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Languages: Mock Test - 6


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40 Questions MCQ Test English Language Preparation for CUET | Languages: Mock Test - 6

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Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 1

British filmmaker Richard Curtis has written iconic popcultural classics like Mr. Bean, Four Weddings and a Funeral, Notting Hill and Bridget Jones's Diary. His directorial debut, Love Actually, remains a rare film that at once parodies, celebrates, and reclaims, storytelling's most bastardised genre. But Curtis' most accomplished movie has everything and nothing to do with his reputation as the King of (Romantic) Comedy.

About Time (2013), starring Irish actor Domhnall Gleeson in a breakthrough role, cleverly weaponises its maker's stature. It counts on the fact that we anticipate an innovative (buzzword: time travel) but typically breezy love story. But the girl-boy arc fades into the background, and the film subverts our expectations by instead morphing into a deeply contemplative and winning tragedy about human nature. Curtis virtually uses his own career as a smokescreen to transform About Time into an affecting ode to closure and its elastic relationship with time. Early in the film, a retired James (Bill Nighy) informs his son Tim, a boy on the verge of big-city adulthood, that the men of the family possess the power to travel back in time. Naturally, at first, Tim abuses this cosmic gift like any red-blooded, teething male hero would - to find, and refine, his pursuit of love. He meets Mary, an American girl, and manipulates time in a manner that compels her to fall for him. You'd imagine any writer at this point would be tempted to use time travel as the pivot to continue navigating the cross-cultural politics of companionship. But Curtis refrains from old-school gimmickry. He designs the narrative device as a trigger that forces Tim's conflict to be conceived in the personal chasm that separates selfishness from selflessness: The selfishness of love from the selflessness of family.

Tim's story gets us thinking: do some of us subconsciously fail to sustain romantic relationships because we're unwilling to snap that umbilical cord? Do we postpone marriage - a family, children, onwardness -to preserve the fading remnants of our family? To keep our history accessible? The film's lyrical circularity exposes an uncomfortable truth about life - that romance is inherently an act of self-preservation. That loving someone, often, is a mechanism aimed at leaving something - and some times - behind. We choose to get consumed by life so that its origins are exhumed no more. For every child Tim has, the more irrevocably he drifts away from his own childhood. Every birth is inextricably linked to his rebirth. For each milestone he crosses as a life partner, the rules of time travel - a cinematic allegory for the texture of remembrance - force him to live rather than relive. Love is, after all, the emotional manifestation of the precise moment the future decides to break up with the past.

Q. 'Fortunately, he manages to be both selfless and selfish without compromising on the recipients of either trait.' What can be inferred from this line in the context of the passage?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 1

Option (b) is the correct choice as the duality of Tim's character in being selfish and selfless helps him in retaining both his love and his family (friend).

This is the recipient of the two traits that Tim fortunately ends up receiving and thus he is not compromising on them, as mentioned in the marked sentence. Option (a) is incorrect as it is a partial repetition of the sentence. The other two options, i.e., (c) and (d) are presumptuous.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 2

British filmmaker Richard Curtis has written iconic popcultural classics like Mr. Bean, Four Weddings and a Funeral, Notting Hill and Bridget Jones's Diary. His directorial debut, Love Actually, remains a rare film that at once parodies, celebrates, and reclaims, storytelling's most bastardised genre. But Curtis' most accomplished movie has everything and nothing to do with his reputation as the King of (Romantic) Comedy.

About Time (2013), starring Irish actor Domhnall Gleeson in a breakthrough role, cleverly weaponises its maker's stature. It counts on the fact that we anticipate an innovative (buzzword: time travel) but typically breezy love story. But the girl-boy arc fades into the background, and the film subverts our expectations by instead morphing into a deeply contemplative and winning tragedy about human nature. Curtis virtually uses his own career as a smokescreen to transform About Time into an affecting ode to closure and its elastic relationship with time. Early in the film, a retired James (Bill Nighy) informs his son Tim, a boy on the verge of big-city adulthood, that the men of the family possess the power to travel back in time. Naturally, at first, Tim abuses this cosmic gift like any red-blooded, teething male hero would - to find, and refine, his pursuit of love. He meets Mary, an American girl, and manipulates time in a manner that compels her to fall for him. You'd imagine any writer at this point would be tempted to use time travel as the pivot to continue navigating the cross-cultural politics of companionship. But Curtis refrains from old-school gimmickry. He designs the narrative device as a trigger that forces Tim's conflict to be conceived in the personal chasm that separates selfishness from selflessness: The selfishness of love from the selflessness of family.

Tim's story gets us thinking: do some of us subconsciously fail to sustain romantic relationships because we're unwilling to snap that umbilical cord? Do we postpone marriage - a family, children, onwardness -to preserve the fading remnants of our family? To keep our history accessible? The film's lyrical circularity exposes an uncomfortable truth about life - that romance is inherently an act of self-preservation. That loving someone, often, is a mechanism aimed at leaving something - and some times - behind. We choose to get consumed by life so that its origins are exhumed no more. For every child Tim has, the more irrevocably he drifts away from his own childhood. Every birth is inextricably linked to his rebirth. For each milestone he crosses as a life partner, the rules of time travel - a cinematic allegory for the texture of remembrance - force him to live rather than relive. Love is, after all, the emotional manifestation of the precise moment the future decides to break up with the past.

Q. As mentioned in the passage, the word "subverts" means

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 2

Option (a) is the correct answer as the word "subverts" means to secretly ruin or destroy something.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 3

British filmmaker Richard Curtis has written iconic popcultural classics like Mr. Bean, Four Weddings and a Funeral, Notting Hill and Bridget Jones's Diary. His directorial debut, Love Actually, remains a rare film that at once parodies, celebrates, and reclaims, storytelling's most bastardised genre. But Curtis' most accomplished movie has everything and nothing to do with his reputation as the King of (Romantic) Comedy.

