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The performance of data communications network depends on ______.
Detailed Solution for Test: Networking and Multimedia- 1 - Question 1
The performance of a data communications network depends on several factors. Here are the key points: Number of Users: - The number of users accessing the network simultaneously can affect its performance. - As the number of users increases, the network may experience congestion and slower speeds. - Network capacity needs to be sufficient to handle the traffic generated by all users. The Hardware and Software: - The quality and efficiency of the hardware components used in the network infrastructure can impact performance. - This includes routers, switches, cables, and other networking equipment. - Similarly, the software used to manage and control the network plays a crucial role. - Proper configuration and updates are essential to optimize performance. The Transmission: - The transmission medium used for data transfer, such as copper wires, fiber optic cables, or wireless connections, can affect network performance. - The bandwidth and speed capabilities of the transmission medium impact data transfer rates. - Interference or signal degradation can occur, leading to slower or unreliable connections. All of These: - All the mentioned factors (number of users, hardware and software, and transmission) collectively contribute to the overall performance of a data communications network. - Neglecting any of these aspects can result in poor network performance and user experience. In conclusion, the performance of a data communications network is influenced by the number of users, the quality of hardware and software components, and the characteristics of the transmission medium. Considering and optimizing these factors is crucial for maintaining an efficient and reliable network.
The name of the protocol which provides virtual terminal in TCP/IP model is
Detailed Solution for Test: Networking and Multimedia- 1 - Question 2
The protocol that provides virtual terminal in the TCP/IP model is Telnet. Telnet: - Telnet is a network protocol that allows users to remotely access and control a virtual terminal over a TCP/IP network. - It provides a command-line interface that enables users to execute commands and interact with remote hosts as if they were directly connected to them. - Telnet uses TCP as the underlying transport protocol to establish a reliable connection between the local and remote hosts. - It operates on port number 23 and sends data in clear text format, which means it is not secure for transmitting sensitive information. - Telnet allows users to remotely manage devices, troubleshoot network issues, and administer systems without physically being present at the location. Other options: - SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is a protocol used for sending and receiving email messages. - HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a protocol used for transmitting web pages and other resources over the internet. - None of these options provide a virtual terminal functionality in the TCP/IP model. Therefore, the correct answer is Telnet (option A).
What is the name of the network topology in which there are bi-directional links between each possible node?
Detailed Solution for Test: Networking and Multimedia- 1 - Question 3
The network topology with bi-directional links between each possible node is called a Mesh topology. Explanation: In a Mesh topology, each node in the network is connected to every other node through individual bi-directional links. This means that there is a direct connection between each pair of nodes in the network. Here are some key points about Mesh topology: - Full Mesh: In a full mesh topology, each node has a direct connection with every other node in the network. This provides high redundancy and fault tolerance but requires a large number of physical connections. - Partial Mesh: In a partial mesh topology, only some nodes have direct connections with other nodes. This reduces the number of physical connections required but still provides some redundancy and fault tolerance. - Advantages: Mesh topology offers several advantages, including: - High fault tolerance: If one link or node fails, there are alternative paths for communication. - High scalability: It is easy to add or remove nodes without affecting the rest of the network. - High security: Each node has its own dedicated connection, making it difficult for unauthorized access. - High performance: Mesh topology allows for parallel and simultaneous data transmission between nodes. - Disadvantages: However, there are also some disadvantages to using a Mesh topology: - High cost: The implementation of numerous physical connections can be expensive. - Complex management: With a large number of connections, managing and troubleshooting the network can be challenging. - High redundancy: In a full mesh topology, there may be redundant connections that are not regularly utilized. In conclusion, a Mesh topology provides a highly interconnected network where each node has a direct link to every other node in the network, allowing for efficient communication and high fault tolerance.
Which of the communication modes support two way traffic but in only one direction at a time?
Detailed Solution for Test: Networking and Multimedia- 1 - Question 4
Explanation: The communication mode that supports two-way traffic but in only one direction at a time is Half-duplex. Here is a detailed explanation: 1. Simplex: - Simplex communication mode allows data transmission in only one direction. - It is a one-way communication mode where the sender can only send data, and the receiver can only receive data. - There is no possibility of two-way communication in simplex mode. 2. Half-duplex: - Half-duplex communication mode allows two-way traffic but in only one direction at a time. - In this mode, both the sender and receiver can transmit and receive data, but not simultaneously. - When one party is transmitting, the other party can only receive, and vice versa. - It is like a walkie-talkie or a push-to-talk system where only one party can speak at a time. 3. Three-quarter's duplex: - There is no such communication mode called "Three-quarter's duplex." - It is an incorrect option. 4. Full duplex: - Full-duplex communication mode allows simultaneous two-way traffic. - In this mode, both the sender and receiver can transmit and receive data at the same time. - It is like a regular telephone conversation where both parties can talk and listen simultaneously. Therefore, the correct answer is Half-duplex (option B) as it supports two-way traffic but in only one direction at a time.
Detailed Solution for Test: Networking and Multimedia- 1 - Question 6
Class D addresses are reserved for multicasting. Multicasting is a network communication method where a single data packet is sent to multiple destinations simultaneously. It is commonly used for streaming media, video conferencing, and online gaming. Class D addresses have a range from 18.104.22.168 to 22.214.171.124. The first four bits of the address are always set to 1110, indicating that it is a Class D address. The remaining 28 bits can be used to specify different multicast groups. Some key points about Class D addresses include: - They are reserved for multicasting purposes. - They cannot be assigned to individual devices or hosts. - They are used to deliver data packets to multiple hosts in a network. - They are not routable over the internet and are typically used within local networks or private networks. - Multicast routing protocols, such as Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM), are used to manage multicast traffic and ensure it reaches the intended recipients. In summary, Class D addresses are specifically reserved for multicasting and are used to deliver data packets to multiple hosts simultaneously.
