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Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - UPSC MCQ


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20 Questions MCQ Test Science & Technology for UPSC CSE - Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2

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Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 1

The process by which autotrophic green plants make their own food is called:   

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 1
Photosynthesis: The Process of Making Food in Autotrophic Green Plants

  • Definition: Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophic green plants use sunlight to synthesize nutrients from carbon dioxide and water.

  • Importance: It is the primary way in which plants produce food for themselves and ultimately for other organisms in the food chain.

  • Steps Involved:

    • Light Reaction: In this phase, light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll to produce ATP and NADPH.

    • Calvin Cycle: In this phase, ATP and NADPH produced in the light reaction are used to convert carbon dioxide into glucose.



  • Ingredients:

    • Carbon Dioxide: Taken in by plants through tiny pores called stomata.

    • Water: Absorbed by plant roots and transported to the leaves for photosynthesis.

    • Sunlight: Captured by chlorophyll in the chloroplasts to initiate the process.



  • Byproducts:

    • Oxygen: Released into the atmosphere as a byproduct of photosynthesis, which is essential for respiration in organisms.

    • Glucose: The main product of photosynthesis, which serves as a source of energy for the plant.



  • Overall: Photosynthesis is a crucial process that sustains life on Earth by providing oxygen for respiration and food for organisms in the ecosystem.

Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 2

What is the main pigment responsible for capturing sunlight during photosynthesis?   

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 2

Main Pigment Responsible for Capturing Sunlight

Chlorophyll: Chlorophyll is the main pigment responsible for capturing sunlight during photosynthesis.
Function: Chlorophyll absorbs light energy from the sun and converts it into chemical energy that plants use to produce glucose.
Types: There are several types of chlorophyll, but chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b are the most common in plants.
Structure: Chlorophyll molecules have a porphyrin ring structure with a magnesium ion at the center, which is essential for capturing light energy.
Color: Chlorophyll gives plants their green color because it absorbs red and blue light while reflecting green light.


     

 

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Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 3

Organisms that cannot prepare their own food and depend on other organisms for food are called:   

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 3
Organisms that cannot prepare their own food and depend on other organisms for food are called Heterotrophs:

  • Definition: Heterotrophs are organisms that cannot produce their own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis and rely on consuming other organisms for nutrients.

  • Types of Heterotrophs: There are different types of heterotrophs including herbivores (plant eaters), carnivores (meat eaters), omnivores (eat both plants and animals), and detritivores (consume dead organic matter).

  • Dependency: Heterotrophs depend on autotrophs (organisms that can produce their own food) for their energy and nutrient requirements. Autotrophs convert sunlight or chemicals into energy, which is then consumed by heterotrophs.

  • Role in Ecosystem: Heterotrophs play a crucial role in the ecosystem by maintaining the balance of energy and nutrients. They help in recycling nutrients by feeding on other organisms and breaking down organic matter.

  • Examples: Examples of heterotrophs include humans, animals, fungi, and some bacteria. These organisms rely on consuming organic matter to survive and grow.

Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 4

Which of the following is not a component of food?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 4

A balanced diet: It is not a component of food​. It ​is a diet which contains different kinds of food in certain quantities and proportion so that the requirements of a person shall meet. Requirements like calories, proteins, minerals, vitamins and alternative nutrients are adequate and a small provision is reserved for additional nutrients to endure the short length of leanness.

Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 5

In desert plants, which part of the plant primarily carries out photosynthesis, and why?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 5

In desert plants, the leaves are often modified into scales or spines. This modification helps reduce water loss by minimizing the surface area from which transpiration (the process of water evaporation from plant surfaces) can occur. Since these modified leaves (scales or spines) cannot perform photosynthesis efficiently, desert plants adapt by having green stems. These green stems contain chlorophyll, which allows them to carry out photosynthesis. This adaptation is crucial for desert plants as it enables them to synthesize food while minimizing water loss, ensuring their survival in harsh, arid environments.

Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 6

Which part of the cell is responsible for capturing energy from sunlight during photosynthesis?   

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 6

Chloroplasts

  • Location: Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells.
  • Function: Chloroplasts are responsible for capturing energy from sunlight during the process of photosynthesis.
  • Photosynthesis: Within the chloroplasts, there are structures called thylakoids where the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis take place. Here, chlorophyll, a pigment that captures sunlight, is located.
  • Energy Conversion: When sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll, it initiates a series of chemical reactions that convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH, which are used in the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
  • Importance: Chloroplasts are crucial for the survival of plants as they are the site of photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy to fuel their growth and development.
Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 7

What is the main product of photosynthesis?   

