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Languages: Mock Test - 1


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40 Questions MCQ Test English Language Preparation for CUET | Languages: Mock Test - 1

Languages: Mock Test - 1 for Class 12 2023 is part of English Language Preparation for CUET preparation. The Languages: Mock Test - 1 questions and answers have been prepared according to the Class 12 exam syllabus.The Languages: Mock Test - 1 MCQs are made for Class 12 2023 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Languages: Mock Test - 1 below.
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Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 1

Ahmedabad’s Sunday market that sells waste is this 35-year-old artist’s most liked hunting ground. That’s where he picks saw-blades, printer toners, monitors, busted VCDs and hard disks, video players and other castaway gems.

Back in home, he dismantles his treasure of scrap and segregates it into big pieces (the videoplayer’s outer case), mid-sized (the insides of a hard disk) and small pieces (innards of a mobile).

This is art you can get up, close and personal with. The works grab the viewer’s attention at several levels.

Aesthetically, the creations themselves - such as Frivolity which uses feathers and terracotta diyas painted in dark fossil green that give it a strange life - appeal in a live-and-kicking sort of way.

Look a little closer and hey, you spot a zipper. Then it’s a journey all your own. Your eyes identify hairpins, spray spouts that hairdressers use, paper clips, thread, computer ribbons and the insides of everything from watches to the sliding metal bits that support drawers.

You can almost hear the words whirring.

So Hashissh, constructed from paper clips, backpack clips, a shining CD and twirled thread, may invite you to study its water-blue, pinks and green or Nelumbeshwar may beckon, bathed in acrylic pink and grey-black. But once you’re standing in front of a piece, you spot the zips and the hairpins. Then you simply visually dismantle Har’s work and rebuild it all over again. Zoom in, zoom out. It’s great fun.

Visualising the colour of his work demands a lot of attention, says Har. “During creation, the material is all differently coloured. So there’s a red switch next to a white panel next to a black clip. It can be distracting. I don’t sketch, so I have to keep a sharp focus on the final look I am working towards.”

As his work evolved, Har discovered laser-cutting on a visit to a factory where he had gone to sand-blast one of his pieces. Hooked by the zingy shapes laser-cutting offered, Har promptly used it to speed up a scooter and lend an unbearable lightness of being to a flighty auto rickshaw, his latest works.

The NID-trained animation designer’s scrap quest was first inspired by a spider in his bathroom in Chennai when he was a teenager. He used a table-tennis ball (for the head), a bigger plastic ball (for the body) and twisted clothes hangers to form the legs. His next idea was to create a crab, and his mother obligingly brought one home from the market so that he could study and copy it.

Winning the first Art Positive fellowship offered by Bajaj Capital Arthouse last year gave Har the confidence to believe that he could make it as an artist or ‘aesthete’ as he likes to call himself.

Q. According to the passage, which of the following statements can be inferred?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 1

The sixth paragraph helps provide the answer. The last line of this paragraph indicates that Har has to make a mental picture of his artwork before he creates it – he states that he does not sketch and so has to maintain sharp focus on the final work he wants to create. Therefore, option (a) is the correct answer. Option (b) can be ruled out because it is directly mentioned in the paragraph and this question demands an answer that is partially indirect. Option (c) cannot be inferred; however, in the third paragraph the author mentions why the artworks are aesthetically appealing without making a reference to colour. Option (d) is incorrect because in the sixth paragraph, Har states that the colours in his artwork can distract but he also goes on to mention that this is why he has to maintain sharp focus during creation. This line indicates that he avoids allowing his artworks to have distracting colour combinations.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 2

Ahmedabad’s Sunday market that sells waste is this 35-year-old artist’s most liked hunting ground. That’s where he picks saw-blades, printer toners, monitors, busted VCDs and hard disks, video players and other castaway gems.

Back in home, he dismantles his treasure of scrap and segregates it into big pieces (the videoplayer’s outer case), mid-sized (the insides of a hard disk) and small pieces (innards of a mobile).

This is art you can get up, close and personal with. The works grab the viewer’s attention at several levels.

Aesthetically, the creations themselves - such as Frivolity which uses feathers and terracotta diyas painted in dark fossil green that give it a strange life - appeal in a live-and-kicking sort of way.

Look a little closer and hey, you spot a zipper. Then it’s a journey all your own. Your eyes identify hairpins, spray spouts that hairdressers use, paper clips, thread, computer ribbons and the insides of everything from watches to the sliding metal bits that support drawers.

You can almost hear the words whirring.

So Hashissh, constructed from paper clips, backpack clips, a shining CD and twirled thread, may invite you to study its water-blue, pinks and green or Nelumbeshwar may beckon, bathed in acrylic pink and grey-black. But once you’re standing in front of a piece, you spot the zips and the hairpins. Then you simply visually dismantle Har’s work and rebuild it all over again. Zoom in, zoom out. It’s great fun.

Visualising the colour of his work demands a lot of attention, says Har. “During creation, the material is all differently coloured. So there’s a red switch next to a white panel next to a black clip. It can be distracting. I don’t sketch, so I have to keep a sharp focus on the final look I am working towards.”

As his work evolved, Har discovered laser-cutting on a visit to a factory where he had gone to sand-blast one of his pieces. Hooked by the zingy shapes laser-cutting offered, Har promptly used it to speed up a scooter and lend an unbearable lightness of being to a flighty auto rickshaw, his latest works.

The NID-trained animation designer’s scrap quest was first inspired by a spider in his bathroom in Chennai when he was a teenager. He used a table-tennis ball (for the head), a bigger plastic ball (for the body) and twisted clothes hangers to form the legs. His next idea was to create a crab, and his mother obligingly brought one home from the market so that he could study and copy it.

Winning the first Art Positive fellowship offered by Bajaj Capital Arthouse last year gave Har the confidence to believe that he could make it as an artist or ‘aesthete’ as he likes to call himself.

Q. Which of the following would be a suitable title for the given passage?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 2

The passage discusses how the artist takes articles of scrap and uses them to make his works of art.

He also has to pay attention to pre-planning his art work without the luxury of a sketch. This needs a lot of focus and also implies the process of reinventing the use for a piece of old scrap. Option (b) is the answer. Option (a) can be ruled out because it indicates that the author is reliving or refreshing past events/ memories. However, there is no evidence for this in the passage. Option (c) can be ruled out because it has a negative connotation – getting rid of art – and its ambiguity as well as its focus on the medium and not on the central idea of the passage makes it an unsuitable answer. Option (d) can be ruled out because it doesn’t bring in the connotation of reuse or reinvention – this is a primary element of Har’s work.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 3

Ahmedabad’s Sunday market that sells waste is this 35-year-old artist’s most liked hunting ground. That’s where he picks saw-blades, printer toners, monitors, busted VCDs and hard disks, video players and other castaway gems.

Back in home, he dismantles his treasure of scrap and segregates it into big pieces (the videoplayer’s outer case), mid-sized (the insides of a hard disk) and small pieces (innards of a mobile).

This is art you can get up, close and personal with. The works grab the viewer’s attention at several levels.

Aesthetically, the creations themselves - such as Frivolity which uses feathers and terracotta diyas painted in dark fossil green that give it a strange life - appeal in a live-and-kicking sort of way.

Look a little closer and hey, you spot a zipper. Then it’s a journey all your own. Your eyes identify hairpins, spray spouts that hairdressers use, paper clips, thread, computer ribbons and the insides of everything from watches to the sliding metal bits that support drawers.

You can almost hear the words whirring.

So Hashissh, constructed from paper clips, backpack clips, a shining CD and twirled thread, may invite you to study its water-blue, pinks and green or Nelumbeshwar may beckon, bathed in acrylic pink and grey-black. But once you’re standing in front of a piece, you spot the zips and the hairpins. Then you simply visually dismantle Har’s work and rebuild it all over again. Zoom in, zoom out. It’s great fun.

Visualising the colour of his work demands a lot of attention, says Har. “During creation, the material is all differently coloured. So there’s a red switch next to a white panel next to a black clip. It can be distracting. I don’t sketch, so I have to keep a sharp focus on the final look I am working towards.”

As his work evolved, Har discovered laser-cutting on a visit to a factory where he had gone to sand-blast one of his pieces. Hooked by the zingy shapes laser-cutting offered, Har promptly used it to speed up a scooter and lend an unbearable lightness of being to a flighty auto rickshaw, his latest works.

The NID-trained animation designer’s scrap quest was first inspired by a spider in his bathroom in Chennai when he was a teenager. He used a table-tennis ball (for the head), a bigger plastic ball (for the body) and twisted clothes hangers to form the legs. His next idea was to create a crab, and his mother obligingly brought one home from the market so that he could study and copy it.

Winning the first Art Positive fellowship offered by Bajaj Capital Arthouse last year gave Har the confidence to believe that he could make it as an artist or ‘aesthete’ as he likes to call himself.

Q. What does the word 'a

Q. What does the word 'aesthete' as used in the passage mean?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 3

Option (d) is very close; however, it cannot be the answer as the word 'aesthete' as used to mean an art lover or a lover of beautiful things. Therefore, option B is the answer.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 4

Ahmedabad’s Sunday market that sells waste is this 35-year-old artist’s most liked hunting ground. That’s where he picks saw-blades, printer toners, monitors, busted VCDs and hard disks, video players and other castaway gems.

Back in home, he dismantles his treasure of scrap and segregates it into big pieces (the videoplayer’s outer case), mid-sized (the insides of a hard disk) and small pieces (innards of a mobile).

This is art you can get up, close and personal with. The works grab the viewer’s attention at several levels.

Aesthetically, the creations themselves - such as Frivolity which uses feathers and terracotta diyas painted in dark fossil green that give it a strange life - appeal in a live-and-kicking sort of way.

Look a little closer and hey, you spot a zipper. Then it’s a journey all your own. Your eyes identify hairpins, spray spouts that hairdressers use, paper clips, thread, computer ribbons and the insides of everything from watches to the sliding metal bits that support drawers.

You can almost hear the words whirring.

So Hashissh, constructed from paper clips, backpack clips, a shining CD and twirled thread, may invite you to study its water-blue, pinks and green or Nelumbeshwar may beckon, bathed in acrylic pink and grey-black. But once you’re standing in front of a piece, you spot the zips and the hairpins. Then you simply visually dismantle Har’s work and rebuild it all over again. Zoom in, zoom out. It’s great fun.

Visualising the colour of his work demands a lot of attention, says Har. “During creation, the material is all differently coloured. So there’s a red switch next to a white panel next to a black clip. It can be distracting. I don’t sketch, so I have to keep a sharp focus on the final look I am working towards.”

As his work evolved, Har discovered laser-cutting on a visit to a factory where he had gone to sand-blast one of his pieces. Hooked by the zingy shapes laser-cutting offered, Har promptly used it to speed up a scooter and lend an unbearable lightness of being to a flighty auto rickshaw, his latest works.

The NID-trained animation designer’s scrap quest was first inspired by a spider in his bathroom in Chennai when he was a teenager. He used a table-tennis ball (for the head), a bigger plastic ball (for the body) and twisted clothes hangers to form the legs. His next idea was to create a crab, and his mother obligingly brought one home from the market so that he could study and copy it.

Winning the first Art Positive fellowship offered by Bajaj Capital Arthouse last year gave Har the confidence to believe that he could make it as an artist or ‘aesthete’ as he likes to call himself.

Q. Which of the following is true according to the given passage?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 4

Option (c) is the correct answer. 'Friv olity' is mentioned in the third paragraph; 'Hashissh' and 'Nelumbeshwar' are mentioned in the fifth paragraph.

