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Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - NEET MCQ


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15 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 12 - Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT)

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Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 1

Stirred-tank bioreactors have advantages over shake flasks because they ___________.

Detailed Solution for Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 1

Stirred-tank bioreactor is used for processing large volumes of culture. It is a cylindrical tank with a curved base to facilitate the mixing of the reactor contents. The stirrer facilitates even mixing and oxygen availability throughout the bioreactor.

Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 2

The different steps of recombinant DNA technology are given below randomly.
(i) Isolation of the DNA fragments or genes to be cloned
(ii) Introduction of the recombinant DNA into a suitable cell (usually E.coli) called host (transformation)
(iii) Multiplication/expression of the introduced gene in the host
(iv) Selection of the transformed host cells, and identification of the clone containing the desired gene/DNA fragment
(v) Insertion of the isolated gene in a suitable plasmid vector

Which of the following represents the correct sequence of steps?

Detailed Solution for Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 2
Recombinant DNA Technology Steps:
The correct sequence of steps in recombinant DNA technology is as follows:
(i) Isolation of the DNA fragments or genes to be cloned:
- This step involves extracting the specific DNA fragments or genes from a source organism.
(v) Insertion of the isolated gene in a suitable plasmid vector:
- The isolated gene is inserted into a plasmid vector, which acts as a carrier for the gene.
(ii) Introduction of the recombinant DNA into a suitable cell (usually E.coli) called host (transformation):
- The recombinant DNA is introduced into a host cell, typically E.coli, through a process called transformation.
(iv) Selection of the transformed host cells, and identification of the clone containing the desired gene/DNA fragment:
- The transformed host cells are selected and screened to identify the clone that contains the desired gene or DNA fragment.
(iii) Multiplication/expression of the introduced gene in the host:
- The introduced gene in the host cell undergoes multiplication and expression, resulting in the production of the desired protein or molecule.
Therefore, the correct sequence of steps in recombinant DNA technology is (i), (v), (ii), (iv), (iii), which corresponds to option C.
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Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 3

Given table gives an account of differences between PCR and gene cloning.. Which of the following points show the incorrect differences?

Detailed Solution for Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 3

The correct option is C 4 and 7
The cost of gene cloning is far more than PCR because gene cloning requires many intricate steps. PCR takes less than 4 hours while gene cloning can take days.

Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 4

Primers are

Detailed Solution for Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 4

Primers are small, chemically synthesised oligonucleotides that are complementary to the sequences, present at 3' end of the template DNA. They hybridise to the target DNA region, one to each strand of the double helix. These primers are oriented with their ends facing each other allowing synthesis of the DNA towards one another.

Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 5

Enzyme' Taq polymerase' used in PCR, has been isolated from bacterium ________.

Detailed Solution for Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 5

The final step of PCR is extension, wherein TaqDNA polymerase (isolated from a thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus) synthesies the DNA region between the primers, using DNTPs (denoxynucleoside triphosphates) and Mg2+. The primers are extened towards each other so that the DNA segment lying between the two primers is copied. The optimum temperature for this polymerisation step is 72C. Taq polymerase remains active during high temperature induced denaturation of double stranded DNA.

Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 6

In addition to the Taq polymerase enzyme, which other thermostable DNA polymerases have been isolated to be used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?

Detailed Solution for Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 6

In addition to Tag DNA polymerase, Pfu polymerase and Tli polymerase have been isolated which are also thermostable. Pfu polymerase is isolated from Pyrococcus furiosus. Tli (vent) polymerase is isolated from Thermococcus litoralis.

Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 7

After completion of the biosynthetic stage in the bioreactors, the product undergoes separation and purification processes, collectively termed as __________.

Detailed Solution for Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 7

After the formation of the product in bioreactors, it undergoes through some processes before a finished product is ready for marketing. The processes include separation and purification of products which is collectively called as downstream processing.

Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 8

During isolation of genetic material, the chemical used to precipitate out the purified DNA is

Detailed Solution for Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 8

The purified DNA, after treatment with various enzymes, precipitates out after the addition of chilled ethanol. 
This is viewed as a collection of fine threads in the suspension and is easily collected. The process is known as DNA spooling.

Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 9

The given flow chart depicts the steps to transfer a desirable gene of interest into a plant.
Identify the missing steps (A, B and C) with regard to following statements and select the correct option.
(i) Joining of desirable gene to a suitable cloning vector using ligases to create a recombinant DNA molecule
(ii) Selection of transformed cells
(iii) Transferring the recombinant DNA molecules to the target cells

Detailed Solution for Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 9

Steps to transfer a desirable gene of interest into a plant:

  • Isolation of desirable gene using restriction endonucleases and gel electrophoresis.
  • Joining of desirable gene to a suitable cloning vector using ligases to create a recombinant DNA molecule.
  • Transferring the recombinant DNA molecules to the target cells.
  • Screening of cells. 
  • Transformation.
  • Selection of transformed cells.
  • Regeneration of plants from the transformed cells to get transgenic plants. 
Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 10

Eukaryotic genes do not function properly when cloned into a bacterial cell because

Detailed Solution for Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 10

Eukaryotic genes do not function properly When transferred into bacterial cell because introns are present eukaryotic cells but are absent in prokaryotic cells. Hence, when bacterial cell is transformed with recombinant DNA is genrated human gene, it could not process it. As a result no desired protien will be produced.

Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 11

Match column I with column II and select the correct answer from the given codes. 

Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 12

Study the following statements regarding recombinant DNA technology and select the incorrect ones
(i) Taq polymerase extends the primers using the nucleotides provided in the reaction
(ii) Antibiotic resistance genes are considered as desirable genes in recombinant DNA technology
(iii) DNA fragments are separated according to their charge only, in agarose gel electrophoresis
(iv) Transformation is a procedure through which a piece of DNA is integrated into the genome of a host bacterium
(v) To produce higher yields of the desired protein, host cells can be multiplied in a continuous culture
(vi) Downstream processing is one of the steps of polymerase chain reaction

Detailed Solution for Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 12

Antibiotic resistance genes are selectable markers. Desirable genes are the ones which are introduced in the vector for getting desired protein product. In agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA fragments are separated according to their charge and size. After the formation of the product in a bioreactors, it undergoes through some processes before a finished product is ready for marketing. The processes include separation and purification of products which are collectively called as downstream processing.

Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 13

Which of the following are the types of bioreactors?
(i) Simple stirred-tank bioreactor
(ii) Complex Stirred-tank bioreactor
(iii) Sparged stirred-tank bioreactor
(iv) Agitator stirred-tank bioreactor

Detailed Solution for Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 13

The most commonly used bioreactors are of stirring type. Stirring type bioreactors are simple stirred-tank bioreactor and sparged stirred-tank bioreactor. 

Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 14

Read statements (i)-(iv). Which of the following statements are incorrect?
(i) First transgenic buffalo Rosie produced milk which was human alpha-lactalbumin enriched.
(ii) Restriction enzymes are used in isolation of DNA from other macromolecules.
(iii) Downstream processing is one of the steps of rDNA technology.
(iv) Disarmed pathogen vectors are also used in the transfer of rDNA into the host.

Detailed Solution for Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 14

In 1997, Rosie, the tirst transgenic cow was engineered to produce milk enriched with a human protein called alpha-lactalbumin, making it nutritionally more balanced. Restriction enzymes are used to cut DNA at specific sites.

Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 15

An advantage of using yeasts rather than bacteria as recipient cells for the recombinant DNA of eukaryotes is that yeasts can __________.

Detailed Solution for Test: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology (NCERT) - Question 15

Yeasts have been extensively used for functional expression of eukaryotic genes because they offer several advantages. Yeasts are the simplest eukaryotic organisms and like bacteria are single-celled, genetically well-characterised, easy to grow and manipulate. Since yeast is a eukaryote, it have an intron excision mechanism. Thus, it can be used for producing and expressing recombinant DNA of eukaryotes.

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