About Time (2013), starring Irish actor Domhnall Gleeson in a breakthrough role, cleverly weaponises its maker's stature. It counts on the fact that we anticipate an innovative (buzzword: time travel) but typically breezy love story. But the girl-boy arc fades into the background, and the film subverts our expectations by instead morphing into a deeply contemplative and winning tragedy about human nature. Curtis virtually uses his own career as a smokescreen to transform About Time into an affecting ode to closure and its elastic relationship with time. Early in the film, a retired James (Bill Nighy) informs his son Tim, a boy on the verge of big-city adulthood, that the men of the family possess the power to travel back in time. Naturally, at first, Tim abuses this cosmic gift like any red-blooded, teething male hero would - to find, and refine, his pursuit of love. He meets Mary, an American girl, and manipulates time in a manner that compels her to fall for him. You'd imagine any writer at this point would be tempted to use time travel as the pivot to continue navigating the cross-cultural politics of companionship. But Curtis refrains from old-school gimmickry. He designs the narrative device as a trigger that forces Tim's conflict to be conceived in the personal chasm that separates selfishness from selflessness: The selfishness of love from the selflessness of family.

Tim's story gets us thinking: do some of us subconsciously fail to sustain romantic relationships because we're unwilling to snap that umbilical cord? Do we postpone marriage - a family, children, onwardness -to preserve the fading remnants of our family? To keep our history accessible? The film's lyrical circularity exposes an uncomfortable truth about life - that romance is inherently an act of self-preservation. That loving someone, often, is a mechanism aimed at leaving something - and some times - behind. We choose to get consumed by life so that its origins are exhumed no more. For every child Tim has, the more irrevocably he drifts away from his own childhood. Every birth is inextricably linked to his rebirth. For each milestone he crosses as a life partner, the rules of time travel - a cinematic allegory for the texture of remembrance - force him to live rather than relive. Love is, after all, the emotional manifestation of the precise moment the future decides to break up with the past.

Q. 'Loving someone, often, is a mechanism aimed at leaving something'- Which of the following statements most appropriately justifies this point?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 3

Option (c) is the correct choice as the notion put forward in the last paragraph focuses on the importance of letting things go in order to actually love someone. The importance of living over the need to relive. All other options are incorrect as they omit the above-mentioned detail.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 4

British filmmaker Richard Curtis has written iconic popcultural classics like Mr. Bean, Four Weddings and a Funeral, Notting Hill and Bridget Jones's Diary. His directorial debut, Love Actually, remains a rare film that at once parodies, celebrates, and reclaims, storytelling's most bastardised genre. But Curtis' most accomplished movie has everything and nothing to do with his reputation as the King of (Romantic) Comedy.

About Time (2013), starring Irish actor Domhnall Gleeson in a breakthrough role, cleverly weaponises its maker's stature. It counts on the fact that we anticipate an innovative (buzzword: time travel) but typically breezy love story. But the girl-boy arc fades into the background, and the film subverts our expectations by instead morphing into a deeply contemplative and winning tragedy about human nature. Curtis virtually uses his own career as a smokescreen to transform About Time into an affecting ode to closure and its elastic relationship with time. Early in the film, a retired James (Bill Nighy) informs his son Tim, a boy on the verge of big-city adulthood, that the men of the family possess the power to travel back in time. Naturally, at first, Tim abuses this cosmic gift like any red-blooded, teething male hero would - to find, and refine, his pursuit of love. He meets Mary, an American girl, and manipulates time in a manner that compels her to fall for him. You'd imagine any writer at this point would be tempted to use time travel as the pivot to continue navigating the cross-cultural politics of companionship. But Curtis refrains from old-school gimmickry. He designs the narrative device as a trigger that forces Tim's conflict to be conceived in the personal chasm that separates selfishness from selflessness: The selfishness of love from the selflessness of family.

Tim's story gets us thinking: do some of us subconsciously fail to sustain romantic relationships because we're unwilling to snap that umbilical cord? Do we postpone marriage - a family, children, onwardness -to preserve the fading remnants of our family? To keep our history accessible? The film's lyrical circularity exposes an uncomfortable truth about life - that romance is inherently an act of self-preservation. That loving someone, often, is a mechanism aimed at leaving something - and some times - behind. We choose to get consumed by life so that its origins are exhumed no more. For every child Tim has, the more irrevocably he drifts away from his own childhood. Every birth is inextricably linked to his rebirth. For each milestone he crosses as a life partner, the rules of time travel - a cinematic allegory for the texture of remembrance - force him to live rather than relive. Love is, after all, the emotional manifestation of the precise moment the future decides to break up with the past.

Q. How did Curtis refrain from following the usual story arc?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 4

Option (b) is the correct answer as it explains as to 'how' Curtis circumvents the usual story arc by not over-emphasizing on the usual expectations from movies based on time travel.

Option (a) contradicts the information provided in the passage, while the other options are irrelevant.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 5

British filmmaker Richard Curtis has written iconic popcultural classics like Mr. Bean, Four Weddings and a Funeral, Notting Hill and Bridget Jones's Diary. His directorial debut, Love Actually, remains a rare film that at once parodies, celebrates, and reclaims, storytelling's most bastardised genre. But Curtis' most accomplished movie has everything and nothing to do with his reputation as the King of (Romantic) Comedy.

