Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Class 10
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Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 2
The correct option is B.
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) represents the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria and other microorganisms while they decompose organic matter under aerobic (oxygen is present) conditions at a specified temperature.
Development with both intragenerational and intergenerational quality is called:
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 4
Intergenerational equity is the concept or idea of fairness or justice between generations.
Intra- generational equity is concerned with equity between people of the same generation and aims to assure justice among human beings that are alive today.
We can define Sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Intergenerational and intra- generational equity are the underlying principles of sustainable development as:
Intergenerational equity tends to a fair utilization of resources by human generations in past, present and future, it tries to construct a balance of consumption of resources by existing societies and future generations.
Intra-generational equity makes sure that the resources which are not preserved for the future generation and are available for the current generation must be equally distributed among all the members of the present generation.
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 5
The 3R approach, focusing on reduce, reuse, and recycle, essentially aims to set up a sound material cycle society within the concept of a life-cycle economy, where consumption of natural resources is minimized and the environmental load is reduced, as much as possible.
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 6
Joint forest management is an example of participatory approach. Explanation: Joint forest management refers to the collaboration between local communities and government authorities in the management and conservation of forest resources. It involves the active participation of local communities in decision-making processes and the sharing of responsibilities and benefits. Here is a detailed explanation of why joint forest management is considered a participatory approach: 1. Collaborative decision-making: Joint forest management involves the active participation of local communities in decision-making processes related to the management and conservation of forest resources. This approach ensures that the decisions are made collectively, taking into account the perspectives and needs of the local communities. 2. Shared responsibilities: In joint forest management, both the local communities and the government authorities share the responsibilities of managing and conserving the forest resources. This includes activities such as tree planting, protection against illegal logging, and monitoring of forest health. By sharing the responsibilities, the community becomes an active stakeholder in the sustainable management of the forests. 3. Benefit-sharing: Joint forest management also includes the sharing of benefits derived from the forest resources. This can include access to non-timber forest products, employment opportunities, and revenue-sharing from sustainable forest exploitation. By sharing the benefits, local communities are motivated to actively participate in the conservation efforts and have a stake in the sustainable use of forest resources. 4. Empowerment of local communities: Joint forest management empowers local communities by giving them the opportunity to actively participate in the decision-making processes and take responsibility for the management of forest resources. This approach helps to strengthen the capacity of communities to manage their own resources and promotes a sense of ownership and stewardship. In conclusion, joint forest management exemplifies a participatory approach as it involves the active involvement of local communities in decision-making, shared responsibilities, benefit-sharing, and the empowerment of communities in the management and conservation of forest resources.
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 7
Chipko movement was led by Sunder Lal Bahuguna. The Chipko movement was a non-violent environmental movement that took place in the 1970s in the Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India. It was led by Sunder Lal Bahuguna, an environmentalist and social activist. The movement aimed to protect the forests from deforestation and promote sustainable development. Here are some key points about the Chipko movement and Sunder Lal Bahuguna's role: 1. Background: - The Chipko movement originated in the village of Mandal in the Alaknanda valley. - The local communities relied on the forests for their livelihoods, including firewood, fodder, and other forest products. - Large-scale deforestation by logging companies threatened their livelihoods and the ecological balance of the region. 2. Genesis of the movement: - The movement started in 1973 when a group of women from Mandal hugged the trees to prevent them from being cut down by loggers. - This act of hugging trees, known as "chipko," inspired the name of the movement. 3. Aims and objectives: - The Chipko movement aimed to raise awareness about the importance of forests and the need for their conservation. - It advocated for sustainable development practices that would benefit both the local communities and the environment. 4. Strategies and tactics: - The movement used non-violent methods such as tree-hugging, sit-ins, and protests to prevent deforestation. - The activists would physically interpose themselves between the loggers and the trees, putting their bodies at risk to protect the forests. 5. Impact and achievements: - The Chipko movement gained national and international attention, highlighting the ecological and social issues associated with deforestation. - It led to the formulation of policies and laws to protect forests and promote sustainable development. - Sunder Lal Bahuguna's efforts were instrumental in the success of the movement and the recognition of the rights of local communities over forest resources. In conclusion, the Chipko movement, led by Sunder Lal Bahuguna, played a significant role in raising awareness about the importance of forests and promoting sustainable development practices. The movement's success in protecting the forests and empowering local communities has made it an inspiring example of grassroots environmental activism.
