15 Questions MCQ Test Science & Technology for UPSC CSE - Test: Properties of Hydrocarbons
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The following chemical reaction shows the addition of chlorine to methane in the presence of sunlight:
CH4 + Cl2 → X
What is likely to be the product of the reaction represented by “X”?
Detailed Solution for Test: Properties of Hydrocarbons - Question 2
Product of the reaction represented by "X":
The likely product of the reaction represented by "X" is CH3Cl + HCl.
1. The given reaction shows the addition of chlorine (Cl2) to methane (CH4) in the presence of sunlight.
2. The reaction will result in the substitution of one hydrogen atom in methane with one chlorine atom, forming a chlorine-substituted methyl group.
3. The chlorine atom will replace one hydrogen atom in methane, resulting in the formation of CH3Cl (methyl chloride).
4. Since the reaction involves the addition of chlorine (Cl2), it is likely that a byproduct of the reaction will be HCl (hydrochloric acid).
5. Therefore, the product of the reaction represented by "X" is CH3Cl + HCl.
Which of the following belongs to a homologous series of alkynes?
Detailed Solution for Test: Properties of Hydrocarbons - Question 5
Homologous Series of Alkynes
Alkynes are a type of hydrocarbon compound that contains a carbon-carbon triple bond. They belong to a homologous series, which means that they have a similar chemical structure and follow a specific pattern in their molecular formula. Each member of the homologous series differs from the previous member by a repeating unit of -CH2-.
The molecular formula for alkynes can be represented as CnH2n-2, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. Identifying the Alkyne
Out of the given options, only one compound belongs to the homologous series of alkynes based on the molecular formula:
Let's analyze the molecular formula of each option to identify the alkyne:
A: C6H6 - This molecular formula represents benzene, an aromatic compound. It does not contain a carbon-carbon triple bond, so it is not an alkyne.
B: C3H4 - This molecular formula satisfies the general formula for alkynes (CnH2n-2). It represents a three-carbon alkyne with the molecular formula C3H4. Therefore, option B belongs to the homologous series of alkynes.
C: C2H6 - This molecular formula represents ethane, which is an alkane. Alkanes do not have carbon-carbon triple bonds, so they are not alkynes.
D: C2H4 - This molecular formula represents ethene, which is an alkene. Alkenes have a carbon-carbon double bond, but not a triple bond like alkynes.
Based on the given options, only option B (C3H4) belongs to the homologous series of alkynes. It satisfies the molecular formula for alkynes (CnH2n-2) and represents a three-carbon alkyne.
In the hydrogenation of vegetable oils, the unsaturated hydrocarbons generally add hydrogen in the presence of:
Detailed Solution for Test: Properties of Hydrocarbons - Question 8
Addition of hydrogen across C-C double bonds is called hydrogenation. Unsaturated hydrocarbons add hydrogen in the presence of catalysts such as nickel/palladium to give saturated hydrocarbons. Vegetable oils used for cooking are long unsaturated hydrocarbons which are healthy.
Detailed Solution for Test: Properties of Hydrocarbons - Question 11
Saturated hydrocarbons contain C-C single bond and on complete combustion they produce large amounts of heat. The cooking gas used in house is Butane (C4H10) known as LPG or Methane (CH4) known as CNG.
Detailed Solution for Test: Properties of Hydrocarbons - Question 15
Haloalkanes are alkanes that contain one or more members of the halogen (Cl,F,Br,I) family. The halogens found in organic molecules are chlorine, bromine, fluorine, and iodine. Some texts refer to this class of compounds as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides. This text will frequently use both haloalkane and alkyl halide, so it's important to remember that they are the same thing.
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