Har calls himself 'aesthete'; so, option (a) is incorrect. Har's second creation was a crab. So, option (b) is also incorrect. Option (d) is also incorrect because as a teenager Har used a table tennis ball (for the head), a bigger plastic ball (for the body) and twisted clothes hangers to form the legs of a spider.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 5

Ahmedabad’s Sunday market that sells waste is this 35-year-old artist’s most liked hunting ground. That’s where he picks saw-blades, printer toners, monitors, busted VCDs and hard disks, video players and other castaway gems.

Back in home, he dismantles his treasure of scrap and segregates it into big pieces (the videoplayer’s outer case), mid-sized (the insides of a hard disk) and small pieces (innards of a mobile).

This is art you can get up, close and personal with. The works grab the viewer’s attention at several levels.

Aesthetically, the creations themselves - such as Frivolity which uses feathers and terracotta diyas painted in dark fossil green that give it a strange life - appeal in a live-and-kicking sort of way.

Look a little closer and hey, you spot a zipper. Then it’s a journey all your own. Your eyes identify hairpins, spray spouts that hairdressers use, paper clips, thread, computer ribbons and the insides of everything from watches to the sliding metal bits that support drawers.

You can almost hear the words whirring.

So Hashissh, constructed from paper clips, backpack clips, a shining CD and twirled thread, may invite you to study its water-blue, pinks and green or Nelumbeshwar may beckon, bathed in acrylic pink and grey-black. But once you’re standing in front of a piece, you spot the zips and the hairpins. Then you simply visually dismantle Har’s work and rebuild it all over again. Zoom in, zoom out. It’s great fun.

Visualising the colour of his work demands a lot of attention, says Har. “During creation, the material is all differently coloured. So there’s a red switch next to a white panel next to a black clip. It can be distracting. I don’t sketch, so I have to keep a sharp focus on the final look I am working towards.”

As his work evolved, Har discovered laser-cutting on a visit to a factory where he had gone to sand-blast one of his pieces. Hooked by the zingy shapes laser-cutting offered, Har promptly used it to speed up a scooter and lend an unbearable lightness of being to a flighty auto rickshaw, his latest works.

The NID-trained animation designer’s scrap quest was first inspired by a spider in his bathroom in Chennai when he was a teenager. He used a table-tennis ball (for the head), a bigger plastic ball (for the body) and twisted clothes hangers to form the legs. His next idea was to create a crab, and his mother obligingly brought one home from the market so that he could study and copy it.Winning the first Art Positive fellowship offered by Bajaj Capital Arthouse last year gave Har the confidence to believe that he could make it as an artist or ‘aesthete’ as he likes to call himself.

Q. According to the author, what makes Har ’s art fun?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 5

The fifth paragraph talks about Har’s artworks being fun. The author states that the observer can visually dismantle the artwork and then again rebuild it (look at it again in the overall context). And one can keep doing this – zooming in on one element and then zooming out to see the whole picture. Option (c) best captures the essence of this paragraph. Option (a) has been mentioned in the third paragraph but in the context of why Har’s artworks are aesthetically appealing. Option (b) is incorrect because there is no mention in the passage about the kind of audience that is targeted through Har’s artwork. Option (d) can be partially inferred from the fourth paragraph that indicates that Har’s artworks have a life in them. However, there isn’t enough information to suggest that an energetic and vivacious quality in the artworks makes them fun.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 6

Ahmedabad’s Sunday market that sells waste is this 35-year-old artist’s most liked hunting ground. That’s where he picks saw-blades, printer toners, monitors, busted VCDs and hard disks, video players and other castaway gems.

Back in home, he dismantles his treasure of scrap and segregates it into big pieces (the videoplayer’s outer case), mid-sized (the insides of a hard disk) and small pieces (innards of a mobile).

This is art you can get up, close and personal with. The works grab the viewer’s attention at several levels.

Aesthetically, the creations themselves - such as Frivolity which uses feathers and terracotta diyas painted in dark fossil green that give it a strange life - appeal in a live-and-kicking sort of way.

Look a little closer and hey, you spot a zipper. Then it’s a journey all your own. Your eyes identify hairpins, spray spouts that hairdressers use, paper clips, thread, computer ribbons and the insides of everything from watches to the sliding metal bits that support drawers.

You can almost hear the words whirring.

So Hashissh, constructed from paper clips, backpack clips, a shining CD and twirled thread, may invite you to study its water-blue, pinks and green or Nelumbeshwar may beckon, bathed in acrylic pink and grey-black. But once you’re standing in front of a piece, you spot the zips and the hairpins. Then you simply visually dismantle Har’s work and rebuild it all over again. Zoom in, zoom out. It’s great fun.

Visualising the colour of his work demands a lot of attention, says Har. “During creation, the material is all differently coloured. So there’s a red switch next to a white panel next to a black clip. It can be distracting. I don’t sketch, so I have to keep a sharp focus on the final look I am working towards.”

As his work evolved, Har discovered laser-cutting on a visit to a factory where he had gone to sand-blast one of his pieces. Hooked by the zingy shapes laser-cutting offered, Har promptly used it to speed up a scooter and lend an unbearable lightness of being to a flighty auto rickshaw, his latest works.

The NID-trained animation designer’s scrap quest was first inspired by a spider in his bathroom in Chennai when he was a teenager. He used a table-tennis ball (for the head), a bigger plastic ball (for the body) and twisted clothes hangers to form the legs. His next idea was to create a crab, and his mother obligingly brought one home from the market so that he could study and copy it.

Winning the first Art Positive fellowship offered by Bajaj Capital Arthouse last year gave Har the confidence to believe that he could make it as an artist or ‘aesthete’ as he likes to call himself.

Q. Which of the following statements cannot be inferred from the passage?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 6

The sixth paragraph of the passage says that visualizing demands a lot of attention as it involves a lot of colour combinations. Since Har doesn’t sketch, so he has to keep a sharp focus on the final look without getting distracted. So, option (c) is incorrect and hence, cannot be inferred from the passage. Options (a) and (d) are mentioned in the penultimate paragraph. Option (b) can be inferred from the second and third paragraphs. The author says that his artwork grabs the viewers’ attention at various levels and the material used is so striking that it takes the viewer through a new journey.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 7

Ahmedabad’s Sunday market that sells waste is this 35-year-old artist’s most liked hunting ground. That’s where he picks saw-blades, printer toners, monitors, busted VCDs and hard disks, video players and other castaway gems.

Back in home, he dismantles his treasure of scrap and segregates it into big pieces (the videoplayer’s outer case), mid-sized (the insides of a hard disk) and small pieces (innards of a mobile).

This is art you can get up, close and personal with. The works grab the viewer’s attention at several levels.

Aesthetically, the creations themselves - such as Frivolity which uses feathers and terracotta diyas painted in dark fossil green that give it a strange life - appeal in a live-and-kicking sort of way.

Look a little closer and hey, you spot a zipper. Then it’s a journey all your own. Your eyes identify hairpins, spray spouts that hairdressers use, paper clips, thread, computer ribbons and the insides of everything from watches to the sliding metal bits that support drawers.

You can almost hear the words whirring.

So Hashissh, constructed from paper clips, backpack clips, a shining CD and twirled thread, may invite you to study its water-blue, pinks and green or Nelumbeshwar may beckon, bathed in acrylic pink and grey-black. But once you’re standing in front of a piece, you spot the zips and the hairpins. Then you simply visually dismantle Har’s work and rebuild it all over again. Zoom in, zoom out. It’s great fun.

Visualising the colour of his work demands a lot of attention, says Har. “During creation, the material is all differently coloured. So there’s a red switch next to a white panel next to a black clip. It can be distracting. I don’t sketch, so I have to keep a sharp focus on the final look I am working towards.”

As his work evolved, Har discovered laser-cutting on a visit to a factory where he had gone to sand-blast one of his pieces. Hooked by the zingy shapes laser-cutting offered, Har promptly used it to speed up a scooter and lend an unbearable lightness of being to a flighty auto rickshaw, his latest works.

The NID-trained animation designer’s scrap quest was first inspired by a spider in his bathroom in Chennai when he was a teenager. He used a table-tennis ball (for the head), a bigger plastic ball (for the body) and twisted clothes hangers to form the legs. His next idea was to create a crab, and his mother obligingly brought one home from the market so that he could study and copy it.

Winning the first Art Positive fellowship offered by Bajaj Capital Arthouse last year gave Har the confidence to believe that he could make it as an artist or ‘aesthete’ as he likes to call himself.

Q. In the light of the given passage which of the following in not true?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 7

Options (a), (b) and (c) are all true. They are mentioned in the passage. Option (d) is not true as Hashissh is constructed from paper clips, backpack clips, a shining CD and twirled thread. So, option (d) is the answer.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 8

Ahmedabad’s Sunday market that sells waste is this 35-year-old artist’s most liked hunting ground. That’s where he picks saw-blades, printer toners, monitors, busted VCDs and hard disks, video players and other castaway gems.

Back in home, he dismantles his treasure of scrap and segregates it into big pieces (the videoplayer’s outer case), mid-sized (the insides of a hard disk) and small pieces (innards of a mobile).

This is art you can get up, close and personal with. The works grab the viewer’s attention at several levels.

Aesthetically, the creations themselves - such as Frivolity which uses feathers and terracotta diyas painted in dark fossil green that give it a strange life - appeal in a live-and-kicking sort of way.

Look a little closer and hey, you spot a zipper. Then it’s a journey all your own. Your eyes identify hairpins, spray spouts that hairdressers use, paper clips, thread, computer ribbons and the insides of everything from watches to the sliding metal bits that support drawers.

You can almost hear the words whirring.

So Hashissh, constructed from paper clips, backpack clips, a shining CD and twirled thread, may invite you to study its water-blue, pinks and green or Nelumbeshwar may beckon, bathed in acrylic pink and grey-black. But once you’re standing in front of a piece, you spot the zips and the hairpins. Then you simply visually dismantle Har’s work and rebuild it all over again. Zoom in, zoom out. It’s great fun.

Visualising the colour of his work demands a lot of attention, says Har. “During creation, the material is all differently coloured. So there’s a red switch next to a white panel next to a black clip. It can be distracting. I don’t sketch, so I have to keep a sharp focus on the final look I am working towards.”

As his work evolved, Har discovered laser-cutting on a visit to a factory where he had gone to sand-blast one of his pieces. Hooked by the zingy shapes laser-cutting offered, Har promptly used it to speed up a scooter and lend an unbearable lightness of being to a flighty auto rickshaw, his latest works.

The NID-trained animation designer’s scrap quest was first inspired by a spider in his bathroom in Chennai when he was a teenager. He used a table-tennis ball (for the head), a bigger plastic ball (for the body) and twisted clothes hangers to form the legs. His next idea was to create a crab, and his mother obligingly brought one home from the market so that he could study and copy it.

Winning the first Art Positive fellowship offered by Bajaj Capital Arthouse last year gave Har the confidence to believe that he could make it as an artist or ‘aesthete’ as he likes to call himself.

