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Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Class 9 MCQ


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Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 1

The Gujjars of Kangra make their livelihood from the sale of

Detailed Solution for Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 1

Given their nomadic life, the Gujjar community in Himachal Pradesh remains on the sale of milk and other dairy products for their livelihood.

Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 2

Which of the following refers to Bugyal?

Detailed Solution for Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 2
Bugyal refers to vast meadows in the high mountains.
- Bugyal is a term used in the Indian Himalayas to describe vast meadows found in the high mountain regions.
- These meadows are typically located at high altitudes, ranging from 3,000 to 4,000 meters above sea level.
- Bugyals are known for their lush greenery and are often covered with a variety of alpine flowers during the summer months.
- They provide a picturesque and serene landscape, attracting nature lovers and trekkers from all over the world.
- Bugyals are usually used as grazing grounds for livestock during the summer season.
- These meadows offer breathtaking views of the surrounding snow-capped peaks and are often surrounded by dense forests.
- Bugyals are an important part of the local ecosystem and contribute to the overall biodiversity of the region.
- Some famous bugyals in India include Dayara Bugyal in Uttarakhand, Bedni Bugyal in Uttarakhand, and Gorson Bugyal in Uttarakhand.
- Trekking to bugyals is a popular activity among adventure enthusiasts, providing an opportunity to experience the beauty of the Himalayas up close.
In conclusion, bugyals refer to vast meadows in the high mountains of the Indian Himalayas, known for their scenic beauty and rich biodiversity.
Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 3

Most of the pastoral communities i.e., Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Somali and Turkana now live in the semi-arid grasslands or arid deserts.

Detailed Solution for Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 3
Answer:
Statement:
Most of the pastoral communities i.e., Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Somali and Turkana now live in the semi-arid grasslands or arid deserts.
Explanation:
The given statement is true. Most of the pastoral communities mentioned - Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Somali, and Turkana - are known to live in the semi-arid grasslands or arid deserts. Here's a breakdown of the reasons behind this:
- Bedouins: Bedouins are traditionally nomadic pastoralists who live in the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula and other regions of the Middle East and North Africa.
- Berbers: Berbers are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, particularly the Sahara desert and the Atlas Mountains region.
- Maasai: The Maasai people are semi-nomadic pastoralists who mainly inhabit the grasslands of Kenya and Tanzania.
- Somali: The Somali people are traditionally nomadic pastoralists who primarily live in the arid and semi-arid regions of the Horn of Africa, including Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya.
- Turkana: The Turkana people are pastoralists who reside in the arid and semi-arid regions of northern Kenya and eastern Uganda.
Therefore, it can be concluded that the pastoral communities mentioned in the statement predominantly live in the semi-arid grasslands or arid deserts.
Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 4

Gujjar Mandapas are built at a height of

Detailed Solution for Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 4
Answer:
Gujjar Mandapas are built at a height of approximately ten to eleven thousand feet. Here is a detailed explanation:
Definition:
- Gujjar Mandapas are architectural structures found in the Himalayan region.
- They are typically used as resting places or shelters by the Gujjar community, who are nomadic herders.
Height of Gujjar Mandapas:
- Gujjar Mandapas are built at a specific height to cater to the needs and preferences of the Gujjar community.
- The height of Gujjar Mandapas is typically around ten to eleven thousand feet above sea level.
- This specific height is chosen based on various factors, including climatic conditions, availability of resources, and the traditional lifestyle of the Gujjar community.
Reasons for the chosen height:
- Climatic conditions: The Himalayan region experiences extreme weather conditions, including heavy snowfall and low temperatures. Building the Mandapas at a higher altitude provides better protection against these harsh conditions.
- Availability of resources: The higher altitudes often have better access to natural resources such as grazing lands for the Gujjar community's livestock.
- Traditional lifestyle: The Gujjar community follows a nomadic lifestyle, moving their livestock to higher altitudes during the summer months. Building the Mandapas at a higher altitude aligns with their traditional practices.
Conclusion:
In conclusion, Gujjar Mandapas are built at a height of approximately ten to eleven thousand feet to accommodate the needs and preferences of the Gujjar community. The chosen height takes into account the climatic conditions, availability of resources, and the traditional lifestyle of the community.
Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 5

Why did the colonial government pass the Criminal Tribes Act?