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 7

Main product of photosynthesis: Glucose

  • Glucose: The main product of photosynthesis is glucose, a simple sugar that serves as the primary source of energy for plants and other organisms.
  • Oxygen: While oxygen is also produced during photosynthesis as a byproduct, it is not the main product of the process.
  • Protein: Proteins are made up of amino acids, which are synthesized using carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen obtained from glucose produced during photosynthesis. However, proteins are not the main product of photosynthesis.
Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 8

Which substance surrounds the nucleus of a cell?   

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 8
Substance surrounding the nucleus of a cell

  • Cell membrane: The cell membrane is a barrier that surrounds the entire cell, controlling what enters and exits the cell. It is not the substance that surrounds the nucleus specifically.


  • Chloroplasts: Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells that are responsible for photosynthesis. They are not the substance surrounding the nucleus.


  • Stomata: Stomata are small openings in plant leaves that allow for gas exchange. They are not the substance surrounding the nucleus.


  • Cytoplasm: The substance that surrounds the nucleus of a cell is cytoplasm. Cytoplasm is a gel-like substance that fills the cell and is enclosed by the cell membrane. It contains organelles, such as mitochondria and ribosomes, and provides a medium for the transport of materials within the cell.


Therefore, the correct answer is D: Cytoplasm. It is the substance that surrounds the nucleus of a cell.

Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 9

What is the primary food material produced by photosynthesis?      

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 9
Primary Food Material Produced by Photosynthesis:

  • Starch: The primary food material produced by photosynthesis is starch. Starch is a complex carbohydrate that serves as a storage form of energy in plants.

  • Photosynthesis Process: During photosynthesis, plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose. This glucose is then converted into starch for storage.

  • Role of Starch: Starch serves as a source of energy for plants during periods when sunlight is not available, such as at night or during winter months.

  • Importance of Starch: Starch is an essential component of the plant diet for many animals, including humans. It provides a source of energy and nutrients when consumed.

Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 10

How do parasitic plants obtain their food?    

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 10
  • From other plants or animals: Parasitic plants obtain their food by attaching themselves to a host plant and drawing nutrients and water from it. They do not photosynthesize like non-parasitic plants do, so they rely on other organisms for sustenance.

Parasitic plants have specialized structures called haustoria that allow them to penetrate the host plant and extract nutrients. Some parasitic plants are specific to certain host plants, while others are more generalist in their choice of hosts.

 

Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 11

Which nutrient is stored in the form of oil in some plant seeds?    

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 11
Which Nutrient is Stored in the Form of Oil in Some Plant Seeds?

  • Answer: Fats


Detailed Solution

  • Plant Seeds: Some plant seeds store nutrients in the form of oil.

  • Nutrient Stored: The specific nutrient stored in the form of oil in plant seeds is fats.

  • Function: This oil-rich content in plant seeds serves as a source of energy for the germinating seedling.

  • Examples: Examples of plant seeds rich in oil include sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, and flaxseeds.

  • Importance: Fats stored in plant seeds play a crucial role in seed germination and early growth stages of the plant.

Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 12

Which part of the carnivorous plant traps insects?   

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 12
Which part of the carnivorous plant traps insects?

  • Leaves: The leaves of carnivorous plants are specially adapted to trap insects. They have various structures such as hairs, glands, or sticky surfaces that help in capturing and digesting prey.

  • Roots: Roots of carnivorous plants are mainly responsible for anchoring the plant to the ground and absorbing nutrients from the soil. They do not play a significant role in trapping insects.

  • Flowers: Flowers of carnivorous plants are meant for reproduction and attracting pollinators. They do not have any mechanisms for trapping insects.

  • Stems: Stems of carnivorous plants provide structural support and help in transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant. They are not involved in trapping insects.


Therefore, the correct answer is Leaves. The leaves of carnivorous plants have evolved to attract, capture, and digest insects in order to obtain additional nutrients that are lacking in their natural habitat.
Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 13

Which mode of nutrition involves obtaining nutrients from dead and decaying matter?   

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 13
Explanation:

  • Saprotrophic nutrition: Saprotrophic nutrition is the mode of nutrition where an organism obtains nutrients from dead and decaying matter.

  • Decomposition: Organisms that exhibit saprotrophic nutrition play a crucial role in the decomposition of organic matter, breaking it down into simpler compounds.

  • Fungi and bacteria: Fungi and bacteria are common examples of organisms that perform saprotrophic nutrition.

  • Enzymes: These organisms secrete enzymes that help in the breakdown of organic matter into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and utilized as nutrients.

  • Recycling: Saprotrophs play a significant role in the ecosystem by recycling nutrients from dead organisms back into the environment, making them available for other living organisms.

Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 14

What type of plants are fungi like mushrooms that grow on dead and decaying matter?   

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 14

 Saprotrophic Plants
 


  • Fungi like mushrooms that grow on dead and decaying matter are known as saprotrophic plants.

  • These plants obtain nutrients by breaking down and decomposing organic matter, such as dead plants, animals, and other organic materials.

  • They play a crucial role in the ecosystem by recycling nutrients and breaking down organic matter, which helps in the decomposition process.

  • Saprotrophic plants are important for maintaining soil fertility and overall ecosystem health.

  • Examples of saprotrophic plants include mushrooms, molds, and some types of yeasts.
Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 15

Which bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into water-soluble nitrogen compounds for plants?   

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 15

Answer: B - Rhizobium bacteria

Rhizobium bacteria are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that form a symbiotic relationship with leguminous plants.
These bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen gas into ammonia, which can be used by plants to synthesize proteins and other essential compounds.
The nitrogen-fixing process occurs in specialized structures called root nodules, where the bacteria reside.
Through this symbiotic relationship, both the bacteria and the plant benefit as the plant provides carbohydrates to the bacteria in exchange for fixed nitrogen.
This process helps improve soil fertility and plant growth, making rhizobium bacteria crucial for sustainable agriculture.

 

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Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 16

What is the benefit of the association between Rhizobium bacteria and leguminous plants? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 16
Benefits of the association between Rhizobium bacteria and leguminous plants:

  • Nitrogen fixation: Rhizobium bacteria have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be readily used by plants. This benefits the leguminous plants as they receive a vital nutrient for their growth and development.

  • Increased nutrient availability: By forming nodules on the roots of leguminous plants, Rhizobium bacteria provide a source of nutrients such as nitrogen and other essential minerals. This leads to improved plant health and productivity.

  • Improved soil fertility: The association between Rhizobium bacteria and leguminous plants helps in enhancing soil fertility by increasing the availability of nitrogen in the soil. This benefits not only the plants but also other organisms in the ecosystem.

  • Enhanced plant growth: The symbiotic relationship between Rhizobium bacteria and leguminous plants promotes better plant growth, as the plants have access to a nutrient source that is essential for their development.

  • Environmental sustainability: The association between Rhizobium bacteria and leguminous plants plays a crucial role in promoting environmental sustainability by reducing the need for synthetic fertilizers, which can have harmful effects on the environment.

Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 17

Where does photosynthesis primarily occur in plants?   

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 17
Photosynthesis primarily occurs in plants in the leaves

  • Chloroplasts: Photosynthesis primarily occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells, which are mainly found in the leaves.

  • Leaf Structure: Leaves are specifically adapted for photosynthesis with structures like stomata, which allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to exit.

  • Chlorophyll: Chlorophyll, the pigment responsible for capturing light energy, is abundant in the chloroplasts of leaves.

  • Light Absorption: Leaves are broad and flat, providing a large surface area for light absorption, a crucial component of the photosynthesis process.

  • Photosynthesis Process: During photosynthesis, plants use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce glucose and oxygen. This process primarily takes place in the chloroplasts of the leaves.

Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 18

Which type of nutrition involves organisms making their own food?   

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 18

Autotrophic Nutrition:



  • Definition: Autotrophic nutrition is a type of nutrition in which organisms are capable of producing their own food using inorganic substances like carbon dioxide and water, with the help of sunlight or chemical energy.

  • Process: Organisms that undergo autotrophic nutrition, such as plants and some bacteria, utilize a process called photosynthesis to convert sunlight into chemical energy, which is used to synthesize organic compounds like glucose.

  • Importance: Autotrophic nutrition is essential for the survival of many organisms as it forms the basis of the food chain by producing food for other heterotrophic organisms.

  • Examples: Examples of organisms that exhibit autotrophic nutrition include green plants, algae, and some bacteria like cyanobacteria.

  • Adaptations: These organisms have specialized structures like chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll, enabling them to capture sunlight and carry out photosynthesis efficiently.

Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 19

Which gas is required for photosynthesis?   

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 19

Gas required for Photosynthesis:

- Carbon Dioxide (CO2):
- Carbon dioxide is a gas that is required for photosynthesis, a process by which green plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose.
- During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is taken in by plants through small openings in their leaves called stomata.
- Inside the plant cells, carbon dioxide is combined with water and sunlight to produce glucose and oxygen.
- This process is essential for the survival of plants as well as for the production of oxygen in the atmosphere.

Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 20

A parasitic plant with yellow, slender and tubular stem is:

Detailed Solution for Test: Nutrition in Plants- 2 - Question 20

Cuscuta is a parasitic plant with yellow slender and tubular stem.

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