Q. What is the Central idea of the given passage?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 8

Options (b) and (c) seem correct but they are not too narrow. Option (d) is too generic. Only option (a) is encompasses the entire passage, hence, it is the answer.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 9

A recent incident precipitated the crisis in the already distressed sector. The Supreme Court's 24 October 2019 (Union of India v Association of Unified Telecom Service Providers of India) ruling ordered the telecom companies to pay up all that they owed in the form of levies, arrears, penalties and interest payments penalties through the last 15 years. The dispute was on how to calculate the gross adjusted revenues from which the government levies a tax. The companies contended that only their revenues arising out of their use of spectrum be considered. The Department of Telecommunications (DoT), however, also included all their indirect earnings that form the adjusted gross revenue (AGR). This would include, for example, dividends and revenue from sale of handsets that are bundled with services, interest income, scrap sale or even rental income. The Supreme Court upheld the DoT's view in its October order.

This definition of AGR spikes up the arrears, penalties and interest payments to a value close to Rs. 92,000 crore to be paid by the telecom firms in three months.

This value, in an industry that is already saddled with a huge debt, is a matter of serious concern. While Bharti Airtel and Vodafone-Idea have to pay Rs. 29,000 crore and Rs. 33,000 crore respectively, Reliance Jio, which is a new entrant, needs to pay Rs. 13,000 crore, due to its purchase of Reliance communication’s liabilities. Vodafone-Idea's cash reserves do not even match up to the penalty amount, making it seriously consider closing down. Vodafone-Idea reported a loss of almost Rs. 50,000 crore in the quarter ending in September 2019 (compared with Rs. 5,000 crore last year in the same quarter). This is, by many accounts, the largest loss by an Indian company.

Airtel's story is also woeful, reporting a loss of Rs. 23,000 crore.

These numbers are staggeringly high, enough to break a company down. Price wars in the last two years had led to a considerable bleeding of the incumbents already.

Vodafone-Idea's future seems uncertain. Since the company owes huge debts to public banks, and has a number of dependent vendors, a ripple effect may hurt the overall economy. Lawmakers are genuinely worried and companies are trying hard to strike a deal with the government. A committee of secretaries was formed to consider a relief package for the beleaguered industry.

They have granted a two-year moratorium on the spectrum payments, offering some cash flow relief, but do not touch the Supreme Court-imposed penalty.

Estimates reveal that this package does not make much of a difference. Conversations on the bailout have begun.

While this may not be a good sign, there is a need to dig deeper.

Q. What was the dispute which was rectified by the Supreme Court in the judgement?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 9

Option (b) is the correct answer as the dispute was on how to calculate the gross adjusted revenues from which the government levies a tax. Option (a) is incorrect as it is an issue which was not in contention before the Supreme Court. Options (c) and (d) are incorrect as they do not find mention in the passage and are vague.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 10

A recent incident precipitated the crisis in the already distressed sector. The Supreme Court's 24 October 2019 (Union of India v Association of Unified Telecom Service Providers of India) ruling ordered the telecom companies to pay up all that they owed in the form of levies, arrears, penalties and interest payments penalties through the last 15 years. The dispute was on how to calculate the gross adjusted revenues from which the government levies a tax. The companies contended that only their revenues arising out of their use of spectrum be considered. The Department of Telecommunications (DoT), however, also included all their indirect earnings that form the adjusted gross revenue (AGR). This would include, for example, dividends and revenue from sale of handsets that are bundled with services, interest income, scrap sale or even rental income. The Supreme Court upheld the DoT's view in its October order.

This definition of AGR spikes up the arrears, penalties and interest payments to a value close to Rs. 92,000 crore to be paid by the telecom firms in three months.

This value, in an industry that is already saddled with a huge debt, is a matter of serious concern. While Bharti Airtel and Vodafone-Idea have to pay Rs. 29,000 crore and Rs. 33,000 crore respectively, Reliance Jio, which is a new entrant, needs to pay Rs. 13,000 crore, due to its purchase of Reliance communication’s liabilities. Vodafone-Idea's cash reserves do not even match up to the penalty amount, making it seriously consider closing down. Vodafone-Idea reported a loss of almost Rs. 50,000 crore in the quarter ending in September 2019 (compared with Rs. 5,000 crore last year in the same quarter). This is, by many accounts, the largest loss by an Indian company.

Airtel's story is also woeful, reporting a loss of Rs. 23,000 crore.

These numbers are staggeringly high, enough to break a company down. Price wars in the last two years had led to a considerable bleeding of the incumbents already.

Vodafone-Idea's future seems uncertain. Since the company owes huge debts to public banks, and has a number of dependent vendors, a ripple effect may hurt the overall economy. Lawmakers are genuinely worried and companies are trying hard to strike a deal with the government. A committee of secretaries was formed to consider a relief package for the beleaguered industry.

They have granted a two-year moratorium on the spectrum payments, offering some cash flow relief, but do not touch the Supreme Court-imposed penalty.

Estimates reveal that this package does not make much of a difference. Conversations on the bailout have begun.

While this may not be a good sign, there is a need to dig deeper.

Q. In what context has the term 'ruling' been used in the passage?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 10

Option (b) is the correct answer as the term 'ruling' has been used to refer to the judgement of the Supreme Court of India which is the highest court of law of in the country.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 11

A recent incident precipitated the crisis in the already distressed sector. The Supreme Court's 24 October 2019 (Union of India v Association of Unified Telecom Service Providers of India) ruling ordered the telecom companies to pay up all that they owed in the form of levies, arrears, penalties and interest payments penalties through the last 15 years. The dispute was on how to calculate the gross adjusted revenues from which the government levies a tax. The companies contended that only their revenues arising out of their use of spectrum be considered. The Department of Telecommunications (DoT), however, also included all their indirect earnings that form the adjusted gross revenue (AGR). This would include, for example, dividends and revenue from sale of handsets that are bundled with services, interest income, scrap sale or even rental income. The Supreme Court upheld the DoT's view in its October order.

This definition of AGR spikes up the arrears, penalties and interest payments to a value close to Rs. 92,000 crore to be paid by the telecom firms in three months.

This value, in an industry that is already saddled with a huge debt, is a matter of serious concern. While Bharti Airtel and Vodafone-Idea have to pay Rs. 29,000 crore and Rs. 33,000 crore respectively, Reliance Jio, which is a new entrant, needs to pay Rs. 13,000 crore, due to its purchase of Reliance communication’s liabilities. Vodafone-Idea's cash reserves do not even match up to the penalty amount, making it seriously consider closing down. Vodafone-Idea reported a loss of almost Rs. 50,000 crore in the quarter ending in September 2019 (compared with Rs. 5,000 crore last year in the same quarter). This is, by many accounts, the largest loss by an Indian company.

Airtel's story is also woeful, reporting a loss of Rs. 23,000 crore.

These numbers are staggeringly high, enough to break a company down. Price wars in the last two years had led to a considerable bleeding of the incumbents already.

Vodafone-Idea's future seems uncertain. Since the company owes huge debts to public banks, and has a number of dependent vendors, a ripple effect may hurt the overall economy. Lawmakers are genuinely worried and companies are trying hard to strike a deal with the government. A committee of secretaries was formed to consider a relief package for the beleaguered industry.

They have granted a two-year moratorium on the spectrum payments, offering some cash flow relief, but do not touch the Supreme Court-imposed penalty.

Estimates reveal that this package does not make much of a difference. Conversations on the bailout have begun.

While this may not be a good sign, there is a need to dig deeper.

Q. What is the meaning of the term 'moratorium' as used in the passage?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 11

Option (d) is the correct answer as the term 'moratorium' is used for a period where the assets and accounts of the company are frozen in order to stop it from engaging in transactions.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 12

A recent incident precipitated the crisis in the already distressed sector. The Supreme Court's 24 October 2019 (Union of India v Association of Unified Telecom Service Providers of India) ruling ordered the telecom companies to pay up all that they owed in the form of levies, arrears, penalties and interest payments penalties through the last 15 years. The dispute was on how to calculate the gross adjusted revenues from which the government levies a tax. The companies contended that only their revenues arising out of their use of spectrum be considered. The Department of Telecommunications (DoT), however, also included all their indirect earnings that form the adjusted gross revenue (AGR). This would include, for example, dividends and revenue from sale of handsets that are bundled with services, interest income, scrap sale or even rental income. The Supreme Court upheld the DoT's view in its October order.

This definition of AGR spikes up the arrears, penalties and interest payments to a value close to Rs. 92,000 crore to be paid by the telecom firms in three months.

This value, in an industry that is already saddled with a huge debt, is a matter of serious concern. While Bharti Airtel and Vodafone-Idea have to pay Rs. 29,000 crore and Rs. 33,000 crore respectively, Reliance Jio, which is a new entrant, needs to pay Rs. 13,000 crore, due to its purchase of Reliance communication’s liabilities. Vodafone-Idea's cash reserves do not even match up to the penalty amount, making it seriously consider closing down. Vodafone-Idea reported a loss of almost Rs. 50,000 crore in the quarter ending in September 2019 (compared with Rs. 5,000 crore last year in the same quarter). This is, by many accounts, the largest loss by an Indian company.

Airtel's story is also woeful, reporting a loss of Rs. 23,000 crore.

These numbers are staggeringly high, enough to break a company down. Price wars in the last two years had led to a considerable bleeding of the incumbents already.

Vodafone-Idea's future seems uncertain. Since the company owes huge debts to public banks, and has a number of dependent vendors, a ripple effect may hurt the overall economy. Lawmakers are genuinely worried and companies are trying hard to strike a deal with the government. A committee of secretaries was formed to consider a relief package for the beleaguered industry.

They have granted a two-year moratorium on the spectrum payments, offering some cash flow relief, but do not touch the Supreme Court-imposed penalty.

Estimates reveal that this package does not make much of a difference. Conversations on the bailout have begun.

While this may not be a good sign, there is a need to dig deeper.

Q. Why does the author think that the package would not make much of a difference?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 12

Option (a) is the correct answer as, according to the passage, the deal which is being managed between the government and telecom companies do not address the penalties imposed by the Supreme Court which is the main cause of concern.

Option (b) is incorrect as it states the effect of the package rather than addressing the cause of its failure. Options (c) and (d) are incorrect as they enlist the reliefs being offered by the government and it fails to address the question being asked.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 13

A recent incident precipitated the crisis in the already distressed sector. The Supreme Court's 24 October 2019 (Union of India v Association of Unified Telecom Service Providers of India) ruling ordered the telecom companies to pay up all that they owed in the form of levies, arrears, penalties and interest payments penalties through the last 15 years. The dispute was on how to calculate the gross adjusted revenues from which the government levies a tax. The companies contended that only their revenues arising out of their use of spectrum be considered. The Department of Telecommunications (DoT), however, also included all their indirect earnings that form the adjusted gross revenue (AGR). This would include, for example, dividends and revenue from sale of handsets that are bundled with services, interest income, scrap sale or even rental income. The Supreme Court upheld the DoT's view in its October order.

This definition of AGR spikes up the arrears, penalties and interest payments to a value close to Rs. 92,000 crore to be paid by the telecom firms in three months.

This value, in an industry that is already saddled with a huge debt, is a matter of serious concern. While Bharti Airtel and Vodafone-Idea have to pay Rs. 29,000 crore and Rs. 33,000 crore respectively, Reliance Jio, which is a new entrant, needs to pay Rs. 13,000 crore, due to its purchase of Reliance communication’s liabilities. Vodafone-Idea's cash reserves do not even match up to the penalty amount, making it seriously consider closing down. Vodafone-Idea reported a loss of almost Rs. 50,000 crore in the quarter ending in September 2019 (compared with Rs. 5,000 crore last year in the same quarter). This is, by many accounts, the largest loss by an Indian company.

Airtel's story is also woeful, reporting a loss of Rs. 23,000 crore.

These numbers are staggeringly high, enough to break a company down. Price wars in the last two years had led to a considerable bleeding of the incumbents already.