About Time (2013), starring Irish actor Domhnall Gleeson in a breakthrough role, cleverly weaponises its maker's stature. It counts on the fact that we anticipate an innovative (buzzword: time travel) but typically breezy love story. But the girl-boy arc fades into the background, and the film subverts our expectations by instead morphing into a deeply contemplative and winning tragedy about human nature. Curtis virtually uses his own career as a smokescreen to transform About Time into an affecting ode to closure and its elastic relationship with time. Early in the film, a retired James (Bill Nighy) informs his son Tim, a boy on the verge of big-city adulthood, that the men of the family possess the power to travel back in time. Naturally, at first, Tim abuses this cosmic gift like any red-blooded, teething male hero would - to find, and refine, his pursuit of love. He meets Mary, an American girl, and manipulates time in a manner that compels her to fall for him. You'd imagine any writer at this point would be tempted to use time travel as the pivot to continue navigating the cross-cultural politics of companionship. But Curtis refrains from old-school gimmickry. He designs the narrative device as a trigger that forces Tim's conflict to be conceived in the personal chasm that separates selfishness from selflessness: The selfishness of love from the selflessness of family.

Tim's story gets us thinking: do some of us subconsciously fail to sustain romantic relationships because we're unwilling to snap that umbilical cord? Do we postpone marriage - a family, children, onwardness -to preserve the fading remnants of our family? To keep our history accessible? The film's lyrical circularity exposes an uncomfortable truth about life - that romance is inherently an act of self-preservation. That loving someone, often, is a mechanism aimed at leaving something - and some times - behind. We choose to get consumed by life so that its origins are exhumed no more. For every child Tim has, the more irrevocably he drifts away from his own childhood. Every birth is inextricably linked to his rebirth. For each milestone he crosses as a life partner, the rules of time travel - a cinematic allegory for the texture of remembrance - force him to live rather than relive. Love is, after all, the emotional manifestation of the precise moment the future decides to break up with the past.

Q. Which genre has been referred as to as the 'most bastardised genre' initially in the passage?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 5

Option (d) is correct as the first paragraph mentions that the movie in consideration, 'Love Actually' is a romantic comedy.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 6

A large number of the branches of banks have been set up in the villages. The main purpose of setting up these banks is to develop the habit of saving among the villagers and also gives loans to the farmers for boosting the production in one or the other way. So far the banks had been concentrated in the big cities and Indian villagers had no faith in them. The new banks also intend re-channelling bank credit from the big industries to small sectors. With the intention to promote rural banking, Regional Rural Banks were established. These combined the local field with the rural problems. These banks are not to replace the other credit giving bodies but to supplement them.

The Steering Committee of the Regional Rural Banks considered some structural changes. First of all they gave thought to the staffing spectrum then to effective coordination among banks- rural cooperatives and commercial-and the possibility of bringing credit within the access of weaker sections. They wanted to recruit the staff for the rural banks at lower salaries. But this type of discrimination would have been dangerous. So it was given up.

Another problem with regard to the rural banks is the creditworthiness of the poor. Indian farmers are so poor that they cannot pay back their loans. The rural Indian surveys it quite clear that practically they have no credit worthiness. Their socio-economic mobility is almost zero. Long ago in Ranchi the Government experimented with the idea of advancing loan but the experiment failed, that is why the banks used to fear that their credit would never be paid back.

Another difficulty for the rural banks is that loans cannot be so easily processed. Processing loans will also entail heavy expenditure. This is also going to affect their financial position. Still the establishment of the rural banks has been decided because the social advantages are more important than the commercial consideration.

Rural banks will definitely encourage savings. It is not the proper time to mop up the rural surplus. No doubt villages do not have to pay income tax and they get many other concessions, yet their saving is not significant. Beside all these hurdles rural banking system will boost up the economy of villages, and so the economy of the country.

Q. Why has the establishment of rural banks been decided despite the challenges involved in the process?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 6

Processing loans will also entail heavy expenditure. This is also going to affect their financial position. Still the establishment of the rural banks has been decided because the social advantages are more important than the commercial considerations.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 7

A large number of the branches of banks have been set up in the villages. The main purpose of setting up these banks is to develop the habit of saving among the villagers and also gives loans to the farmers for boosting the production in one or the other way. So far the banks had been concentrated in the big cities and Indian villagers had no faith in them. The new banks also intend re-channelling bank credit from the big industries to small sectors. With the intention to promote rural banking, Regional Rural Banks were established. These combined the local field with the rural problems. These banks are not to replace the other credit giving bodies but to supplement them.

The Steering Committee of the Regional Rural Banks considered some structural changes. First of all they gave thought to the staffing spectrum then to effective coordination among banks- rural cooperatives and commercial-and the possibility of bringing credit within the access of weaker sections. They wanted to recruit the staff for the rural banks at lower salaries. But this type of discrimination would have been dangerous. So it was given up.

Another problem with regard to the rural banks is the creditworthiness of the poor. Indian farmers are so poor that they cannot pay back their loans. The rural Indian surveys it quite clear that practically they have no credit worthiness. Their socio-economic mobility is almost zero. Long ago in Ranchi the Government experimented with the idea of advancing loan but the experiment failed, that is why the banks used to fear that their credit would never be paid back.

Another difficulty for the rural banks is that loans cannot be so easily processed. Processing loans will also entail heavy expenditure. This is also going to affect their financial position. Still the establishment of the rural banks has been decided because the social advantages are more important than the commercial consideration.

Rural banks will definitely encourage savings. It is not the proper time to mop up the rural surplus. No doubt villages do not have to pay income tax and they get many other concessions, yet their saving is not significant. Beside all these hurdles rural banking system will boost up the economy of villages, and so the economy of the country.

Q. What is the main purpose for setting up rural banks?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 7

A large number of the branches of banks have been set up in the villages. The main purpose of setting up these banks is to develop the habit of saving among the villagers and also give loans to the farmers for boosting the production in one or the other way. So far the banks have been concentrated in the big cities and Indian villagers have no faith in them.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 8

A large number of the branches of banks have been set up in the villages. The main purpose of setting up these banks is to develop the habit of saving among the villagers and also gives loans to the farmers for boosting the production in one or the other way. So far the banks had been concentrated in the big cities and Indian villagers had no faith in them. The new banks also intend re-channelling bank credit from the big industries to small sectors. With the intention to promote rural banking, Regional Rural Banks were established. These combined the local field with the rural problems. These banks are not to replace the other credit giving bodies but to supplement them.