Detailed Solution for Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 5
Background:
The Criminal Tribes Act was passed by the colonial government in India during the British rule. It was enacted in 1871 and later amended in 1911 and 1924. The act classified certain communities as "criminal tribes" and imposed various restrictions and surveillance measures on them.
Reasons for passing the Criminal Tribes Act:
The colonial government passed the Criminal Tribes Act due to several reasons, including:
- Distrust and suspicion: The colonial officials harbored a deep distrust and suspicion towards tribal communities and nomadic people. They viewed them as inherently criminal or prone to criminal activities. This negative perception led to the passage of the act.
- Control and surveillance: The act aimed to control and monitor the movements and activities of tribal communities. The government wanted to establish a system of constant surveillance over these communities to prevent any potential criminal activities.
- Colonial administration: The act was also driven by the need for better administration and governance. The colonial government wanted to have a better grip on the tribal populations and maintain law and order in the regions where these communities resided.
- Efforts to 'civilize' and 'reform': The colonial government believed in the idea of "civilizing" and "reforming" the tribal communities. They saw the act as a way to bring these communities under their control and influence, with the aim of transforming them into settled and productive members of society.
- Economic interests: The act also served the economic interests of the colonial government. By imposing restrictions on the mobility and livelihoods of tribal communities, the government could ensure a steady supply of cheap labor for various colonial industries and projects.
Overall, the Criminal Tribes Act was passed by the colonial government primarily due to their distrust and suspicion towards tribal communities, the need for control and surveillance, and their efforts to establish better administration and governance in the regions.
Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 6

When was Massailand cut into half with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika?

Detailed Solution for Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 6
Background:
Massailand, also known as Maasailand, was a region in East Africa inhabited by the Maasai people. In the late 19th century, European powers began to establish colonies in Africa, leading to the partitioning of the continent.
Partition of Massailand:
The partition of Massailand occurred with the establishment of an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika. This division was the result of negotiations and agreements between the British and German governments.
Date of Partition:
The partition of Massailand took place in the year 1885. This was the year when the boundary was officially demarcated, splitting the region between the British and German colonial territories.
Answer:
The correct answer is A: 1885.
Conclusion:
In 1885, Massailand was divided into two parts with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika. This division was part of the larger process of European colonialism in Africa during the late 19th century.
Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 7

The animals that are the property of Maruraikas of Rajasthan is

Detailed Solution for Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 7
The animals that are the property of Maruraikas of Rajasthan are camels. Here is a detailed solution:
Animals owned by the Maruraikas of Rajasthan:
- The Maruraikas, who are a community in Rajasthan, own various animals as their property.
- The specific animal that belongs to them is camels.
Reasoning:
- Camels are well-suited for the desert environment of Rajasthan, with their ability to withstand extreme temperatures and scarcity of water.
- The Maruraikas, being a community residing in Rajasthan, have traditionally relied on camels for various purposes, such as transportation, farming, and milk production.
- Camels are also culturally significant in Rajasthan and play a significant role in local festivals and events.
Conclusion:
- In conclusion, the animals that are the property of Maruraikas of Rajasthan are camels.
- Camels are integral to the Maruraika community's way of life and serve multiple purposes in their daily activities.
Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 8

Which of the following options refers to the changes brought about by the enactment of Waste Land Rules?

Detailed Solution for Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 8
Changes brought about by the enactment of Waste Land Rules:
- All uncultivated land was taken over by the government and given to selected individuals: This is the correct option that refers to the changes brought about by the enactment of Waste Land Rules. The rules mandated that all uncultivated land, which was considered wasteland, would be taken over by the government and then distributed to selected individuals for cultivation.
- All sterile lands were declared as wasteland: This option is incorrect because the Waste Land Rules did not specifically declare all sterile lands as wasteland. The designation of wasteland was based on the criteria of uncultivated land, not sterile land.
- Farmers were compelled to cultivate wastelands: This option is incorrect because the Waste Land Rules did not compel farmers to cultivate wastelands. Instead, the government took over uncultivated land and distributed it to selected individuals for cultivation.
- Pastoralists were made to settle in wastelands: This option is incorrect because the Waste Land Rules did not specifically make pastoralists settle in wastelands. The rules primarily focused on the distribution of uncultivated land to selected individuals for cultivation.
In conclusion, option B is the correct answer as it accurately describes the changes brought about by the enactment of Waste Land Rules.
Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 9

Which of the following Park was created over 14760 km of Maasai grazing land?