Vodafone-Idea's future seems uncertain. Since the company owes huge debts to public banks, and has a number of dependent vendors, a ripple effect may hurt the overall economy. Lawmakers are genuinely worried and companies are trying hard to strike a deal with the government. A committee of secretaries was formed to consider a relief package for the beleaguered industry.

They have granted a two-year moratorium on the spectrum payments, offering some cash flow relief, but do not touch the Supreme Court-imposed penalty.

Estimates reveal that this package does not make much of a difference. Conversations on the bailout have begun.

While this may not be a good sign, there is a need to dig deeper.

Q. Which of the following would not be a part of the adjusted gross revenue of the companies?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 13

Option (c) is the correct answer as it does not find mention in the list of revenue heads which come under the purview of adjusted gross revenue according to the Department of Telecommunications.

All other options are incorrect as they form a part of the adjusted gross revenue of the companies.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 14

That the doctrines connected with the name of Mr Darwin are altering our principles has become a sort of commonplace thing to say. And moral principles are said to share in this general transformation. Now, to pass by other subjects, I do not see why Darwinism need change our ultimate moral ideas. It was not to modify our conception of the end, either for the community, or the individual, unless we have been holding views, which long before Darwin were out of date. As to the principles of ethics I perceive, in short, no sign of revolution. Darwinism has indeed helped many to truer conception of the end, but I cannot admit that it has either originated or modified that conception.

And yet in ethics Darwinism after all perhaps may be revolutionary, it may lead not to another view about the end, but to a different way of regarding the relative importance of the means. For in the ordinary moral creed those means seem estimated on no rational principle.

Our creed appears rather to be an irrational mixture of jarring elements. We have the moral code of Christianity, accepted in part; rejected practically by all save a few fanatics. But we do not realise how in its very principle the Christian ideals are false. And when we reject this code for another and in part a sounder morality, we are in the same condition of blindness and of practical confusion. It is here that Darwinism, with all the tendencies we may group under that name, seems destined to intervene. It will make itself felt, I believe, more and more effectually. It may force on us in some points a correction of our moral views, and a return to a non-Christian and perhaps a Hellenic ideal. I propose to illustrate here these general statements by some remarks on Punishment.

Darwinism, I have said, has not even modified our ideas of the Chief Good. We may take that as - the welfare of the community realised in its members. There is, of course, a question as to meaning to be given to welfare.

We may identify that with mere pleasure, or gain with mere system, or may rather view both as inseparable aspects of perfection and individuality. And the extent and nature of the community would once more be a subject for some discussion. But we are forced to enter on these controversies here. We may leave welfare undefined, and for present purpose need not distinguish the community from the state. The welfare of this whole exists, of course, nowhere outside the individuals, and the individuals again have rights and duties only as members in the whole.

Q. What, according to the passage, is the Chief Good?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 14

The Chief Good refers to the welf are of the community realized in its members. Option (c) is evident in the beginning of paragraph 3.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 15

That the doctrines connected with the name of Mr Darwin are altering our principles has become a sort of commonplace thing to say. And moral principles are said to share in this general transformation. Now, to pass by other subjects, I do not see why Darwinism need change our ultimate moral ideas. It was not to modify our conception of the end, either for the community, or the individual, unless we have been holding views, which long before Darwin were out of date. As to the principles of ethics I perceive, in short, no sign of revolution. Darwinism has indeed helped many to truer conception of the end, but I cannot admit that it has either originated or modified that conception.

And yet in ethics Darwinism after all perhaps may be revolutionary, it may lead not to another view about the end, but to a different way of regarding the relative importance of the means. For in the ordinary moral creed those means seem estimated on no rational principle.

Our creed appears rather to be an irrational mixture of jarring elements. We have the moral code of Christianity, accepted in part; rejected practically by all save a few fanatics. But we do not realise how in its very principle the Christian ideals are false. And when we reject this code for another and in part a sounder morality, we are in the same condition of blindness and of practical confusion. It is here that Darwinism, with all the tendencies we may group under that name, seems destined to intervene. It will make itself felt, I believe, more and more effectually. It may force on us in some points a correction of our moral views, and a return to a non-Christian and perhaps a Hellenic ideal. I propose to illustrate here these general statements by some remarks on Punishment.

Darwinism, I have said, has not even modified our ideas of the Chief Good. We may take that as - the welfare of the community realised in its members. There is, of course, a question as to meaning to be given to welfare.

We may identify that with mere pleasure, or gain with mere system, or may rather view both as inseparable aspects of perfection and individuality. And the extent and nature of the community would once more be a subject for some discussion. But we are forced to enter on these controversies here. We may leave welfare undefined, and for present purpose need not distinguish the community from the state. The welfare of this whole exists, of course, nowhere outside the individuals, and the individuals again have rights and duties only as members in the whole.

Q. According to the author, the moral code of Christianity

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 15

The moral code of Christianity has been rejected by all except fanatics. In the paragraph 2, read the lines, "....we have the moral code of Christianity, accepted.... a few fanatics." This makes option (d) correct.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 16

That the doctrines connected with the name of Mr Darwin are altering our principles has become a sort of commonplace thing to say. And moral principles are said to share in this general transformation. Now, to pass by other subjects, I do not see why Darwinism need change our ultimate moral ideas. It was not to modify our conception of the end, either for the community, or the individual, unless we have been holding views, which long before Darwin were out of date. As to the principles of ethics I perceive, in short, no sign of revolution. Darwinism has indeed helped many to truer conception of the end, but I cannot admit that it has either originated or modified that conception.

And yet in ethics Darwinism after all perhaps may be revolutionary, it may lead not to another view about the end, but to a different way of regarding the relative importance of the means. For in the ordinary moral creed those means seem estimated on no rational principle.

Our creed appears rather to be an irrational mixture of jarring elements. We have the moral code of Christianity, accepted in part; rejected practically by all save a few fanatics. But we do not realise how in its very principle the Christian ideals are false. And when we reject this code for another and in part a sounder morality, we are in the same condition of blindness and of practical confusion. It is here that Darwinism, with all the tendencies we may group under that name, seems destined to intervene. It will make itself felt, I believe, more and more effectually. It may force on us in some points a correction of our moral views, and a return to a non-Christian and perhaps a Hellenic ideal. I propose to illustrate here these general statements by some remarks on Punishment.

Darwinism, I have said, has not even modified our ideas of the Chief Good. We may take that as - the welfare of the community realised in its members. There is, of course, a question as to meaning to be given to welfare.

We may identify that with mere pleasure, or gain with mere system, or may rather view both as inseparable aspects of perfection and individuality. And the extent and nature of the community would once more be a subject for some discussion. But we are forced to enter on these controversies here. We may leave welfare undefined, and for present purpose need not distinguish the community from the state. The welfare of this whole exists, of course, nowhere outside the individuals, and the individuals again have rights and duties only as members in the whole.

Q. According to the author, the doctrines of Mr Darwin

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 16

The author finds no reason why the doctrines of Darwin should change our moral ideas. This is highlighted throughout the passage. Except (c) all the other options are inappropriate.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 17

That the doctrines connected with the name of Mr Darwin are altering our principles has become a sort of commonplace thing to say. And moral principles are said to share in this general transformation. Now, to pass by other subjects, I do not see why Darwinism need change our ultimate moral ideas. It was not to modify our conception of the end, either for the community, or the individual, unless we have been holding views, which long before Darwin were out of date. As to the principles of ethics I perceive, in short, no sign of revolution. Darwinism has indeed helped many to truer conception of the end, but I cannot admit that it has either originated or modified that conception.

And yet in ethics Darwinism after all perhaps may be revolutionary, it may lead not to another view about the end, but to a different way of regarding the relative importance of the means. For in the ordinary moral creed those means seem estimated on no rational principle.

Our creed appears rather to be an irrational mixture of shaking elements. We have the moral code of Christianity, accepted in part; rejected practically by all save a few fanatics. But we do not realise how in its very principle the Christian ideals are false. And when we reject this code for another and in part a sounder morality, we are in the same condition of blindness and of practical confusion. It is here that Darwinism, with all the tendencies we may group under that name, seems destined to intervene. It will make itself felt, I believe, more and more effectually. It may force on us in some points a correction of our moral views, and a return to a non-Christian and perhaps a Hellenic ideal. I propose to illustrate here these general statements by some remarks on Retribution.

Darwinism, I have said, has not even modified our ideas of the Chief Good. We may take that as - the welfare of the community realised in its members. There is, of course, a question as to meaning to be given to welfare.

We may identify that with mere pleasure, or gain with mere system, or may rather view both as inseparable aspects of perfection and individuality. And the extent and nature of the community would once more be a subject for some discussion. But we are forced to enter on these controversies here. We may leave welfare undefined, and for present purpose need not distinguish the community from the state. The welfare of this whole exists, of course, nowhere outside the individuals, and the individuals again have rights and duties only as members in the whole.

Q. It is implied in the passage that

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 17

The author advocates a return to a non-Christian and perhaps a Hellenic ideal. Read the penultimate line of paragraph 2, "…a correction of our moral views and a return to a non-Christian and perhaps a Hellenic ideal...." This makes option (b) correct.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 18

That the doctrines connected with the name of Mr Darwin are altering our principles has become a sort of commonplace thing to say. And moral principles are said to share in this general transformation. Now, to pass by other subjects, I do not see why Darwinism need change our ultimate moral ideas. It was not to modify our conception of the end, either for the community, or the individual, unless we have been holding views, which long before Darwin were out of date. As to the principles of ethics I perceive, in short, no sign of revolution. Darwinism has indeed helped many to truer conception of the end, but I cannot admit that it has either originated or modified that conception.

And yet in ethics Darwinism after all perhaps may be revolutionary, it may lead not to another view about the end, but to a different way of regarding the relative importance of the means. For in the ordinary moral creed those means seem estimated on no rational principle.

Our creed appears rather to be an irrational mixture of shaking elements. We have the moral code of Christianity, accepted in part; rejected practically by all save a few fanatics. But we do not realise how in its very principle the Christian ideals are false. And when we reject this code for another and in part a sounder morality, we are in the same condition of blindness and of practical confusion. It is here that Darwinism, with all the tendencies we may group under that name, seems destined to intervene. It will make itself felt, I believe, more and more effectually. It may force on us in some points a correction of our moral views, and a return to a non-Christian and perhaps a Hellenic ideal. I propose to illustrate here these general statements by some remarks on Retribution.

Darwinism, I have said, has not even modified our ideas of the Chief Good. We may take that as - the welfare of the community realised in its members. There is, of course, a question as to meaning to be given to welfare.

We may identify that with mere pleasure, or gain with mere system, or may rather view both as inseparable aspects of perfection and individuality. And the extent and nature of the community would once more be a subject for some discussion. But we are forced to enter on these controversies here. We may leave welfare undefined, and for present purpose need not distinguish the community from the state. The welfare of this whole exists, of course, nowhere outside the individuals, and the individuals again have rights and duties only as members in the whole.

Q. What is most probably the author's opinion of the existing moral principles of the people?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 18

He perceives no sign of a revolution in ethical matters. Hence option (b) is correct.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 19

The problem with backdating taxes is that the taxpayer will have to continuously guess how much of his current income will be taken away at a later date. This is the crux of the Parthasarathi Shome committee report on retrospective taxation of cross-border acquisition of Indian assets, like Vodafone’s $11.2 billion purchase of Hutchison’s stake in the country’s third largest telecom service provider in 2007.