The Steering Committee of the Regional Rural Banks considered some structural changes. First of all they gave thought to the staffing spectrum then to effective coordination among banks- rural cooperatives and commercial-and the possibility of bringing credit within the access of weaker sections. They wanted to recruit the staff for the rural banks at lower salaries. But this type of discrimination would have been dangerous. So it was given up.

Another problem with regard to the rural banks is the creditworthiness of the poor. Indian farmers are so poor that they cannot pay back their loans. The rural Indian surveys it quite clear that practically they have no credit worthiness. Their socio-economic mobility is almost zero. Long ago in Ranchi the Government experimented with the idea of advancing loan but the experiment failed, that is why the banks used to fear that their credit would never be paid back.

Another difficulty for the rural banks is that loans cannot be so easily processed. Processing loans will also entail heavy expenditure. This is also going to affect their financial position. Still the establishment of the rural banks has been decided because the social advantages are more important than the commercial consideration.

Rural banks will definitely encourage savings. It is not the proper time to mop up the rural surplus. No doubt villages do not have to pay income tax and they get many other concessions, yet their saving is not significant. Beside all these hurdles rural banking system will boost up the economy of villages, and so the economy of the country.

Q. How will the RRBs help in the economy of the country?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 8

Rural banks will definitely encourage savings. It is not the proper time to mop up the rural surplus. No doubt, villages do not have to pay income tax and they get many other concessions, yet their saving is not significant. Beside all these hurdles rural banking system will boost up the economy of villages, and so the economy of the country.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 9

A large number of the branches of banks have been set up in the villages. The main purpose of setting up these banks is to develop the habit of saving among the villagers and also gives loans to the farmers for boosting the production in one or the other way. So far the banks had been concentrated in the big cities and Indian villagers had no faith in them. The new banks also intend re-channelling bank credit from the big industries to small sectors. With the intention to promote rural banking, Regional Rural Banks were established. These combined the local field with the rural problems. These banks are not to replace the other credit giving bodies but to supplement them.

The Steering Committee of the Regional Rural Banks considered some structural changes. First of all they gave thought to the staffing spectrum then to effective coordination among banks- rural cooperatives and commercial-and the possibility of bringing credit within the access of weaker sections. They wanted to recruit the staff for the rural banks at lower salaries. But this type of discrimination would have been dangerous. So it was given up.

Another problem with regard to the rural banks is the creditworthiness of the poor. Indian farmers are so poor that they cannot pay back their loans. The rural Indian surveys it quite clear that practically they have no credit worthiness. Their socio-economic mobility is almost zero. Long ago in Ranchi the Government experimented with the idea of advancing loan but the experiment failed, that is why the banks used to fear that their credit would never be paid back.

Another difficulty for the rural banks is that loans cannot be so easily processed. Processing loans will also entail heavy expenditure. This is also going to affect their financial position. Still the establishment of the rural banks has been decided because the social advantages are more important than the commercial consideration.

Rural banks will definitely encourage savings. It is not the proper time to mop up the rural surplus. No doubt villages do not have to pay income tax and they get many other concessions, yet their saving is not significant. Beside all these hurdles rural banking system will boost up the economy of villages, and so the economy of the country.

Q. What is the main challenge with setting up Regional Rural Banks?

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 10

A large number of the branches of banks have been set up in the villages. The main purpose of setting up these banks is to develop the habit of saving among the villagers and also gives loans to the farmers for boosting the production in one or the other way. So far the banks had been concentrated in the big cities and Indian villagers had no faith in them. The new banks also intend re-channelling bank credit from the big industries to small sectors. With the intention to promote rural banking, Regional Rural Banks were established. These combined the local field with the rural problems. These banks are not to replace the other credit giving bodies but to supplement them.

The Steering Committee of the Regional Rural Banks considered some structural changes. First of all they gave thought to the staffing spectrum then to effective coordination among banks- rural cooperatives and commercial-and the possibility of bringing credit within the access of weaker sections. They wanted to recruit the staff for the rural banks at lower salaries. But this type of discrimination would have been dangerous. So it was given up.

Another problem with regard to the rural banks is the creditworthiness of the poor. Indian farmers are so poor that they cannot pay back their loans. The rural Indian surveys it quite clear that practically they have no credit worthiness. Their socio-economic mobility is almost zero. Long ago in Ranchi the Government experimented with the idea of advancing loan but the experiment failed, that is why the banks used to fear that their credit would never be paid back.

Another difficulty for the rural banks is that loans cannot be so easily processed. Processing loans will also entail heavy expenditure. This is also going to affect their financial position. Still the establishment of the rural banks has been decided because the social advantages are more important than the commercial consideration.

Rural banks will definitely encourage savings. It is not the proper time to mop up the rural surplus. No doubt villages do not have to pay income tax and they get many other concessions, yet their saving is not significant. Beside all these hurdles rural banking system will boost up the economy of villages, and so the economy of the country.

Q. "This type of discrim i nation would have been dangerous". What is referred to as being dangerous?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 10

First of all they gave thought to the staffing spectrum then to effective coordination among banks - rural cooperatives and commercial and the possibility of bringing credit within the access of weaker sections. They wanted to recruit the staff for the rural banks at lower salaries. But this type of discrimination would have been dangerous.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 11

Poetry is an art form that has survived for thousands and thousands of years. We study it in school, and we hear quotes from poems scattered throughout our life.

But do we ever truly make meaning of it? Does it even matter? My answer to you is yes it does. Reading poetry and or writing poetry can drastically improve your life.

