A factual passage is composed of information about a particular subject in a clear, straightforward, and direct manner. These passages focus completely on details or facts. It gives a comprehensive view on the information provided and may include instructions to do something, a report about new findings, or a description of something. Most often, it also requires the students to study and interpret dues, decipher them, and answer the question given. Example: Head the passage given be Low.
(1) The Sahara sets a standard for dry land, It's the worlds largest desert. Relative humrdrty can drop into the low single digits. There are places where it rains only about once a century. There are people who reach the end of their lives without ever seeing water come from the sky. Yet beneath the Sahara are vast aquifers of fresh warer, enough liquid to fill a small sea. it is fossil water, a treasure laid down in prehistoric times, some of it possibly a million years old. Just years ago, the Sahara was quite a different place, it was green. Prehistoric rock art in the Sahara shows something surprising: hippopotamuses, who need water year round.
(2) We don't have much evidence of a tropical paradise out there, bu t we hod something perfectly livable, says Jennifer Smith, a geologist at Washington University in St Louis. At times when the Northern Hemisphere tilts sharply towards the sun and die planet makes its closest approach, the increased blast of sunlight during the North's summer months can cause the African monsoon fwhrch currently occurs between the Equator and roughly 17*N latitude,) to shift to the North as it did 10,000 years ago, inundating North Africa.
(3) Around 5,000 years ago, the monsoon shifted dramatically southward again. The prehistoric inhabitants of the Sahara discovered that their relatively green surroundings were undergoing something worse than a drought (and perhaps they migrated towards the Nile Walley, where Egyptian culture began to flourish at around the same time).
(4) As the land dried out and vegetation decreased, the soil, lost its ability to hold water when it rair>ed. Fev/er clouds formed from evaporation. When it rained1, the water washed away and evaporated quickly. There was a kind of runaway drying effect. Around 4,000 years ago, the Sahara became what it is today. No one knows how human-driven climate change may alter the Sahara in the future its something scientists can ponder while sipping bottled fossil water pumped from the underground. "Its the best water in Egypt, "Robert Giegengack a University of Pennsylvania geologist, said — clean, refreshing mineral water. If you want to drink something good, try the ancient buried treasure of the Sahara.
Choose the option that lists the correct answers for the following:
(1) The Sahara was quite a different place. It was green. When was this?
(2) The monsoon shifted dramatically southward again. When did this happen?