Detailed Solution for Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 9
Answer:
The correct answer is C: Serengeti Park.
Explanation:
Serengeti Park was created over 14760 km of Maasai grazing land. Here is a detailed explanation:
- Serengeti Park is a famous national park located in Tanzania, East Africa.
- It covers an area of approximately 14760 square kilometers.
- The park was established in 1951 and is known for its diverse wildlife and beautiful landscapes.
- It is home to the Great Migration, where millions of wildebeest, zebras, and other animals travel across the plains in search of food and water.
- The Maasai people, who are traditionally nomadic pastoralists, used to graze their livestock on this land.
- To protect the wildlife and preserve the ecosystem, the Maasai grazing land was transformed into Serengeti Park.
- The park is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site and attracts thousands of tourists each year who come to witness the incredible wildlife and natural beauty.
In conclusion, Serengeti Park was created over 14760 km of Maasai grazing land to protect the wildlife and preserve the ecosystem of this region.
Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 10

The pastoral groups in Africa were not allowed to enter the markets in white areas because:

Detailed Solution for Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 10
Explanation:
There were several reasons why pastoral groups in Africa were not allowed to enter the markets in white areas:
1. They were considered as dangerous by white colonists: The white colonists viewed the pastoral groups as a threat to their control and dominance. They believed that these groups, who were often armed and lived nomadic lifestyles, could disrupt the established order and potentially resist colonial rule. Therefore, they restricted their access to the markets in white areas to minimize any potential threats.
2. These groups needed permits to enter into markets: The colonial authorities imposed strict regulations and control over the movements and activities of pastoral groups. They required these groups to have permits in order to enter the markets in white areas. This created barriers for the pastoralists, as obtaining permits was often difficult and time-consuming, effectively excluding them from participating in the formal economy.
3. They were experts in the trade: The pastoral groups had extensive knowledge and expertise in trade, particularly in livestock and other agricultural products. Their skills and experience in navigating the market dynamics posed a challenge to the white colonists who sought to maintain their economic dominance. By restricting their access to markets, the colonists aimed to maintain their control over trade and prevent competition from the pastoral groups.
In conclusion, the pastoral groups in Africa were not allowed to enter the markets in white areas primarily because they were considered dangerous by white colonists. Additionally, the requirement of permits and the pastoralists' expertise in trade further contributed to their exclusion from these markets.
Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 11

Which of the following refers to the pastoral community of Maharashtra?

Detailed Solution for Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 11
Answer:
The pastoral community of Maharashtra is referred to as the Dhangar community. Here is a detailed explanation:
Dhangar:
- The Dhangar community is a pastoral community that is found primarily in the state of Maharashtra, India.
- They are known for their traditional occupation of rearing and grazing livestock, especially sheep and goats.
- The Dhangars are considered to be an important and integral part of the rural economy.
- They migrate seasonally in search of grazing pastures for their livestock.
- The community is known for its unique cultural practices, traditional attire, and folk dances.
- The Dhangars have their own social structure and customs, which are passed down through generations.
- They have played a significant role in the agricultural and animal husbandry sectors of Maharashtra.
- The Dhangar community has also been actively involved in various social and political movements for their rights and recognition.
Therefore, the correct answer is B: Dhangar.
Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 12

To administer the affairs of the Maasai, the British appointed chiefs of different sub-groups of Maasai, who were made responsible for the affairs of the tribe.

Detailed Solution for Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 12
Answer:
The statement is True. The British colonial administration appointed chiefs from different sub-groups of the Maasai tribe to administer their affairs. Here is a detailed explanation:
Background:
- The Maasai people are a Nilotic ethnic group in East Africa, mainly residing in Kenya and Tanzania.
- During the colonial era, Kenya was under British rule, and the British administration sought to control and govern the Maasai tribe.
Administration of the Maasai:
- To establish control over the Maasai community, the British appointed chiefs from different sub-groups of the Maasai tribe.
- These appointed chiefs were responsible for handling the affairs of their respective sub-groups and acting as intermediaries between the British administration and the Maasai people.
Roles and Responsibilities of the Appointed Chiefs:
- The appointed chiefs had the following duties and responsibilities:
- Maintaining law and order within their sub-groups.
- Collecting taxes and revenue on behalf of the British administration.
- Ensuring compliance with British colonial policies and regulations.
- Acting as a communication channel between the Maasai people and the British authorities.
- Assisting in the implementation of British development projects, such as infrastructure, healthcare, and education.
Effect on Maasai Society:
- The appointment of chiefs by the British had a significant impact on the traditional political structure of the Maasai.
- It introduced a centralized system of authority, with the appointed chiefs holding power and influence over their sub-groups.
- This led to the erosion of traditional leadership structures and the concentration of power in the hands of the appointed chiefs, who were accountable to the British administration rather than the Maasai people.
In conclusion, the British colonial administration appointed chiefs from different sub-groups of the Maasai tribe to administer their affairs. These appointed chiefs played a crucial role in implementing British policies, maintaining order, and acting as intermediaries between the Maasai people and the colonial authorities.
Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 13

