses, Cannabis, etc.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 9

Spiny or sticky pollen grains and large, attractively coloured flowers are associated with

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 9

Entomophily type of pollination takes place through the agency of insects. The entomophilous flowers are brightly coloured and fragranted to attract the insects. Their pollen grains are sticky or spiny to easily get attached with the body of pollinators. When the insects visit the flowers, their body gets dusted with pollen grains, and when they fly and visit other flowers, they brush against the stigma which being sticky, at once receives the pollen grains from their body. Thus, cross-pollination is achieved.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 10

In (i) condition, both male and female flowers are borne on the same plant; an example of such plants is (ii).

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 10

Monoecious plant species have separate male and female flowers on the same plant. Examples or monoecious plants are castor, maize, birch, coconut and cucurbit. The plants in which male and female flowers are borne on separate individual are referred to as dioecious plants. e.g., papaya, date palm.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 11

Pollen grain protoplast is _______

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 11
  • Pollen grain protoplasts are uninucleate at the beginning but at the time of liberation it becomes 2 or 3 celled.
  • Pollen grains are the male gametes.
  • They are present inside the pollen sacs.
Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 12

What is a placenta?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 12
  • The ovule bearing parenchymatous tissue is known as the placenta.
  • It is also the part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches itself.
  • Just like in humans, the placenta provides nutrition to the growing ovules.
Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 13

______ of the pollen grain divides to form two male gametes.

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 13

The development of the male gametophyte in angiosperms is called as microgametogenesis. Pollen grain is the first cell of a male gametophyte. This cell undergoes only two divisions, with the result of first division two cells are formed - a large vegetative cell and a small generative cell. The second division is concerned with generative cell only. This division may take place either in pollen grain or in the pollen tube and gives rise to two male gametes.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 14

One of the major contributors to pollen allergy is ____

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 14
  • Pollen allergies are usually caused by plants that produce pollens in a large number.
  • Because of this they might float in air as well causing them to enter respiratory tracts.
  • Carrot grass, Parthenium are a major contributor to pollen allergies.
Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 15

What is the function of filiform apparatus in an angiosperm embryo sac?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 15

In the ovule, the pollen tube is attracted by secretions of synergids. Jensen (1965) suggested that the filiform apparatus may be aiding the synergid in the absorption and transportation of materials into the embryo sac from the nucellus. He held the opinion that the filiform apparatus

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 16

The part of gynoecium that determines the compatible nature of pollen is?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 16

Stigma is the terminal receptive part of the pistil which functions as landing platform for the pollen grains. It also determines the compatibility of the pollen grains.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 17

The three cells found in a pollen grain when it is shed at 3-celled stage are

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 17

A pollen grain with pollen tube carrying male gametes represents mature male gametophyte. It is 3-celled (one tube cell +2 male gametes) and 3-nucleated (one tube nucleus + two nuclei of each male gamete) structure.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 18

How many pollen mother cells should undergo meiotic division to produce 64 pollen grains? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 18

Each pollen mother cell (PMC), by a meiotic division, gives rise to a group of four haploid microspores. Thus, 16 pollen mother cells undergo meiotic divisions to produce 64 pollen grains.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 19

The inner most wall layer of anther is tapetum, the main function of tapetum is

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 19

The tapetal layer is of great physiological significance as all the food material entering into the sporogenous tissue diffuses through this layer. Ultimately the cells of tapetal layer disorganise. Thus, tapetum makes a nutritive layer for the developing microspores.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 20

Why are pollens spiny?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 20
  • Pollens are spiny because they make it easy for the pollens to attach themselves to the insects that come to suck the nectar.
  • This makes cross pollination possible.
Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 21

What represents the female part of the flower?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 21
  • Gynoecium represents the female part of the flower.
  • It consists of a stigma, style and ovaries.
  • The gynoecium is non motile.
  • It’s the pollens that are motile.
  • They fall on the stigma which starts the fertilization process.
Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 22

One of the most resistant biological material present in the exine of pollen grain is

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 22

Outer layer (exine) of pollen grain is made of a highly resistant substance called sporopollenin. Sporopollenin is not degraded by any enzyme. It is not affected by high temperature, strong acid or strong alkali. Because of sporopollenin, pollen grains are well preserved as fossils.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 23