Poetry is one of the most powerful forms of writing because it takes the English language, a language we believe we know, and transforms it. The pattern of the sentences sounds new and melodious. It is truly another language exclusively for the writer and the reader. No poem can be read in the same way, because the words mean something different to each of us. For this reason, many find poetry an elusive art form. However, the issue in understanding poetry lies in how you read poetry.

Anyone who writes poetry can attest, you have to write it with an open heart. So, as a reader, we must do the same. Opening your heart to poetry is the only way to get fulfillment from it.

From a writer's perspective, writing poetry can be equally elusive as reading poetry. When I first started writing poetry, the advice I always heard was practice, find your voice, keep a journal. I did all these things but still my poems were flat and inert. What was I missing? I poured over poems by Angelou, Shakespeare, Austen, and Wilde looking for a pattern, something I could emulate. This was the problem. I was unwilling to open my heart. I thought poetry could be a mask I could craft. But no matter how beautiful I made it; it would never come to life. It would never fit on another person's face. It did not ever fit on mine.

My first poem that came alive was written in the dark late at night. Vulnerability was the key. Poetry is about expressing those thoughts and feelings we keep the most suppressed. We must be honest with ourselves about what we feel in order to write anything worth reading. It's stopping and grabbing a thought by the tail and pulling it up into our conscious mind. It's trying to express the beauty, and wonder we see. It's about connecting our hearts and our minds to ourselves and our surroundings.

It's about finding peace.

So, reach for the pen, and let go of those things that have been burdening your freedom. Read poetry with your heart and let it affect you. The answer to our questions about the meaning of life, and the purpose of pain were written in poems. They have always been there.

Q. Which of the following best describes the writing style of the author?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 11

Option (b) is the correct answer as the author shares his personal experience to guide the reader about poetry writing in an immersive way.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 12

Poetry is an art form that has survived for thousands and thousands of years. We study it in school, and we hear quotes from poems scattered throughout our life.

But do we ever truly make meaning of it? Does it even matter? My answer to you is yes it does. Reading poetry and or writing poetry can drastically improve your life.

Poetry is one of the most powerful forms of writing because it takes the English language, a language we believe we know, and transforms it. The pattern of the sentences sounds new and melodious. It is truly another language exclusively for the writer and the reader. No poem can be read in the same way, because the words mean something different to each of us. For this reason, many find poetry an elusive art form. However, the issue in understanding poetry lies in how you read poetry.

Anyone who writes poetry can attest, you have to write it with an open heart. So, as a reader, we must do the same. Opening your heart to poetry is the only way to get fulfillment from it.

From a writer's perspective, writing poetry can be equally elusive as reading poetry. When I first started writing poetry, the advice I always heard was practice, find your voice, keep a journal. I did all these things but still my poems were flat and inert. What was I missing? I poured over poems by Angelou, Shakespeare, Austen, and Wilde looking for a pattern, something I could emulate. This was the problem. I was unwilling to open my heart. I thought poetry could be a mask I could craft. But no matter how beautiful I made it; it would never come to life. It would never fit on another person's face. It did not ever fit on mine.

My first poem that came alive was written in the dark late at night. Vulnerability was the key. Poetry is about expressing those thoughts and feelings we keep the most suppressed. We must be honest with ourselves about what we feel in order to write anything worth reading. It's stopping and grabbing a thought by the tail and pulling it up into our conscious mind. It's trying to express the beauty, and wonder we see. It's about connecting our hearts and our minds to ourselves and our surroundings.

It's about finding peace.

So, reach for the pen, and let go of those things that have been burdening your freedom. Read poetry with your heart and let it affect you. The answer to our questions about the meaning of life, and the purpose of pain were written in poems. They have always been there.

Q. Which of the following is required to realize the true essence of poetry?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 12

Option (c) is the correct answer as the author stresses on the importance of the willingness to explore poems with an open mind and heart.

According to the author this help in realizing the true meaning behind poems. All other options are incorrect as they do not address the point about the way one should approach poetry. They make physical remarks that have not been addressed in the passage.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 13

Poetry is an art form that has survived for thousands and thousands of years. We study it in school, and we hear quotes from poems scattered throughout our life.

But do we ever truly make meaning of it? Does it even matter? My answer to you is yes it does. Reading poetry and or writing poetry can drastically improve your life.

Poetry is one of the most powerful forms of writing because it takes the English language, a language we believe we know, and transforms it. The pattern of the sentences sounds new and melodious. It is truly another language exclusively for the writer and the reader. No poem can be read in the same way, because the words mean something different to each of us. For this reason, many find poetry an elusive art form. However, the issue in understanding poetry lies in how you read poetry.

Anyone who writes poetry can attest, you have to write it with an open heart. So, as a reader, we must do the same. Opening your heart to poetry is the only way to get fulfillment from it.

From a writer's perspective, writing poetry can be equally elusive as reading poetry. When I first started writing poetry, the advice I always heard was practice, find your voice, keep a journal. I did all these things but still my poems were flat and inert. What was I missing? I poured over poems by Angelou, Shakespeare, Austen, and Wilde looking for a pattern, something I could emulate. This was the problem. I was unwilling to open my heart. I thought poetry could be a mask I could craft. But no matter how beautiful I made it; it would never come to life. It would never fit on another person's face. It did not ever fit on mine.

My first poem that came alive was written in the dark late at night. Vulnerability was the key. Poetry is about expressing those thoughts and feelings we keep the most suppressed. We must be honest with ourselves about what we feel in order to write anything worth reading. It's stopping and grabbing a thought by the tail and pulling it up into our conscious mind. It's trying to express the beauty, and wonder we see. It's about connecting our hearts and our minds to ourselves and our surroundings.

It's about finding peace.