Which form of coal is hardest and with maximum carbon content ?
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 8
The hardest form of coal with maximum carbon content is anthracite. Explanation: Anthracite coal is the highest rank of coal and is known for its high carbon content and low moisture, sulfur, and volatile matter content. It is formed through the metamorphism of bituminous coal and is considered the highest quality coal. Here are some key points about anthracite coal: 1. Carbon content: Anthracite coal has the highest carbon content among all coal types, typically ranging from 86% to 98%. This high carbon content contributes to its high energy content and low impurities. 2. Hardness: Anthracite is the hardest form of coal. It has a high carbon content and a compact structure, which gives it a high resistance to crushing and a high energy density. 3. Low moisture and volatile matter: Anthracite coal has very low moisture and volatile matter content, making it a more efficient and cleaner-burning fuel compared to other coal types. This low moisture content also contributes to its high energy content. 4. Uses: Due to its high carbon content and low impurities, anthracite coal is primarily used for heating and energy production. It is also used in the production of steel, as a reducing agent in smelting, and in various industrial processes. In summary, anthracite coal is the hardest form of coal with maximum carbon content. Its high carbon content, low moisture, sulfur, and volatile matter content make it a valuable fuel source with various industrial applications.
Which of the following is an inexhaustible natural resources ?
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 9
D is the correct option.Inexhaustible natural resource is a natural resource that will never run out. It will not be depleted and will continue to exist forever , such as water,sunlight, tidal energy, ocean energy and wind energy.
Which of the following is an exhaustible natural resources ?
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 10
Exhaustible Natural Resources:
Solar radiation: Solar radiation is an example of an inexhaustible natural resource as it is constantly replenished by the sun.
Air: Air is also an example of an inexhaustible natural resource. It is composed of various gases and is constantly renewed through natural processes.
Minerals: Minerals are an example of an exhaustible natural resource as they are finite in quantity and take millions of years to form. Once these minerals are extracted and used, they cannot be replaced within a human timescale.
Water: Water can be considered as both an exhaustible and an inexhaustible natural resource, depending on the context. While water is constantly recycled through the water cycle, certain sources of freshwater, such as underground aquifers, can be depleted over time if not managed sustainably.
Detailed Among the given options, minerals are the only exhaustible natural resource. Here is a breakdown of each option: - Solar radiation: Solar radiation is an example of an inexhaustible natural resource. It is constantly replenished by the sun and can be harnessed as a source of renewable energy. - Air: Air is also an example of an inexhaustible natural resource. It is composed of various gases and is constantly renewed through natural processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. - Minerals: Minerals are an example of an exhaustible natural resource. They are finite in quantity and take millions of years to form through geological processes. Once these minerals are extracted and used for various purposes, they cannot be replaced within a human timescale. - Water: Water can be considered as both an exhaustible and an inexhaustible natural resource, depending on the context. While water is constantly recycled through the water cycle and is generally renewable, certain sources of freshwater, such as underground aquifers, can be depleted over time if not managed sustainably. In conclusion, minerals are the only exhaustible natural resource among the given options.