The tax that had the most severe effect on pastoralists in India was:

Detailed Solution for Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 13
The tax that had the most severe effect on pastoralists in India was the tax per cattle head.
Explanation:
The tax per cattle head imposed by the British colonial government had a significant impact on pastoralists in India. Here is a detailed explanation of why this tax was particularly severe:
1. Dependency on livestock: Pastoralists rely heavily on their livestock for their livelihood. Cattle and other livestock are their primary source of income and sustenance.
2. High tax burden: The tax per cattle head imposed by the British government was a fixed amount per animal. This meant that pastoralists had to pay a tax for each of their cattle, regardless of their economic condition or herd size. The tax burden was particularly heavy for pastoralists with larger herds.
3. Reduced income: Paying the tax per cattle head significantly reduced the income of pastoralists. They had to allocate a significant portion of their earnings just to meet the tax obligations, leaving them with limited resources for their own needs and the well-being of their livestock.
4. Disruption of traditional pastoral practices: The tax per cattle head also disrupted the traditional practices of pastoralists. They had to make difficult choices, such as reducing the size of their herds or selling their cattle to pay the tax. This had long-term implications for their livelihoods and cultural practices.
5. Forced sedentarization: The tax per cattle head, along with other policies implemented by the British government, contributed to the forced sedentarization of pastoralists. Many pastoralists were unable to sustain their traditional way of life due to the financial burden imposed by the tax and other factors, leading to their migration to urban areas or a shift to other occupations.
In conclusion, the tax per cattle head had a severe effect on pastoralists in India. It not only reduced their income but also disrupted their traditional practices and forced many of them to abandon their way of life. The impact of this tax on pastoral communities was significant and long-lasting.
Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 14

Raikas combined cultivation with pastoralism.

Detailed Solution for Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 14
Answer:
Claim: Raikas combined cultivation with pastoralism.
Evidence: None provided.
Explanation:
To determine whether the claim is true or false, we need to analyze the given information and any additional knowledge we may have.
1. Raikas: Raikas are a community of people residing in the desert regions of Rajasthan, India. They traditionally rely on animal husbandry and pastoralism for their livelihood.
2. Cultivation: Cultivation refers to the practice of growing crops and plants for food, fiber, or other purposes.
3. Pastoralism: Pastoralism is a form of agriculture that involves raising livestock, such as cattle, sheep, or goats, for their products like milk, meat, and wool.
Based on the above information, we can conclude that:
- Raikas primarily rely on pastoralism for their livelihood.
- There is no mention of Raikas practicing cultivation in the given information.
Conclusion:
The claim that Raikas combined cultivation with pastoralism is false based on the information provided.
Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 15

Maldharis, a pastoralist community live in the region of:

Detailed Solution for Important Questions (2 marks): Pastoralists In The Modern World - Question 15
Answer:
The Maldharis, a pastoralist community, primarily reside in the region of Gujarat.
Explanation:
The Maldharis are a pastoralist community known for their traditional occupation of cattle rearing and livestock farming. They have a unique lifestyle and cultural identity centered around their animals and the vast grazing lands of the region. Here is a breakdown of the given options:
A: Andhra Pradesh
- The Maldharis do not live in Andhra Pradesh. This is not the correct answer.
B: Karnataka
- The Maldharis do not live in Karnataka. This is not the correct answer.
C: Gujarat
- The Maldharis primarily live in Gujarat. This is the correct answer.
D: Bengal
- The Maldharis do not live in Bengal. This is not the correct answer.
Therefore, the correct answer is C: Gujarat, as the Maldharis reside in this region.
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