So, reach for the pen, and let go of those things that have been burdening your freedom. Read poetry with your heart and let it affect you. The answer to our questions about the meaning of life, and the purpose of pain were written in poems. They have always been there.

Q. According to the writer, what makes a poem worth reading?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 13

Option (b) is correct as clarity of thought is essential to quality poetry-writing. This clarity could only be achieved by being completely honest about oneself and about one's feelings.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 14

Poetry is an art form that has survived for thousands and thousands of years. We study it in school, and we hear quotes from poems scattered throughout our life.

But do we ever truly make meaning of it? Does it even matter? My answer to you is yes it does. Reading poetry and or writing poetry can drastically improve your life.

Poetry is one of the most powerful forms of writing because it takes the English language, a language we believe we know, and transforms it. The pattern of the sentences sounds new and melodious. It is truly another language exclusively for the writer and the reader. No poem can be read in the same way, because the words mean something different to each of us. For this reason, many find poetry an elusive art form. However, the issue in understanding poetry lies in how you read poetry.

Anyone who writes poetry can attest, you have to write it with an open heart. So, as a reader, we must do the same. Opening your heart to poetry is the only way to get fulfillment from it.

From a writer's perspective, writing poetry can be equally elusive as reading poetry. When I first started writing poetry, the advice I always heard was practice, find your voice, keep a journal. I did all these things but still my poems were flat and inert. What was I missing? I poured over poems by Angelou, Shakespeare, Austen, and Wilde looking for a pattern, something I could emulate. This was the problem. I was unwilling to open my heart. I thought poetry could be a mask I could craft. But no matter how beautiful I made it; it would never come to life. It would never fit on another person's face. It did not ever fit on mine.

My first poem that came alive was written in the dark late at night. Vulnerability was the key. Poetry is about expressing those thoughts and feelings we keep the most suppressed. We must be honest with ourselves about what we feel in order to write anything worth reading. It's stopping and grabbing a thought by the tail and pulling it up into our conscious mind. It's trying to express the beauty, and wonder we see. It's about connecting our hearts and our minds to ourselves and our surroundings.

It's about finding peace.

So, reach for the pen, and let go of those things that have been burdening your freedom. Read poetry with your heart and let it affect you. The answer to our questions about the meaning of life, and the purpose of pain were written in poems. They have always been there.

Q. As mentioned in the passage, "nuances" most nearly means

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 14

Option (d) is correct as in the context of the passage "nuances" means a very small difference in the meaning behind poetry.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 15

Poetry is an art form that has survived for thousands and thousands of years. We study it in school, and we hear quotes from poems scattered throughout our life.

But do we ever truly make meaning of it? Does it even matter? My answer to you is yes it does. Reading poetry and or writing poetry can drastically improve your life.

Poetry is one of the most powerful forms of writing because it takes the English language, a language we believe we know, and transforms it. The pattern of the sentences sounds new and melodious. It is truly another language exclusively for the writer and the reader. No poem can be read in the same way, because the words mean something different to each of us. For this reason, many find poetry an elusive art form. However, the issue in understanding poetry lies in how you read poetry.

Anyone who writes poetry can attest, you have to write it with an open heart. So, as a reader, we must do the same. Opening your heart to poetry is the only way to get fulfillment from it.

From a writer's perspective, writing poetry can be equally elusive as reading poetry. When I first started writing poetry, the advice I always heard was practice, find your voice, keep a journal. I did all these things but still my poems were flat and inert. What was I missing? I poured over poems by Angelou, Shakespeare, Austen, and Wilde looking for a pattern, something I could emulate. This was the problem. I was unwilling to open my heart. I thought poetry could be a mask I could craft. But no matter how beautiful I made it; it would never come to life. It would never fit on another person's face. It did not ever fit on mine.

My first poem that came alive was written in the dark late at night. Vulnerability was the key. Poetry is about expressing those thoughts and feelings we keep the most suppressed. We must be honest with ourselves about what we feel in order to write anything worth reading. It's stopping and grabbing a thought by the tail and pulling it up into our conscious mind. It's trying to express the beauty, and wonder we see. It's about connecting our hearts and our minds to ourselves and our surroundings.

It's about finding peace.

So, reach for the pen, and let go of those things that have been burdening your freedom. Read poetry with your heart and let it affect you. The answer to our questions about the meaning of life, and the purpose of pain were written in poems. They have always been there.

Q. Which of the following correctly mentions the demerit of emulating others in writing poetry?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 15

Option ( a) is correct as the author employs metaphors to convey the point of relating to others.

Putting on someone else's poetry as a mask is a metaphor for being able to relate to others. Options (b), (c) and (d) are incorrect as they make assumptions that are not a part of the passage.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 16

Relationships are how we relate to others. We have relationships with everyone we know and those who are close to us. Each and every interaction we have with another person is the act of relating. If we have a problem relating to others, it affects our ability to have supportive relationships. We have to ask ourselves if our relationships are supportive, and if they are not, then ask why they are not,

Everyone wants the perfect romance or marriage, but not everyone looks at the mechanics of how to have one. If we fail to have supportive relationships in our life, how can we have the "perfect love" relationships? Through the act of supporting, we honour and validate who the other person is.

This is turn, validates who we are. So, both are supported; no one loses; no egos are involved; and, so doing, we honour the relationship.

This is what it means to have a supportive relationship. This is the desired goal. Now, how do we accomplish it?

Our conduct patterns, 'positive' or 'negative' get set as we grow up. In order to clear a problem, one must identify the original cause which created a behavioural pattern, move through the experience of that situation and experience the emotions associated with it.

The healing process is a time when we must love the self. If we beat up the self about the experience which had caused us harm or our past reaction to it, then we cannot heal. In being loving to the self, we validate what we had experienced at that time.