______ was the first step in the evolution of Ethernet from a coaxial cable bus to hub managed, twisted pair network.
Detailed Solution for Test: Networking and Multimedia- 1 - Question 8
Evolution of Ethernet from a Coaxial Cable Bus to Hub Managed, Twisted Pair Network The first step in the evolution of Ethernet from a coaxial cable bus to a hub managed, twisted pair network was the introduction of the Star LAN. Here is a detailed explanation of this evolution: 1. Coaxial Cable Bus: - Initially, Ethernet networks were based on a coaxial cable bus topology. - In this setup, all devices were connected to a single cable, forming a bus-like structure. - Data was transmitted over the cable, and each device could listen to the data being transmitted. 2. Limitations of Coaxial Cable Bus: - The coaxial cable bus had limitations in terms of distance, speed, and scalability. - It had a limited maximum distance for data transmission. - As the network grew, the signal quality degraded, leading to performance issues. - The bus topology was also susceptible to collisions, resulting in data collisions and network congestion. 3. Introduction of Star LAN: - To overcome the limitations of the coaxial cable bus, the Star LAN topology was introduced. - In the Star LAN, each device is connected to a central device called a hub or switch using twisted pair cables. - The hub or switch acts as a central point for data transmission and management. 4. Advantages of Star LAN: - The Star LAN topology addressed the limitations of the coaxial cable bus. - It allowed for longer cable distances, as the hub or switch could regenerate and amplify the signal. - Each device had its own dedicated connection to the hub or switch, eliminating the signal degradation issues of the bus topology. - The star topology also reduced the likelihood of collisions, improving network performance and reliability. 5. Further Evolution: - After the introduction of the Star LAN, Ethernet continued to evolve. - Ring LAN and Mesh LAN are other network topologies that were developed, but they did not directly lead to the hub managed, twisted pair network evolution. - Ring LAN uses a ring topology, and Mesh LAN employs multiple direct connections between devices. In conclusion, the first step in the evolution of Ethernet from a coaxial cable bus to a hub managed, twisted pair network was the introduction of the Star LAN topology. This topology addressed the limitations of the coaxial cable bus and provided improved performance, scalability, and reliability for Ethernet networks.
IEEE 802.3ab defines Gigabit Ethernet transmission over unshielded twisted pair (UTP) category 5, 5e or 6 cabling known as ______.
Detailed Solution for Test: Networking and Multimedia- 1 - Question 9
IEEE 802.3ab and Gigabit Ethernet over UTP cabling IEEE 802.3ab: IEEE 802.3ab is a standard that defines the specifications for Gigabit Ethernet transmission over various types of cabling. It is also known as 1000BASE-T. Gigabit Ethernet over UTP: Gigabit Ethernet is a networking technology that provides data transmission at a rate of 1 gigabit per second (Gbps). It can be transmitted over various types of cabling, including unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables. UTP Category 5, 5e, and 6: UTP cables are commonly used for Ethernet networking. They consist of four pairs of twisted copper wires. The different categories of UTP cables indicate their performance characteristics, with higher categories providing better performance. - Category 5: This is the most basic type of UTP cable and supports data transmission up to 100 megabits per second (Mbps). - Category 5e: This enhanced version of Category 5 cable supports data transmission up to 1000 Mbps, making it suitable for Gigabit Ethernet. - Category 6: This is an improved version of Category 5e cable and offers even better performance. It also supports data transmission up to 1000 Mbps. 1000 BASE-T: 1000BASE-T is the Gigabit Ethernet standard defined by IEEE 802.3ab for transmission over UTP cabling. It specifically refers to Gigabit Ethernet over Category 5, 5e, or 6 UTP cables. Answer: Therefore, the correct answer is A: 1000 BASE-T, as defined by IEEE 802.3ab, for Gigabit Ethernet transmission over UTP Category 5, 5e, or 6 cabling.
Detailed Solution for Test: Networking and Multimedia- 1 - Question 10
Telnet is a Remote Login Protocol Telnet is a protocol that allows users to remotely log in to another computer or server over a network. It provides a virtual terminal connection, allowing users to access and interact with the remote system as if they were physically present. Here are some key points to understand about Telnet: 1. Definition: - Telnet is a network protocol used to establish a remote login session between a local client and a remote server. - It allows users to access and control the functions of a remote computer or server over a network. 2. Functionality: - Telnet enables users to log in to a remote system and perform various tasks and operations. - It provides a command-line interface to interact with the remote system's operating system and execute commands. 3. Client-Server Model: - Telnet follows a client-server model, where the local client initiates a connection request to the remote server. - The server listens for incoming Telnet connections on a specific port (default port 23) and responds to client requests. 4. Terminal Emulation: - Telnet provides terminal emulation, allowing the local client to access the remote system's command-line interface. - It emulates a terminal or console on the local machine, providing a text-based interface to interact with the remote server. 5. Security Concerns: - Telnet transmits data, including login credentials, in plain text format, making it vulnerable to eavesdropping and data interception. - Due to its lack of encryption, Telnet is considered insecure, and its usage is discouraged in favor of more secure protocols like SSH (Secure Shell). In conclusion, Telnet is a remote login protocol that allows users to establish a virtual terminal connection with a remote computer or server over a network. It provides a command-line interface for executing commands and accessing the remote system's functions. However, its lack of encryption makes it insecure for transmitting sensitive information, and alternative protocols like SSH are recommended for secure remote access.
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