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 11
To improve the quality of the environment, it is important to focus on conservation efforts. Here are some ways in which conservation can help improve the environment: 1. Protecting biodiversity: - Conservation efforts help protect and preserve different species of plants and animals, ensuring the maintenance of a healthy and diverse ecosystem. - This helps to maintain the balance of the ecosystem and prevent the loss of valuable species. 2. Preserving natural resources: - Conservation practices help in the sustainable use of natural resources such as water, forests, and minerals. - By using resources wisely and avoiding overuse, conservation helps in ensuring their availability for future generations. 3. Reducing pollution: - Conservation efforts aim to reduce pollution by promoting sustainable practices. - This includes implementing measures to reduce air, water, and soil pollution, thus improving the overall quality of the environment. 4. Promoting sustainable development: - Conservation encourages the adoption of sustainable development practices that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. - This helps in ensuring the long-term health and well-being of the environment. 5. Restoring degraded ecosystems: - Conservation involves efforts to restore and rehabilitate degraded ecosystems. - This can include reforestation, wetland restoration, or the creation of protected areas to restore the ecological balance. In conclusion, conservation plays a vital role in improving the quality of the environment. By protecting biodiversity, preserving natural resources, reducing pollution, promoting sustainable development, and restoring degraded ecosystems, conservation efforts contribute to a healthier and more sustainable environment.
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 12
Maximum petroleum is used in Answer: D. Transportation Explanation: Petroleum is a versatile energy source that is used in various sectors. However, the maximum consumption of petroleum is observed in the transportation sector. Here is a detailed explanation: - Transportation: Petroleum, in the form of gasoline and diesel, is the primary fuel used in cars, trucks, ships, airplanes, and trains. These vehicles rely heavily on petroleum to power their engines and enable them to transport people and goods efficiently. - Reasons for high petroleum consumption in transportation: - Energy density: Petroleum has a high energy density, meaning it contains a significant amount of energy per unit volume. This makes it an ideal fuel for vehicles as it can provide the necessary power while occupying less space. - Infrastructure: The existing infrastructure for transportation, such as gas stations and fuel distribution networks, is designed to accommodate petroleum-based fuels. This further contributes to the high consumption of petroleum in transportation. - Limited alternatives: Although efforts are being made to develop alternative fuels and electric vehicles, petroleum remains the dominant fuel in the transportation sector due to its widespread availability and established infrastructure. - Other sectors: - Agriculture: Petroleum products such as diesel fuel are used in agricultural machinery, including tractors and harvesters. However, the overall consumption in agriculture is lower compared to transportation. - Shipping: While petroleum is used in ships as fuel, the amount consumed in the shipping industry is relatively lower compared to transportation on land. - Industries: Petroleum is used in various industries for processes such as heating, power generation, and manufacturing. However, the overall consumption in industries is not as high as in transportation. In conclusion, while petroleum is utilized in various sectors, the maximum consumption is observed in the transportation sector, where it serves as the primary fuel for vehicles.
Ecological imbalance in the biosphere is created by
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 14
Human activities are responsible for the disturbance of the balanced system of environment. Increasing human population is a major reason for cutting of trees. Vast tracts of forest had been cleared to make way for farmland and for making new houses, factories and infrastructure.
Production of more paper is also responsible for depletion of forest cover. Around 4 billion trees worldwide are cut down for paper every year.
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 15
To prevent floods, afforestation is a crucial measure that can be taken. Afforestation refers to the process of establishing a forest, or stand of trees, in an area where there was no forest. Here's a detailed explanation of how afforestation helps in flood prevention: 1. Absorption of rainwater: - Trees have deep roots that can absorb a significant amount of rainwater, preventing it from accumulating on the surface. - The roots also help in maintaining the stability of the soil, reducing erosion and allowing the soil to retain more water. 2. Increased infiltration: - Forests act as natural sponges, allowing rainwater to infiltrate into the ground. - This infiltration process helps in recharging groundwater and maintaining consistent water levels, reducing the chances of flooding. 3. Regulation of water flow: - Tree canopies slow down the rainfall, allowing it to fall gently and reducing the impact on the ground. - The vegetation on the forest floor and the trunks of the trees slow down the movement of water, preventing it from rushing down and causing floods downstream. 4. Prevention of soil erosion: - Forests help in holding the soil together with their roots, preventing erosion. - Erosion can lead to the deposition of sediment in rivers and streams, which can block the flow of water and increase the risk of floods. 5. Creation of natural barriers: - Forests can act as natural barriers, preventing the rapid movement of water during heavy rainfall. - The dense vegetation can absorb and slow down the flow of water, reducing the chances of flooding in downstream areas. Therefore, afforestation plays a vital role in flood prevention by improving water absorption, regulating water flow, reducing soil erosion, and creating natural barriers. By implementing afforestation measures, we can mitigate the risks associated with floods and protect both human settlements and the environment.