The Supreme Court in January ruled against the taxman, who was claiming Rs. 11,200 crore in tax, penalty and interest. The court conceded that Indian law was incapable of plugging a widely used tax dodge by inbound foreign investment. The message for the government in the verdict was that the law needed to be changed to curb treaty shopping, the practice of routing investments through letter-box companies in havens like Mauritius to avoid paying taxes in India.

Presenting his last budget in March, the then finance minister Pranab Mukherjee, altered the Income Tax Act to tax such deals with retrospective effect. His argument was since the court felt the intent of the law was not clear, it had to be explicitly clarified for the entire past life of the Income Tax Act, which was enacted in 1962.

This last bit - that deals done earlier could be taxed -raised a chorus of protest from the investing community, and the finance ministry under P Chidambaram sought an independent review of its stand. Mr Shome, a tax expert of international standing, has now told the government what it knew all this while: taxes in retrospect are best avoided.

Specifically, they must never be used to merely raise tax revenue. In the Vodafone case, the Shome committee is unequivocal: the company to claim tax from is Hutchison, which made the profit from the sale of its stake in the telecom company.

Vodafone was not required by the extant law to withhold capital gains tax. Since Vodafone made no profit in the deal, the question of interest and penalties on back taxes does not arise.

Mr Chidambaram has indicated his desire to reverse the decision as soon as possible, even before the next budget when, normally, amendments to the Income Tax Act are undertaken. He reckons investors will return to the table once the fog over retrospective taxes is lifted.

Q. Which one of these options best explains the reference the author makes to the practice of treaty shopping?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 19

Refer to the third paragraph. The passage discusses the issue of tax evasion and states that investments are routed into India through countries like Mauritius so that investors can avoid paying taxes. This is done by setting up a letter-box company in Mauritius so that investors can avoid paying tax in India. It also indicates that Mauritius is a tax friendly country (havens) but not necessarily tax free. Thus, option (b) can be ruled out and option (d) is the answer. Option (c) can be ruled out because nothing has been mentioned about “obsolete tax laws” in the passage. Option (a) can be ruled out because treaty shopping is a loop hole that investors have discovered, however, this doesn’t mean that the practice is illegal.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 20

The problem with backdating taxes is that the taxpayer will have to continuously guess how much of his current income will be taken away at a later date. This is the crux of the Parthasarathi Shome committee report on retrospective taxation of cross-border acquisition of Indian assets, like Vodafone’s $11.2 billion purchase of Hutchison’s stake in the country’s third largest telecom service provider in 2007.

The Supreme Court in January ruled against the taxman, who was claiming Rs. 11,200 crore in tax, penalty and interest. The court conceded that Indian law was incapable of plugging a widely used tax dodge by inbound foreign investment. The message for the government in the verdict was that the law needed to be changed to curb treaty shopping, the practice of routing investments through letter-box companies in havens like Mauritius to avoid paying taxes in India.

Presenting his last budget in March, the then finance minister Pranab Mukherjee, altered the Income Tax Act to tax such deals with retrospective effect. His argument was since the court felt the intent of the law was not clear, it had to be explicitly clarified for the entire past life of the Income Tax Act, which was enacted in 1962.

This last bit - that deals done earlier could be taxed -raised a chorus of protest from the investing community, and the finance ministry under P Chidambaram sought an independent review of its stand. Mr Shome, a tax expert of international standing, has now told the government what it knew all this while: taxes in retrospect are best avoided.

Specifically, they must never be used to merely raise tax revenue. In the Vodafone case, the Shome committee is unequivocal: the company to claim tax from is Hutchison, which made the profit from the sale of its stake in the telecom company.

Vodafone was not required by the extant law to withhold capital gains tax. Since Vodafone made no profit in the deal, the question of interest and penalties on back taxes does not arise.

Mr Chidambaram has indicated his desire to reverse the decision as soon as possible, even before the next budget when, normally, amendments to the Income Tax Act are undertaken. He reckons investors will return to the table once the fog over retrospective taxes is lifted.

Q. As per the information in the passage, the author is most likely to agree with which of the following?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 20

Option (a) can be ruled out by a reference to the second paragraph in which it is stated that Indian law was incapable of plugging a widely used tax dodge by inbound foreign investment. However, this does not point to the general archaic nature of Indian law. Option (b) is the answer and can be inferred from the last line of the fourth paragraph - “…taxes in retrospect are best avoided.” The passage also talks about “the fog over retrospective taxes” which tells us that there is a lack of clarity about the issue. Option (c) is incorrect as the line, “Specifically, they must…tax revenue” implies that taxes in retrospect should not be used to just raise tax revenue. This does not imply that taxes in retrospect is not the only way to raise tax revenue.

Option (d) can be ruled out because it goes beyond the scope of the passage and the focus of the author’s argument.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 21

Consider the following assumptions. 1. The Suprem e Court has ruled in f av our of Vodafone mainly because the law does not allow for a case against the latter. 2. The tax claims that are being made should be rightfully made against Hutchison and not Vodafone.

With reference to the above passage which of the following assumptions is/are valid?

 The problem with backdating taxes is that the taxpayer will have to continuously guess how much of his current income will be taken away at a later date. This is the crux of the Parthasarathi Shome committee report on retrospective taxation of cross-border acquisition of Indian assets, like Vodafone’s $11.2 billion purchase of Hutchison’s stake in the country’s third largest telecom service provider in 2007.

The Supreme Court in January ruled against the taxman, who was claiming Rs. 11,200 crore in tax, penalty and interest. The court conceded that Indian law was incapable of plugging a widely used tax dodge by inbound foreign investment. The message for the government in the verdict was that the law needed to be changed to curb treaty shopping, the practice of routing investments through letter-box companies in havens like Mauritius to avoid paying taxes in India.

Presenting his last budget in March, the then finance minister Pranab Mukherjee, altered the Income Tax Act to tax such deals with retrospective effect. His argument was since the court felt the intent of the law was not clear, it had to be explicitly clarified for the entire past life of the Income Tax Act, which was enacted in 1962.

This last bit - that deals done earlier could be taxed -raised a chorus of protest from the investing community, and the finance ministry under P Chidambaram sought an independent review of its stand. Mr Shome, a tax expert of international standing, has now told the government what it knew all this while: taxes in retrospect are best avoided.

Specifically, they must never be used to merely raise tax revenue. In the Vodafone case, the Shome committee is unequivocal: the company to claim tax from is Hutchison, which made the profit from the sale of its stake in the telecom company.

Vodafone was not required by the extant law to withhold capital gains tax. Since Vodafone made no profit in the deal, the question of interest and penalties on back taxes does not arise.

Mr Chidambaram has indicated his desire to reverse the decision as soon as possible, even before the next budget when, normally, amendments to the Income Tax Act are undertaken. He reckons investors will return to the table once the fog over retrospective taxes is lifted.

Q. Consider the following assumptions.
1. The Supreme Court has ruled in favour of Vodafone mainly because the law does not allow for a case against the latter.
2. The tax claims that are being made should be rightfully made against Hutchison and not Vodafone.

With reference to the above passage which of the following assumptions is/are valid?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 21

Refer to the second paragraph that states that the Supreme Court ruled against the taxman (and in favour of Vodafone) and accepted that Indian law does not have provisions to stop the widely used tax evasion methods used by incoming foreign investors. Statement 1 is correct. Statement 2 is also correct and can be inferred from the sixth paragraph. Refer to the line, “…the company to claim tax from is Hutchison, which made profit from the sale of its stake in the telecom company.” Option (c) is the answer.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 22

The problem with backdating taxes is that the taxpayer will have to continuously guess how much of his current income will be taken away at a later date. This is the crux of the Parthasarathi Shome committee report on retrospective taxation of cross-border acquisition of Indian assets, like Vodafone’s $11.2 billion purchase of Hutchison’s stake in the country’s third largest telecom service provider in 2007.

The Supreme Court in January ruled against the taxman, who was claiming Rs. 11,200 crore in tax, penalty and interest. The court conceded that Indian law was incapable of plugging a widely used tax dodge by inbound foreign investment. The message for the government in the verdict was that the law needed to be changed to curb treaty shopping, the practice of routing investments through letter-box companies in havens like Mauritius to avoid paying taxes in India.

Presenting his last budget in March, the then finance minister Pranab Mukherjee, altered the Income Tax Act to tax such deals with retrospective effect. His argument was since the court felt the intent of the law was not clear, it had to be explicitly clarified for the entire past life of the Income Tax Act, which was enacted in 1962.

This last bit - that deals done earlier could be taxed -raised a chorus of protest from the investing community, and the finance ministry under P Chidambaram sought an independent review of its stand. Mr Shome, a tax expert of international standing, has now told the government what it knew all this while: taxes in retrospect are best avoided.

Specifically, they must never be used to merely raise tax revenue. In the Vodafone case, the Shome committee is unequivocal: the company to claim tax from is Hutchison, which made the profit from the sale of its stake in the telecom company.

Vodafone was not required by the extant law to withhold capital gains tax. Since Vodafone made no profit in the deal, the question of interest and penalties on back taxes does not arise.

Mr Chidambaram has indicated his desire to reverse the decision as soon as possible, even before the next budget when, normally, amendments to the Income Tax Act are undertaken. He reckons investors will return to the table once the fog over retrospective taxes is lifted.

Q. Consider the following statements:

1. The Income Tax Act was enacted in 1962.

2. Mr. Parthasarathi Shome was a Tax expert.

According to the above passage, which of the statements is/are valid?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 22

Refer to the second paragraph that states that the Supreme Court ruled against the taxman (and in favour of Vodafone) and accepted that Indian law does not have provisions to stop the widely used tax evasion methods used by incoming foreign investors. Statement 1 is correct. Statement 2 is also correct and can be inferred from the sixth paragraph. Refer to the line, “…the company to claim tax from is Hutchison, which made profit from the sale of its stake in the telecom company.” Option (c) is the answer.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 23

The problem with backdating taxes is that the taxpayer will have to continuously guess how much of his current income will be taken away at a later date. This is the crux of the Parthasarathi Shome committee report on retrospective taxation of cross-border acquisition of Indian assets, like Vodafone’s $11.2 billion purchase of Hutchison’s stake in the country’s third largest telecom service provider in 2007.

The Supreme Court in January ruled against the taxman, who was claiming Rs. 11,200 crore in tax, penalty and interest. The court conceded that Indian law was incapable of plugging a widely used tax dodge by inbound foreign investment. The message for the government in the verdict was that the law needed to be changed to curb treaty shopping, the practice of routing investments through letter-box companies in havens like Mauritius to avoid paying taxes in India.

Presenting his last budget in March, the then finance minister Pranab Mukherjee, altered the Income Tax Act to tax such deals with retrospective effect. His argument was since the court felt the intent of the law was not clear, it had to be explicitly clarified for the entire past life of the Income Tax Act, which was enacted in 1962.

This last bit - that deals done earlier could be taxed -raised a chorus of protest from the investing community, and the finance ministry under P Chidambaram sought an independent review of its stand. Mr Shome, a tax expert of international standing, has now told the government what it knew all this while: taxes in retrospect are best avoided.

Specifically, they must never be used to merely raise tax revenue. In the Vodafone case, the Shome committee is unequivocal: the company to claim tax from is Hutchison, which made the profit from the sale of its stake in the telecom company.

Vodafone was not required by the extant law to withhold capital gains tax. Since Vodafone made no profit in the deal, the question of interest and penalties on back taxes does not arise.

Mr Chidambaram has indicated his desire to reverse the decision as soon as possible, even before the next budget when, normally, amendments to the Income Tax Act are undertaken. He reckons investors will return to the table once the fog over retrospective taxes is lifted.