What is a pistil?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 23
  • Pistil is the free unit of a gynoecium.
  • A pistil has three parts-style, stigma and ovaries.
  • Stigma acts as a landing platform for the pollens.
  • Style is the long tube-like structure that carries the male gamete to the ovaries.
Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 24

Feathery stigma occurs in

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 24

Wheat is an anemophilous plant. Its flowers are not very showy. They do not have petals or sepals. Each female flower consists of an ovary from which two styles emerge, finished with two feathery sticky stigmas to catch pollen.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 25

Fragrant flowers with well developed nectaries are anadaptation for

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 25

Entomophilous flowers produce an odour which may be pleasant (e.g., jasmine) or foul (e.g., Aristolochia, Arum, Rafflesia) Foul smell attracts flies and beetles. Malacophily is the kind of pollination in which snails perform pollination e.g. in Arisaema (cobra plant). Hydrophily refers to water and anemophily refers to wind pollination.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 26

What is the function of germ porę?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 26

One or more thin areas present in the exine of pollen grains are known as germ pores. The germ pores are apertures in the exine layer of the pollen grain where the sporopollenin is absent. The germ pore helps in the formation of the pollen tube and the release of the male gametes during fertilisation. There are usually three germ pores in dicots (tricolpate) and one in monocots (monocolpate).

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 27

Which function of tapetum is correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 27

Tapetum secretes Ubisch bodies which get covered with sporopollenin and so increase thickness of exine of pollen grain wall. Tapetum provides nourishment to developing microspores. It also secretes callase enzyme which dissolves callose substances by which four pollens of a pollen tetrad are united, hence separating microspores or pollens of a tetrad.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 28

The given diagram shows two plants of the same species. Identify the types of pollination indicated at P1, P2 and P3
 .

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 28
  • Autogamy (Gk. autos-self, gamos-marriage) is a type of self-pollination in which an intersexual or perfect flower is pollinated by its own pollen.
  • Geitonogamy is a type of pollination in which pollen grains of one flower are transferred to the stigma of another flower belonging to either the same plant or a genetically similar plant. In geitonogamy, the flowers often show modifications similar to ones found in xenogamy or cross-pollination.
  • Xenogamy or cross-pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther of one flower to the stigma of a genetically different flower.
Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 29

How many meiotic divisions are required for the formation of 100 pollen grains?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 29

Each microspore mother cell or pollen mother cell (PMC) or reduction division(meiosis) gives rise to 4 pollen grains. Hence, to form 100 pollen grains, 25 meiotic divisions are required.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 30

How many meiotic divisions are necessary for formation of 100 functional megaspores.

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 30

Megaspore mother cell (MMC) is the sporogenous cell that divides to give 4 haploid megaspores. Out of these 4 megaspores, only one is functional and other three degenerate. Hence 100 meiotic divisions are required for the formation of 100 functional megaspores.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 31

During the process of fertilization the pollen tube of the pollen grain usually enters the embryo sac through

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 31

After arriving at the wall of the ovary, the pollen tube enters the ovule either through the micropyle or by some other route. The entrance of the pollen tube-through the micropyle is the normal condition and is known as porogamy. In some cases the pollen tube enters the ovule through the chalaza (chalazogamy e.g. Casuarina), or through integuments (mesogamy e.g. Cucurbita).

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 32

Study of pollen grains is called

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 32

Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). The study of pollen is called palynology and is highly useful in paleoecology, palaeontology, archaeology, and forensics.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 33

Pollen kitt is generally found in

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 33

In the pollen grains of an insect pollinated plant, the exine is covered by a yellowish, viscous, sticky and oily layer called pollen kitt. It is made up of lipids and carotenoids. Pollen kitt is secreted by tapetum.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 34

Identify the parts labelled A, B, C and D in the given figure and select the correct option.

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 34

Given figure represents an anatropous ovule.

Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 35

In which condition should the ovaries be free?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pre-Fertilization (Structures & Events) - Question 35
  • In apocarpous condition the ovaries must be free, though the other parts maybe fused.
  • Example Oleandar. In simple words, separate carpels.
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