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 16
Ganga Action Plan was announced inn1985 by the Ministry of Environment and forests. This was the first River Action Plan that was introduced for the improvement of water quality through interception, diversion and treatment of domestic sewage.
Which of the following are the stakeholders of the forests ?
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 17
Stakeholders of the forests:
Local people: Local communities living near or within forests have a significant stake in forest resources. They depend on forests for their livelihoods, including food, fuelwood, and timber. They also have traditional knowledge and cultural values associated with forests.
Industries: Industries that rely on forest resources, such as logging, paper, and furniture manufacturing, are important stakeholders. They require access to timber, non-timber forest products, and land for their operations.
The government: Governments play a crucial role as stakeholders in forest management. They are responsible for formulating and implementing policies, regulations, and laws related to forests. They ensure sustainable use, conservation, and protection of forests for the benefit of present and future generations.
All of these: All the mentioned stakeholders, including local people, industries, and the government, have interests, rights, and responsibilities towards forests. They contribute to the management, conservation, and sustainable utilization of forest resources.
Amrita Devi Bishnoi National Award is rendered for
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 18
Amrita devi bishnoi national award for wildlife conservation has been instituted by government of India because in 1731,women named Amrita Devi sacrificed her life for the protection of khejri trees along with her 363 members of khejrali village near Jodhpur ,Rajasthan.In her memory government of India announced this to the persons who tried to save wildlife or plants and trees.
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 19
In the 1970s, The Chipko movement was taken place in the northern Himalayan segment of Uttar Pradesh. Where it started, that well-known area names as Uttarakhand. The word “Chipko” means that “to stick” or “to hug”.
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 20
Arabari Project - Detailed Solution Introduction: The Arabari project, initiated in 1972, is an important conservation project in India. It focuses on the sustainable management of forests and wildlife. Location: The Arabari project is located in the state of West Bengal, India. Objective: The project aims to protect and restore the forest ecosystem, promote sustainable forestry practices, and conserve wildlife species in the Arabari forest region. Key Features: 1. Afforestation: The project involves extensive afforestation efforts to increase the forest cover in the Arabari region. 2. Wildlife Conservation: It focuses on the conservation of various wildlife species, including endangered and threatened species. 3. Community Involvement: The project encourages active participation and involvement of local communities in forest management and conservation activities. 4. Sustainable Forest Management: It promotes sustainable practices such as selective logging, controlled grazing, and prevention of forest fires. 5. Research and Monitoring: The project conducts research and monitoring activities to assess the impact of conservation efforts and develop effective strategies. 6. Awareness and Education: It conducts awareness programs and educational campaigns to promote environmental conservation among local communities and stakeholders. Impact: 1. Increase in Forest Cover: The Arabari project has successfully increased the forest cover in the region, leading to improved habitat for wildlife. 2. Wildlife Protection: The conservation efforts have resulted in the protection of various wildlife species, including the Bengal tiger, Indian elephant, and several bird species. 3. Livelihood Support: The involvement of local communities in conservation activities has created opportunities for sustainable livelihoods through eco-tourism and forest-based industries. 4. Carbon Sequestration: The project contributes to mitigating climate change by sequestering carbon dioxide through increased forest cover. Conclusion: The Arabari project, initiated in 1972 in West Bengal, has been instrumental in conserving forests, protecting wildlife, and promoting sustainable forest management practices. Its success lies in the active involvement of local communities and the implementation of various conservation strategies.