Q. Consider the following statements:

1. Vodafone bought Hutchison’s stake in the year 2008.

2. The then Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee did not alter the Income Tax Act.

According to the above passage, which of the statements is/are valid?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 23

Both the statements are incorrect. Refer to the first and third paragraphs.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 24

Beauty is a valuable commodity in our image-obsessed society, so it's not surprising that Miss Indias and Miss Worlds make headlines. These young women aren't just beautiful; they're most often thin too. But Chloe Marshall, the 2008 Miss England runner-up, was size 16 ("full figured" or "ample," to put it politely) and therefore made even more news. A full-figured beauty pageant finalist creating a stop-the-press moment highlights the fact that larger women are not usually considered "the fairest of them all." Indeed, pick up a magazine or newspaper on any other day and the message is loud and clear -thin is in.

With the average woman hovering around a size 14 or above, the comparison is odious. A recent survey revealed only six percent of women aged 18 to 64 were "very satisfied" with their looks. That leaves 94 percent of women critical of their appearance. In other words, the majority of the women sitting with you in the metro this morning woke up feeling judgmental and negative about their looks. "If every woman in the world woke up, slapped herself on the head and said: 'I'm happy with who I am,' entire economies would collapse," says Jane Caro, an award-winning advertising writer.

The media is often portrayed as the bogeyman in the body-image debate, but experts say it's only part of the picture. Paxton notes women are getting messages from family from an early age. The way in which parents view their bodies impacts their children's attitudes. "A mother who is always dieting or being critical of her body is sending a clear message to her daughters," says Tiggemann. "That sense of body dissatisfaction is passed on." The anti-obesity push is also unhelpful. "It's shifted the focus away from health and onto weight and looks," she says. "It's perpetuating the notion that fat is bad, thin is good, and thinner is better." And it's a notion that has recently been proved to be untrue.

Q. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 24

Option (d) can be inferred from the penultimate paragraph which says that "The way in which parents view their bodies impacts their children's attitudes." Hence, it can be clearly understood that children can be influenced by their parents. Option (a) cannot be inferred from the passage. The first paragraph says that beauty pageant contestants have the potential to make headlines and these girls are beautiful and most often thin too. It might not be true the other way round. Option (b) is beyond the scope of the passage since we do not know whether anti-obesity programme helped in reducing obesity or not. Option (c) cannot be inferred from the passage since it is just an opinion of Jane Caro.

We do not know whether the author agrees with the statement or not.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 25

Beauty is a valuable commodity in our image-obsessed society, so it's not surprising that Miss Indias and Miss Worlds make headlines. These young women aren't just beautiful; they're most often thin too. But Chloe Marshall, the 2008 Miss England runner-up, was size 16 ("full figured" or "ample," to put it politely) and therefore made even more news. A full-figured beauty pageant finalist creating a stop-the-press moment highlights the fact that larger women are not usually considered "the fairest of them all." Indeed, pick up a magazine or newspaper on any other day and the message is loud and clear -thin is in.

With the average woman hovering around a size 14 or above, the comparison is odious. A recent survey revealed only six percent of women aged 18 to 64 were "very satisfied" with their looks. That leaves 94 percent of women critical of their appearance. In other words, the majority of the women sitting with you in the metro this morning woke up feeling judgmental and negative about their looks. "If every woman in the world woke up, slapped herself on the head and said: 'I'm happy with who I am,' entire economies would collapse," says Jane Caro, an award-winning advertising writer.

The media is often portrayed as the bogeyman in the body-image debate, but experts say it's only part of the picture. Paxton notes women are getting messages from family from an early age. The way in which parents view their bodies impacts their children's attitudes. "A mother who is always dieting or being critical of her body is sending a clear message to her daughters," says Tiggemann. "That sense of body dissatisfaction is passed on." The anti-obesity push is also unhelpful. "It's shifted the focus away from health and onto weight and looks," she says. "It's perpetuating the notion that fat is bad, thin is good, and thinner is better." And it's a notion that has recently been proved to be untrue.

Q. Which notion is being talked about in the last line of the passage?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 25

The entire passage talks about women wanting to be slim and associating slim with being beautiful.

Refer to the last line, "...the notion that fat is bad, slim is good..." So option (b) is the correct answer.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 26

Beauty is a valuable commodity in our image-obsessed society, so it's not surprising that Miss Indias and Miss Worlds make headlines. These young women aren't just beautiful; they're most often thin too. But Chloe Marshall, the 2008 Miss England runner-up, was size 16 ("full figured" or "ample," to put it politely) and therefore made even more news. A full-figured beauty pageant finalist creating a stop-the-press moment highlights the fact that larger women are not usually considered "the fairest of them all." Indeed, pick up a magazine or newspaper on any other day and the message is loud and clear -thin is in.

With the average woman hovering around a size 14 or above, the comparison is odious. A recent survey revealed only six percent of women aged 18 to 64 were "very satisfied" with their looks. That leaves 94 percent of women critical of their appearance. In other words, the majority of the women sitting with you in the metro this morning woke up feeling judgmental and negative about their looks. "If every woman in the world woke up, slapped herself on the head and said: 'I'm happy with who I am,' entire economies would collapse," says Jane Caro, an award-winning advertising writer.

The media is often portrayed as the bogeyman in the body-image debate, but experts say it's only part of the picture. Paxton notes women are getting messages from family from an early age. The way in which parents view their bodies impacts their children's attitudes. "A mother who is always dieting or being critical of her body is sending a clear message to her daughters," says Tiggemann. "That sense of body dissatisfaction is passed on." The anti-obesity push is also unhelpful. "It's shifted the focus away from health and onto weight and looks," she says. "It's perpetuating the notion that fat is bad, thin is good, and thinner is better." And it's a notion that has recently been proved to be untrue.

Q. Which of the following is the synonym of the word "odious"?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 26

'Odious' means arousing or deserving hatred. Hence, its synonym is disgusting, rendering option (d) the correct answer.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 27

Beauty is a valuable commodity in our image-obsessed society, so it's not surprising that Miss Indias and Miss Worlds make headlines. These young women aren't just beautiful; they're most often thin too. But Chloe Marshall, the 2008 Miss England runner-up, was size 16 ("full figured" or "ample," to put it politely) and therefore made even more news. A full-figured beauty pageant finalist creating a stop-the-press moment highlights the fact that larger women are not usually considered "the fairest of them all." Indeed, pick up a magazine or newspaper on any other day and the message is loud and clear -thin is in.

With the average woman hovering around a size 14 or above, the comparison is odious. A recent survey revealed only six percent of women aged 18 to 64 were "very satisfied" with their looks. That leaves 94 percent of women critical of their appearance. In other words, the majority of the women sitting with you in the metro this morning woke up feeling judgmental and negative about their looks. "If every woman in the world woke up, slapped herself on the head and said: 'I'm happy with who I am,' entire economies would collapse," says Jane Caro, an award-winning advertising writer.

The media is often portrayed as the bogeyman in the body-image debate, but experts say it's only part of the picture. Paxton notes women are getting messages from family from an early age. The way in which parents view their bodies impacts their children's attitudes. "A mother who is always dieting or being critical of her body is sending a clear message to her daughters," says Tiggemann. "That sense of body dissatisfaction is passed on." The anti-obesity push is also unhelpful. "It's shifted the focus away from health and onto weight and looks," she says. "It's perpetuating the notion that fat is bad, thin is good, and thinner is better." And it's a notion that has recently been proved to be untrue.

Q. Why did Chloe Marshall make headlines?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 27

The opening paragraph tells us that all Miss India's and Miss World's make headlines, but Chloe Marshall gathered more attention because she was a "full figured" 2008 Miss England runner up. She created a "stop-the-press" moment since large women are not 'generally' considered 'fairest of them all'. However, it cannot be inferred that she was not considered "fairest of them all". This rules out option (b) and makes option (d) the correct answer. Option (a) is incorrect as 'not unlike' means that she [Chloe] was like the others.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 28

Beauty is a valuable commodity in our image-obsessed society, so it's not surprising that Miss Indias and Miss Worlds make headlines. These young women aren't just beautiful; they're most often thin too. But Chloe Marshall, the 2008 Miss England runner-up, was size 16 ("full figured" or "ample," to put it politely) and therefore made even more news. A full-figured beauty pageant finalist creating a stop-the-press moment highlights the fact that larger women are not usually considered "the fairest of them all." Indeed, pick up a magazine or newspaper on any other day and the message is loud and clear -thin is in.

With the average woman hovering around a size 14 or above, the comparison is odious. A recent survey revealed only six percent of women aged 18 to 64 were "very satisfied" with their looks. That leaves 94 percent of women critical of their appearance. In other words, the majority of the women sitting with you in the metro this morning woke up feeling judgmental and negative about their looks. "If every woman in the world woke up, slapped herself on the head and said: 'I'm happy with who I am,' entire economies would collapse," says Jane Caro, an award-winning advertising writer.

The media is often portrayed as the bogeyman in the body-image debate, but experts say it's only part of the picture. Paxton notes women are getting messages from family from an early age. The way in which parents view their bodies impacts their children's attitudes. "A mother who is always dieting or being critical of her body is sending a clear message to her daughters," says Tiggemann. "That sense of body dissatisfaction is passed on." The anti-obesity push is also unhelpful. "It's shifted the focus away from health and onto weight and looks," she says. "It's perpetuating the notion that fat is bad, thin is good, and thinner is better." And it's a notion that has recently been proved to be untrue.

Q. Which of the following is the author most likely to agree with?

A. Beauty is given great importance in today's society.

B. Only a few women are happy the way they look.

C. Media is considered the Lilliputian character that is responsible for the body-image debate.

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 28

The author agrees with both statements A and B.

Refer to the first line of the passage wherein the author says, "Beauty is a valuable commodity..."

Hence, it can be understood that in today's society, beauty is given a lot of significance. In the third paragraph, the author says that 94 percent of the women are judgmental about their looks. This means that there are only a few women who are satisfied with their looks. Hence, option (a) is the answer.

Refer to the line 'The media is often portrayed as the bogeyman in the body-image debate'.

Bogeyman is a mythical creature adopted by parents to scare little children. 'Lilliputian' is used to describe little people. Therefore, we can say that statement C is not in line with what the author agrees to.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 29

Film is an inherently illusionist and enormously powerful medium, one that even acknowledged masters of the form claim not to fully understand. Film may be the most pervasive and influential art form of the twentieth century, changing our culture and our perception of it, especially since television was introduced and the public began spending 40 percent of its free time watching. For many people, knowledge of a particular place, culture or historical event is likely to have been gleaned only from the movies. There are three principle influences on film: art, business and technology. Ideally, the artist would create films unencumbered by the other two, but the high costs and extreme technical demands of filmmaking ensure that every movie is inevitably the result of a collaboration or compromise between these three elements.

As literature has its own language and grammar, so does film, and the setup for a simple idea such as the opening of a horror film involves a complicated series of ingredients - long shots, closeups, lighting effects, set decoration, music, camera movement, and every one of these demands the involvement of several artists and technicians. Movies are invaluable reflectors of twentieth century culture, not only from filmic commentary by intelligent and socially aware filmmakers, but often inadvertently; the escapist musical Top Hat (1935) tells us something about the grim realities of the Depression. Movies will often shape themselves to appeal to perceived cultural attitudes, and as a result they will not only reflect their culture but actively influence it. This penchant for distorting a reflected vision of reality can often lead movies to create myths, with the heroic leads of action melodramas and presentations of historical characters that succeed more by their emotional resonance than their accuracy. A continuing question of the movies is whether or not they can ever fully be welcomed into the arts and accorded the same degree of respect that has long been given to other, older forms and mediums; universities were slow to offer courses in cinema, and indeed the avalanche of formula films makes it difficult to find the quality buried in the schlock. Mostly it seems to depend on the difference between art and entertainment, which several filmmakers and critics have offered opinions on.