Our emotions are always valid. So, it is important for us to do this self-validation in order to heal. Love is the energy which helps us heal-whether we give this love to ourselves or receive it from another.

Loving relations start with the self. When we look at having supportive relationship in our life, why not start with the self?

Because that is where love comes from. This is what transforms our relationships and our lives. We must love the self first. And we cannot do that until we have healed and become whole. Spiritually we must rise, and our spiritual quotient must be high.

For, it is not about what we can receive from love, but what we can contribute or give to love. The more we give, the more are the returns.

Q. How can we honour relationships?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 16

This in turn validates who we are. So both are supportive, no one loses, no ego is involved and doing so, we honour the relationship.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 17

Relationships are how we relate to others. We have relationships with everyone we know and those who are close to us. Each and every interaction we have with another person is the act of relating. If we have a problem relating to others, it affects our ability to have supportive relationships. We have to ask ourselves if our relationships are supportive, and if they are not, then ask why they are not,

Everyone wants the perfect romance or marriage, but not everyone looks at the mechanics of how to have one. If we fail to have supportive relationships in our life, how can we have the "perfect love" relationships? Through the act of supporting, we honour and validate who the other person is.

This is turn, validates who we are. So, both are supported; no one loses; no egos are involved; and, so doing, we honour the relationship.

This is what it means to have a supportive relationship. This is the desired goal. Now, how do we accomplish it?

Our conduct patterns, 'positive' or 'negative' get set as we grow up. In order to clear a problem, one must identify the original cause which created a behavioural pattern, move through the experience of that situation and experience the emotions associated with it.

The healing process is a time when we must love the self. If we beat up the self about the experience which had caused us harm or our past reaction to it, then we cannot heal. In being loving to the self, we validate what we had experienced at that time.

Our emotions are always valid. So, it is important for us to do this self-validation in order to heal. Love is the energy which helps us heal-whether we give this love to ourselves or receive it from another.

Loving relations start with the self. When we look at having supportive relationship in our life, why not start with the self?

Because that is where love comes from. This is what transforms our relationships and our lives. We must love the self first. And we cannot do that until we have healed and become whole. Spiritually we must rise, and our spiritual quotient must be high.

For, it is not about what we can receive from love, but what we can contribute or give to love. The more we give, the more are the returns.

Q. What are the processes involved in practicing 'self validation'?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 17

The healing process is a time when we must be loving to the self. If we beat up the self about the experience which had caused us harm or our past reaction to it, then we cannot heal. In being loving to the self, we validate what we had experienced at that time. Our emotions are always valid. So, it is important for us to do this self-validation in order to heal. Love is the energy which helps us heal -whether we give this love to ourselves or receive it from another.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 18

Relationships are how we relate to others. We have relationships with everyone we know and those who are close to us. Each and every interaction we have with another person is the act of relating. If we have a problem relating to others, it affects our ability to have supportive relationships. We have to ask ourselves if our relationships are supportive, and if they are not, then ask why they are not,

Everyone wants the perfect romance or marriage, but not everyone looks at the mechanics of how to have one. If we fail to have supportive relationships in our life, how can we have the "perfect love" relationships? Through the act of supporting, we honour and validate who the other person is.

This is turn, validates who we are. So, both are supported; no one loses; no egos are involved; and, so doing, we honour the relationship.

This is what it means to have a supportive relationship. This is the desired goal. Now, how do we accomplish it?

Our conduct patterns, 'positive' or 'negative' get set as we grow up. In order to clear a problem, one must identify the original cause which created a behavioural pattern, move through the experience of that situation and experience the emotions associated with it.

The healing process is a time when we must love the self. If we beat up the self about the experience which had caused us harm or our past reaction to it, then we cannot heal. In being loving to the self, we validate what we had experienced at that time.

Our emotions are always valid. So, it is important for us to do this self-validation in order to heal. Love is the energy which helps us heal-whether we give this love to ourselves or receive it from another.

Loving relations start with the self. When we look at having supportive relationship in our life, why not start with the self?

Because that is where love comes from. This is what transforms our relationships and our lives. We must love the self first. And we cannot do that until we have healed and become whole. Spiritually we must rise, and our spiritual quotient must be high.

For, it is not about what we can receive from love, but what we can contribute or give to love. The more we give, the more are the returns.

Q. How can we accomplish the goal of forging supportive relationships?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 18

Our emotions are always valid. So, it is important for us to do this self-validation in order to heal.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 19

Relationships are how we relate to others. We have relationships with everyone we know and those who are close to us. Each and every interaction we have with another person is the act of relating. If we have a problem relating to others, it affects our ability to have supportive relationships. We have to ask ourselves if our relationships are supportive, and if they are not, then ask why they are not,

Everyone wants the perfect romance or marriage, but not everyone looks at the mechanics of how to have one. If we fail to have supportive relationships in our life, how can we have the "perfect love" relationships? Through the act of supporting, we honour and validate who the other person is.

This is turn, validates who we are. So, both are supported; no one loses; no egos are involved; and, so doing, we honour the relationship.

This is what it means to have a supportive relationship. This is the desired goal. Now, how do we accomplish it?

Our conduct patterns, 'positive' or 'negative' get set as we grow up. In order to clear a problem, one must identify the original cause which created a behavioural pattern, move through the experience of that situation and experience the emotions associated with it.

The healing process is a time when we must love the self. If we beat up the self about the experience which had caused us harm or our past reaction to it, then we cannot heal. In being loving to the self, we validate what we had experienced at that time.

Our emotions are always valid. So, it is important for us to do this self-validation in order to heal. Love is the energy which helps us heal-whether we give this love to ourselves or receive it from another.

Loving relations start with the self. When we look at having supportive relationship in our life, why not start with the self?