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 21
The Mastermind of Arabari Project: The mastermind behind the Arabari project is A.K. Banerjee. He played a crucial role in conceptualizing and executing the project, which aimed to restore the degraded forests in Arabari, West Bengal, India. Details about the Arabari Project: The Arabari project was initiated in the 1970s as a joint effort between the Indian Forest Department and local communities. Its primary objective was to address the issue of deforestation and promote sustainable forest management practices. Key Points: Here are some key points about the Arabari project and its mastermind: - A.K. Banerjee was a renowned Indian forest officer who served as the Divisional Forest Officer (DFO) in Arabari during the implementation of the project. - Under his leadership, the project focused on involving local communities in forest conservation and management. - The Arabari project adopted an innovative approach by introducing Joint Forest Management (JFM) practices, where local communities were given rights and responsibilities to protect and manage the forests. - A.K. Banerjee emphasized the importance of community participation and empowerment in achieving sustainable forest conservation. - The project witnessed significant success, with the revival of degraded forests, increased forest cover, and improved livelihood opportunities for the local communities. - The Arabari project became a model for other similar initiatives across India and contributed to the evolution of community-based forest management strategies. Conclusion: A.K. Banerjee was the mastermind behind the Arabari project, which showcased the effectiveness of involving local communities in forest conservation and management. His visionary approach and efforts have left a lasting impact on sustainable forest management practices in India.
One of the world’s most critical watersheds are found in
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 22
The Greater Himalayan Watershed is a vast and diverse area that stretches from Uzbekistan to Myanmar. The Hindu Kush and Himalayan mountain ranges contain over 50,000 glaciers, the melt water of which feeds the aquifers and water tables of ten of the world’s most important river systems. The Amu Darya, Brahmaputra, Ganges, Yellow, and Indus rivers – all crossing international borders – are just some of the important systems that depend on the regular cycles of glacial freezing and melting in order to maintain their seasonal water levels.
They act as a shield separating the Indian subcontinent from the Arctic winds that batter Central Asia. They also trap the hot, moist air in the Southeast and enable the torrential monsoons that occur during the summer months, accounting for 75% of India’s annual rainfall.
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 23
The 'Khadin' system of rainwater harvesting was practiced in ancient times in Rajasthan. In this system, a very long (about 100 m - 300 m long) earthen embankment called 'Bund' is built across the lower hill slopes lying below gravelly uplands. The rainwater from the catchment area is made to flow down the slopes and stopped by the 'Bund' to form a reservoir. The rainwater collected in the reservoir formed by the 'Bund', and in the well, gradually penetrates into the land (or ground). This water - saturated land is subsequently used for growing crops. In this way, rain water harvesting was done using khadin system in Rajasthan.
Name the disease which is likely to be caused due to ozone depletion
Detailed Solution for Test: Sustainable Management of Natural Resources - 3 - Question 24
Disease caused by ozone depletion: - Skin cancer: Ozone depletion leads to an increase in ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface. UV radiation can damage the DNA in skin cells, leading to the development of skin cancer. Excessive exposure to UV radiation, especially UVA and UVB rays, increases the risk of developing skin cancer. - Lung cancer: Although ozone depletion does not directly cause lung cancer, it indirectly contributes to the development of lung cancer. Ozone depletion can worsen air pollution, which is a major risk factor for lung cancer. Increased levels of air pollutants, such as particulate matter and toxic gases, can increase the risk of developing lung cancer. - Respiratory disorders: Ozone depletion can also lead to respiratory disorders due to increased levels of air pollutants. Inhalation of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds can cause respiratory irritation, inflammation, and damage to the respiratory system. This can lead to the development or exacerbation of respiratory disorders such as asthma, bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). - All of these: Considering the impacts of ozone depletion on skin cancer, lung cancer, and respiratory disorders, it can be concluded that all of these diseases are likely to be caused or exacerbated by ozone depletion. In summary, ozone depletion can contribute to the development of skin cancer, lung cancer, and respiratory disorders due to increased UV radiation, worsened air pollution, and the inhalation of pollutants. It is important to take measures to protect ourselves from excessive UV radiation and address the causes of ozone depletion to minimize the health risks associated with it.
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