Q. What makes movies such a powerful medium of expressive art?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 29

Option (a) is correct as an art form that reaches a significant section of society is bound to create an impact and thus hold some power. The statistics about people spending 40% of their free time watching television cements this reasoning.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 30

Film is an inherently illusionist and enormously powerful medium, one that even acknowledged masters of the form claim not to fully understand. Film may be the most pervasive and influential art form of the twentieth century, changing our culture and our perception of it, especially since television was introduced and the public began spending 40 percent of its free time watching. For many people, knowledge of a particular place, culture or historical event is likely to have been gleaned only from the movies. There are three principle influences on film: art, business and technology. Ideally, the artist would create films unencumbered by the other two, but the high costs and extreme technical demands of filmmaking ensure that every movie is inevitably the result of a collaboration or compromise between these three elements.

As literature has its own language and grammar, so does film, and the setup for a simple idea such as the opening of a horror film involves a complicated series of ingredients - long shots, closeups, lighting effects, set decoration, music, camera movement, and every one of these demands the involvement of several artists and technicians. Movies are invaluable reflectors of twentieth century culture, not only from filmic commentary by intelligent and socially aware filmmakers, but often inadvertently; the escapist musical Top Hat (1935) tells us something about the grim realities of the Depression. Movies will often shape themselves to appeal to perceived cultural attitudes, and as a result they will not only reflect their culture but actively influence it. This penchant for distorting a reflected vision of reality can often lead movies to create myths, with the heroic leads of action melodramas and presentations of historical characters that succeed more by their emotional resonance than their accuracy. A continuing question of the movies is whether or not they can ever fully be welcomed into the arts and accorded the same degree of respect that has long been given to other, older forms and mediums; universities were slow to offer courses in cinema, and indeed the avalanche of formula films makes it difficult to find the quality buried in the schlock. Mostly it seems to depend on the difference between art and entertainment, which several filmmakers and critics have offered opinions on.

Q. Why do movies tend to often reflect the culture and prevalent norms of a society?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 30

Option (b) is correct as the need for movies to be culturally relatable and perceivable makes them easily a good reflector of culture.

Options (c) and (d) are incorrect as they offer sound points about movie-making but are not directly linked with the cultural aspects of movies.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 31

Film is an inherently illusionist and enormously powerful medium, one that even acknowledged masters of the form claim not to fully understand. Film may be the most pervasive and influential art form of the twentieth century, changing our culture and our perception of it, especially since television was introduced and the public began spending 40 percent of its free time watching. For many people, knowledge of a particular place, culture or historical event is likely to have been gleaned only from the movies. There are three principle influences on film: art, business and technology. Ideally, the artist would create films unencumbered by the other two, but the high costs and extreme technical demands of filmmaking ensure that every movie is inevitably the result of a collaboration or compromise between these three elements.

As literature has its own language and grammar, so does film, and the setup for a simple idea such as the opening of a horror film involves a complicated series of ingredients - long shots, closeups, lighting effects, set decoration, music, camera movement, and every one of these demands the involvement of several artists and technicians. Movies are invaluable reflectors of twentieth century culture, not only from filmic commentary by intelligent and socially aware filmmakers, but often inadvertently; the escapist musical Top Hat (1935) tells us something about the grim realities of the Depression. Movies will often shape themselves to appeal to perceived cultural attitudes, and as a result they will not only reflect their culture but actively influence it. This penchant for distorting a reflected vision of reality can often lead movies to create myths, with the heroic leads of action melodramas and presentations of historical characters that succeed more by their emotional resonance than their accuracy. A continuing question of the movies is whether or not they can ever fully be welcomed into the arts and accorded the same degree of respect that has long been given to other, older forms and mediums; universities were slow to offer courses in cinema, and indeed the avalanche of formula films makes it difficult to find the quality buried in the schlock. Mostly it seems to depend on the difference between art and entertainment, which several filmmakers and critics have offered opinions on.

Q. Which of the following is the biggest cause for the lack of respect imparted to movies in comparison to other art forms?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 31

Option (a) is correct as the passage mentions the difference between entertainment and art as the key reason behind the lack of respect that movies are able to muster for themselves. Movies are perceived more as entertainment than as an art form.

Option (b) is incorrect as it is a mere addition to the correct answer but is rendered meaningless without option (a).

Option (c) is certainly a cause but not the primary one, as it can also be seen as a result of the general perception about movies.

Option (d) is incorrect as formula films form a fragment of all the work done in movie making and thus, they can't be used to comment generally about filmmaking and movies.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 32

Film is an inherently illusionist and enormously powerful medium, one that even acknowledged masters of the form claim not to fully understand. Film may be the most pervasive and influential art form of the twentieth century, changing our culture and our perception of it, especially since television was introduced and the public began spending 40 percent of its free time watching. For many people, knowledge of a particular place, culture or historical event is likely to have been gleaned only from the movies. There are three principle influences on film: art, business and technology. Ideally, the artist would create films unencumbered by the other two, but the high costs and extreme technical demands of filmmaking ensure that every movie is inevitably the result of a collaboration or compromise between these three elements.

As literature has its own language and grammar, so does film, and the setup for a simple idea such as the opening of a horror film involves a complicated series of ingredients - long shots, closeups, lighting effects, set decoration, music, camera movement, and every one of these demands the involvement of several artists and technicians. Movies are invaluable reflectors of twentieth century culture, not only from filmic commentary by intelligent and socially aware filmmakers, but often inadvertently; the escapist musical Top Hat (1935) tells us something about the grim realities of the Depression. Movies will often shape themselves to appeal to perceived cultural attitudes, and as a result they will not only reflect their culture but actively influence it. This penchant for distorting a reflected vision of reality can often lead movies to create myths, with the heroic leads of action melodramas and presentations of historical characters that succeed more by their emotional resonance than their accuracy. A continuing question of the movies is whether or not they can ever fully be welcomed into the arts and accorded the same degree of respect that has long been given to other, older forms and mediums; universities were slow to offer courses in cinema, and indeed the avalanche of formula films makes it difficult to find the quality buried in the schlock. Mostly it seems to depend on the difference between art and entertainment, which several filmmakers and critics have offered opinions on.

Q. What is the necessary element of compromise in every movie?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 32

Option (b) is correct as the passage mentions the collaboration between art, business and technology as a compromise in film making.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 33

Today Korea represents a nexus of the world's challenges and opportunities. Decades of phenomenal political, economic and social progress in the South have prepared it to assume a greater role in international affairs. At the same time, the legacy of unresolved issues on the Korean Peninsula threatens its remarkable achievements and casts a shadow over its future. Korea must at once preserve its hard-earned gains while overcoming a seemingly intractable nuclear dilemma that even the superpowers have been powerless to resolve.

History provides insights into an ultimate solution to the Korean problem. After asserting its freedom from Britain in 1776, it took America nearly a century to translate into practice the ideals enshrined in the Declaration of Independence. The American Civil War abolished slavery.

It also united a loose confederation of states into a strong federal system. In the decades following the end of that war, the energies of the American people were released as never before and the nation quickly rose from obscurity to become the leading economy in the world and a promised land for people of all nations aspiring for freedom and prosperity. The translation of idealistic democratic principles into practical realities was the lever for unleashing the prodigious energies and creativity of the American people for national development and eventual world leadership.

The unity America achieved through a bloody civil war; Germany accomplished more recently by peaceful means. Divided into East and West for nearly five decades, West Germany was sandwiched between two nuclear armed superpowers and helpless to act to restore its own unity. Rather than embracing aggressive hostility toward its brethren in the East, West Germany adopted two very significant strategies. Domestically, it sought to transform an authoritarian state into one of the most vibrant and inclusive democracies in the world, reconciling the tensions between capitalists and workers and fostering tolerance and cultural harmony among an increasingly heterogeneous population. At the same time, internationally, it became a leading proponent of European unification and subordinated nationalistic ambitions to foster unprecedented levels of cooperation and integration with its neighbors. West Germany began its gradual rise as an exemplary world citizen and leader.

These examples offer insights relevant to Korea today.

At the national level the gains of democratization achieved by the Candlelight Movement in South Korea should now be translated more broadly and deeply into greater individual freedom, equality of opportunity, transparency and public participation.

Q. As mentioned in the passage, the word "prodigious" most nearly means

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 33

Option (d) is the correct answer as the passage makes use of the word "prodigious" in its literal sense, which is "very impressive."

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 34

Today Korea represents a nexus of the world's challenges and opportunities. Decades of phenomenal political, economic and social progress in the South have prepared it to assume a greater role in international affairs. At the same time, the legacy of unresolved issues on the Korean Peninsula threatens its remarkable achievements and casts a shadow over its future. Korea must at once preserve its hard-earned gains while overcoming a seemingly intractable nuclear dilemma that even the superpowers have been powerless to resolve.

History provides insights into an ultimate solution to the Korean problem. After asserting its freedom from Britain in 1776, it took America nearly a century to translate into practice the ideals enshrined in the Declaration of Independence. The American Civil War abolished slavery.

It also united a loose confederation of states into a strong federal system. In the decades following the end of that war, the energies of the American people were released as never before and the nation quickly rose from obscurity to become the leading economy in the world and a promised land for people of all nations aspiring for freedom and prosperity. The translation of idealistic democratic principles into practical realities was the lever for unleashing the prodigious energies and creativity of the American people for national development and eventual world leadership.

The unity America achieved through a bloody civil war; Germany accomplished more recently by peaceful means. Divided into East and West for nearly five decades, West Germany was sandwiched between two nuclear armed superpowers and helpless to act to restore its own unity. Rather than embracing aggressive hostility toward its brethren in the East, West Germany adopted two very significant strategies. Domestically, it sought to transform an authoritarian state into one of the most vibrant and inclusive democracies in the world, reconciling the tensions between capitalists and workers and fostering tolerance and cultural harmony among an increasingly heterogeneous population. At the same time, internationally, it became a leading proponent of European unification and subordinated nationalistic ambitions to foster unprecedented levels of cooperation and integration with its neighbors. West Germany began its gradual rise as an exemplary world citizen and leader.

These examples offer insights relevant to Korea today.

At the national level the gains of democratization achieved by the Candlelight Movement in South Korea should now be translated more broadly and deeply into greater individual freedom, equality of opportunity, transparency and public participation.

Q. Which of the following factors was responsible for America becoming a world leader?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 34

Option (a) is correct as the passage talks about the American civil war which culminated in the release of the energies of American people, which was the key reason for the nation's development.

All other options are incorrect as they omit to cite the above reasoning for the principle argument in the concerned paragraph.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 35

Today Korea represents a nexus of the world's challenges and opportunities. Decades of phenomenal political, economic and social progress in the South have prepared it to assume a greater role in international affairs. At the same time, the legacy of unresolved issues on the Korean Peninsula threatens its remarkable achievements and casts a shadow over its future. Korea must at once preserve its hard-earned gains while overcoming a seemingly intractable nuclear dilemma that even the superpowers have been powerless to resolve.

History provides insights into an ultimate solution to the Korean problem. After asserting its freedom from Britain in 1776, it took America nearly a century to translate into practice the ideals enshrined in the Declaration of Independence. The American Civil War abolished slavery.

It also united a loose confederation of states into a strong federal system. In the decades following the end of that war, the energies of the American people were released as never before and the nation quickly rose from obscurity to become the leading economy in the world and a promised land for people of all nations aspiring for freedom and prosperity. The translation of idealistic democratic principles into practical realities was the lever for unleashing the prodigious energies and creativity of the American people for national development and eventual world leadership.

The unity America achieved through a bloody civil war; Germany accomplished more recently by peaceful means. Divided into East and West for nearly five decades, West Germany was sandwiched between two nuclear armed superpowers and helpless to act to restore its own unity. Rather than embracing aggressive hostility toward its brethren in the East, West Germany adopted two very significant strategies. Domestically, it sought to transform an authoritarian state into one of the most vibrant and inclusive democracies in the world, reconciling the tensions between capitalists and workers and fostering tolerance and cultural harmony among an increasingly heterogeneous population. At the same time, internationally, it became a leading proponent of European unification and subordinated nationalistic ambitions to foster unprecedented levels of cooperation and integration with its neighbors. West Germany began its gradual rise as an exemplary world citizen and leader.

These examples offer insights relevant to Korea today.

At the national level the gains of democratization achieved by the Candlelight Movement in South Korea should now be translated more broadly and deeply into greater individual freedom, equality of opportunity, transparency and public participation.

Q. In the context of the passage, the word "exemplary" is synonymous to

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 35

Option (a) is the correct answer. It means deserving to be admired and copied.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 36

Q. Which of the following can be inferred from the model adopted by Germany, as mentioned in the passage?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 36

Option (d) is correct as the passage mentions that Germany transformed an authoritative state into an inclusive democracy. Option (a) is incorrect as it misplaces the stress on desires rather than on actions. Options (b) and (c) are incorrect as they refer to the problems that Germany was facing and don't describe the methodology it adopted to overcome these problems.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 37

With an aim to check flow of black money and evasion of taxes through stock market, market regulator SEBI has decided to impose hefty penalty on brokers facilitating such transactions from tomorrow. The regulator recently came across a loophole in its existing regulations, which was being abused by stock brokers for facilitating tax evasion and flow of black money through fictitious trades in lieu of hefty commissions. To remove this anomaly, SEBI has asked stock exchanges to penalise the brokers transferring trades from one trading account to another after terming them as ‘punching’ errors. The penalty could be as high as 2% of the value of shares traded in the ‘wrong’ account, as per new rules coming into effect from August 1.

In a widely-prevalent, but secretly operated practice, the people looking to evade taxes approach certain brokers to show losses in their stock trading accounts, so that their earnings from other sources are not taxed. These brokers are also approached by people looking to show their black money as earnings made through stock market. In exchange for a commission, generally 5-10% of the total amount, these brokers show desired profits or losses in the accounts of their clients after transferring trades from other accounts, created for such purposes only.

The brokers generally keep conducting both ‘buy’ and ‘sell’ trades in these fictitious accounts so that they can be used accordingly when approached by such clients.

In the market parlance, these deals are known as profit or loss shopping. While profit is purchased to show black money as earnings from the market, the losses are purchased to avoid tax on earnings from other sources.

As the transfer of trades is not allowed from one account to the other in general cases, the brokers show the trades conducted in their own fictitious accounts as ‘punching’ errors. The regulations allow transfer of trades in the cases of genuine errors, as at times ‘punching’ or placing of orders can be made for a wrong client. To check any abuse of this rule, SEBI has asked the bourses to put in place a robust mechanism to identify whether the errors are genuine or not. At the same time, the bourses have been asked to levy penalty on the brokers transferring their non-institutional trades from one account to the other. The penalty would be 1% of the traded value in wrong account, if such trades are up to 5% of the broker’s total non-institutional turnover in a month. The penalty would be 2% of trade value in wrong account, if such transactions exceed 5% of total monthly turnover in a month.

Q. What is the central idea of the passage?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 37

The first line of the passage discusses the central idea. SEBI has introduced a hefty penalty on brokers who facilitate practices that show black money as earnings and that help in tax evasion.

The last paragraph also discusses how SEBI has tried to make amendments to check abuse of its rule. Option (d) is the answer. Option (a) is incomplete because SEBI has already made amendments to check black money and tax evasion. Option (b) is rejected because SEBI has only formulated the rule of imposing the penalty.

SEBI itself is not monitoring the process. The stock exchanges are responsible for identifying the authenticity of punching errors and for penalizing the brokers facilitating tax evasion. Option (c) is incorrect as the passage only states that SEBI will be imposing high penalty on brokers facilitating tax evasion. Whether the practice of tax evasion has stopped or not is not mentioned in the passage.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 38

With an aim to check flow of black money and evasion of taxes through stock market, market regulator SEBI has decided to impose hefty penalty on brokers facilitating such transactions from tomorrow. The regulator recently came across a loophole in its existing regulations, which was being abused by stock brokers for facilitating tax evasion and flow of black money through fictitious trades in lieu of hefty commissions. To remove this anomaly, SEBI has asked stock exchanges to penalise the brokers transferring trades from one trading account to another after terming them as ‘punching’ errors. The penalty could be as high as 2% of the value of shares traded in the ‘wrong’ account, as per new rules coming into effect from August 1.

In a widely-prevalent, but secretly operated practice, the people looking to evade taxes approach certain brokers to show losses in their stock trading accounts, so that their earnings from other sources are not taxed. These brokers are also approached by people looking to show their black money as earnings made through stock market. In exchange for a commission, generally 5-10% of the total amount, these brokers show desired profits or losses in the accounts of their clients after transferring trades from other accounts, created for such purposes only.

The brokers generally keep conducting both ‘buy’ and ‘sell’ trades in these fictitious accounts so that they can be used accordingly when approached by such clients.

In the market parlance, these deals are known as profit or loss shopping. While profit is purchased to show black money as earnings from the market, the losses are purchased to avoid tax on earnings from other sources.

As the transfer of trades is not allowed from one account to the other in general cases, the brokers show the trades conducted in their own fictitious accounts as ‘punching’ errors. The regulations allow transfer of trades in the cases of genuine errors, as at times ‘punching’ or placing of orders can be made for a wrong client. To check any abuse of this rule, SEBI has asked the bourses to put in place a robust mechanism to identify whether the errors are genuine or not. At the same time, the bourses have been asked to levy penalty on the brokers transferring their non-institutional trades from one account to the other. The penalty would be 1% of the traded value in wrong account, if such trades are up to 5% of the broker’s total non-institutional turnover in a month. The penalty would be 2% of trade value in wrong account, if such transactions exceed 5% of total monthly turnover in a month.

Q. Which of the following sentences is true according to the passage?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 38

Option (c) is the correct answer and has been mentioned in the last paragraph. Option (a) is incorrect from the information in the last paragraph – the stock exchanges are to penalize brokers transferring their non-institutional trades from one account to the other, however, there is no information to suggest that brokers cannot show these errors. Option (b) is incorrect as it is mentioned in the last paragraph that Sebi has imposed two different levels of penalty - the penalty is not fixed. Option (d) is also incorrect according to the first line of the second paragraph.

The practice is secretly operated and not an open one.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 39

With an aim to check flow of black money and evasion of taxes through stock market, market regulator SEBI has decided to impose hefty penalty on brokers facilitating such transactions from tomorrow. The regulator recently came across a loophole in its existing regulations, which was being abused by stock brokers for facilitating tax evasion and flow of black money through fictitious trades in lieu of hefty commissions. To remove this anomaly, SEBI has asked stock exchanges to penalise the brokers transferring trades from one trading account to another after terming them as ‘punching’ errors. The penalty could be as high as 2% of the value of shares traded in the ‘wrong’ account, as per new rules coming into effect from August 1.

In a widely-prevalent, but secretly operated practice, the people looking to evade taxes approach certain brokers to show losses in their stock trading accounts, so that their earnings from other sources are not taxed. These brokers are also approached by people looking to show their black money as earnings made through stock market. In exchange for a commission, generally 5-10% of the total amount, these brokers show desired profits or losses in the accounts of their clients after transferring trades from other accounts, created for such purposes only.

The brokers generally keep conducting both ‘buy’ and ‘sell’ trades in these fictitious accounts so that they can be used accordingly when approached by such clients.

In the market parlance, these deals are known as profit or loss shopping. While profit is purchased to show black money as earnings from the market, the losses are purchased to avoid tax on earnings from other sources.

As the transfer of trades is not allowed from one account to the other in general cases, the brokers show the trades conducted in their own fictitious accounts as ‘punching’ errors. The regulations allow transfer of trades in the cases of genuine errors, as at times ‘punching’ or placing of orders can be made for a wrong client. To check any abuse of this rule, SEBI has asked the bourses to put in place a robust mechanism to identify whether the errors are genuine or not. At the same time, the bourses have been asked to levy penalty on the brokers transferring their non-institutional trades from one account to the other. The penalty would be 1% of the traded value in wrong account, if such trades are up to 5% of the broker’s total non-institutional turnover in a month. The penalty would be 2% of trade value in wrong account, if such transactions exceed 5% of total monthly turnover in a month.

Q. What does the word 'parlance' as used in the passage mean?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 39

Parlance in the given context means a certain way in which words or speech is used among a group of people with common interest or the same jobs.

So, option A is the answer.

Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 40

With an aim to check flow of black money and evasion of taxes through stock market, market regulator SEBI has decided to impose hefty penalty on brokers facilitating such transactions from tomorrow. The regulator recently came across a loophole in its existing regulations, which was being abused by stock brokers for facilitating tax evasion and flow of black money through fictitious trades in lieu of hefty commissions. To remove this anomaly, SEBI has asked stock exchanges to penalise the brokers transferring trades from one trading account to another after terming them as ‘punching’ errors. The penalty could be as high as 2% of the value of shares traded in the ‘wrong’ account, as per new rules coming into effect from August 1.

In a widely-prevalent, but secretly operated practice, the people looking to evade taxes approach certain brokers to show losses in their stock trading accounts, so that their earnings from other sources are not taxed. These brokers are also approached by people looking to show their black money as earnings made through stock market. In exchange for a commission, generally 5-10% of the total amount, these brokers show desired profits or losses in the accounts of their clients after transferring trades from other accounts, created for such purposes only.

The brokers generally keep conducting both ‘buy’ and ‘sell’ trades in these fictitious accounts so that they can be used accordingly when approached by such clients.

In the market parlance, these deals are known as profit or loss shopping. While profit is purchased to show black money as earnings from the market, the losses are purchased to avoid tax on earnings from other sources.

As the transfer of trades is not allowed from one account to the other in general cases, the brokers show the trades conducted in their own fictitious accounts as ‘punching’ errors. The regulations allow transfer of trades in the cases of genuine errors, as at times ‘punching’ or placing of orders can be made for a wrong client. To check any abuse of this rule, SEBI has asked the bourses to put in place a robust mechanism to identify whether the errors are genuine or not. At the same time, the bourses have been asked to levy penalty on the brokers transferring their non-institutional trades from one account to the other. The penalty would be 1% of the traded value in wrong account, if such trades are up to 5% of the broker’s total non-institutional turnover in a month. The penalty would be 2% of trade value in wrong account, if such transactions exceed 5% of total monthly turnover in a month.

Q. What does the word 'facilitating' as used in the passage mean?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 1 - Question 40

In the given context, the word 'facilitating' means 'enabling'; so, option (d) is the answer.

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