Because that is where love comes from. This is what transforms our relationships and our lives. We must love the self first. And we cannot do that until we have healed and become whole. Spiritually we must rise, and our spiritual quotient must be high.

For, it is not about what we can receive from love, but what we can contribute or give to love. The more we give, the more are the returns.

Q. What is referred to as 'the desired goal' in the above paragraph?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 19

This is what it means to have supportive relationship. This is the desired goal.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 20

Relationships are how we relate to others. We have relationships with everyone we know and those who are close to us. Each and every interaction we have with another person is the act of relating. If we have a problem relating to others, it affects our ability to have supportive relationships. We have to ask ourselves if our relationships are supportive, and if they are not, then ask why they are not,

Everyone wants the perfect romance or marriage, but not everyone looks at the mechanics of how to have one. If we fail to have supportive relationships in our life, how can we have the "perfect love" relationships? Through the act of supporting, we honour and validate who the other person is.

This is turn, validates who we are. So, both are supported; no one loses; no egos are involved; and, so doing, we honour the relationship.

This is what it means to have a supportive relationship. This is the desired goal. Now, how do we accomplish it?

Our conduct patterns, 'positive' or 'negative' get set as we grow up. In order to clear a problem, one must identify the original cause which created a behavioural pattern, move through the experience of that situation and experience the emotions associated with it.

The healing process is a time when we must love the self. If we beat up the self about the experience which had caused us harm or our past reaction to it, then we cannot heal. In being loving to the self, we validate what we had experienced at that time.

Our emotions are always valid. So, it is important for us to do this self-validation in order to heal. Love is the energy which helps us heal-whether we give this love to ourselves or receive it from another.

Loving relations start with the self. When we look at having supportive relationship in our life, why not start with the self?

Because that is where love comes from. This is what transforms our relationships and our lives. We must love the self first. And we cannot do that until we have healed and become whole. Spiritually we must rise, and our spiritual quotient must be high.

For, it is not about what we can receive from love, but what we can contribute or give to love. The more we give, the more are the returns.

Q. According to the author from where does love start?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 20

Loving relations start with the self. When we look at having supportive relationship in our life, why not start with the self?

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 21

Why on Earth is it taking so long for the world's richest countries to take action on climate change? For a partial answer, we can look back to the controversy that started a decade ago this November, which came to be known as Climategate. In a 2010 paper in the journal Environmental Values, the sociologist Brigitte Nerlich looked at what happened.

Climategate began with the leaking of emails sent to and from climate scientists at the University of East Anglia, in the UK. The leaked file included more than 1,000 emails, but climate skeptics quickly seized on just a few of them: some messages in which scientists debated the publication of potentially flawed work, and some others in which they discussed adjusting data using a "trick"-a piece of mathematical jargon that commentators misinterpreted as an effort to deceive the public.

In the U.S. and UK, conservative bloggers quickly latched onto the messages as proof of dishonesty among climate scientists. Nerlich writes that they effectively reached their audiences with a few specific phrases. One of these was the word "climategate" itself apparently first used by conservative UK writer James Delingpole. The -gate suffix, referring back to Watergate, is a familiar method used by partisans and members of the media to indicate a serious scandal.

Looking at the messaging in blog posts about climategate, Nerlich found that another common theme was "science as a religion." Climate change deniers accused environmentalists and scientists of irrationally clinging to their belief in human-made climate change in the face of what they saw as evidence that it was a hoax. "The Global Warming religion is as virulent and insidious as all mind-bending cults of absolute certitude, and yet it has become mainstream orthodoxy and infallible spirituality faster than any faith-based cult in history," as one blogger put it.

Nerlich notes that, when it comes to scientists' levels of certainty, climate change deniers wanted to have it both ways. Any hint of uncertainty-which is almost always a factor in scientific analyses, especially concerning predictions about complex systems-was presented as a reason not to believe that change was happening at all. But too much certainty became proof that scientists were no longer operating from evidence, but instead trying to justify a cult-like faith.

Ultimately, Climategate was shown to be a fabrication.

In April 2010, an independent panel cleared the climate scientists of any wrongdoing in the leaked messages.

Yet the controversy apparently succeeded in changing public opinion, at least temporarily. In February of 2010, the Guardian reported that, in the previous year, the proportion of British adults who believed that climate change was "definitely" a reality had dropped from 44 to 31 percent.

Q. In the second paragraph the author mentions "trick" in quotes in order to highlight that the adjusting of data was:

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 21

The author says that the scientists adjusted the data using "trick". This was a mathematical jargon used by the scientist which was misinterpreted by some to be a deception. So, the author puts "trick" in quotes to highlight that the word trick does not literally mean a trick. Hence answer choice (a) is correct.

Incorrect Answers

(b) - The deception is what the commentators thought. "Trick" for the scientist was a mathematical jargon.

(c) and (d) - It was neither a mistake nor an error.

The scientists merely adjusted the data and used the jargon "trick" to call the adjustment that they made.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 22

Why on Earth is it taking so long for the world's richest countries to take action on climate change? For a partial answer, we can look back to the controversy that started a decade ago this November, which came to be known as Climategate. In a 2010 paper in the journal Environmental Values, the sociologist Brigitte Nerlich looked at what happened.

Climategate began with the leaking of emails sent to and from climate scientists at the University of East Anglia, in the UK. The leaked file included more than 1,000 emails, but climate skeptics quickly seized on just a few of them: some messages in which scientists debated the publication of potentially flawed work, and some others in which they discussed adjusting data using a "trick"-a piece of mathematical jargon that commentators misinterpreted as an effort to deceive the public.

In the U.S. and UK, conservative bloggers quickly latched onto the messages as proof of dishonesty among climate scientists. Nerlich writes that they effectively reached their audiences with a few specific phrases. One of these was the word "climategate" itself apparently first used by conservative UK writer James Delingpole. The -gate suffix, referring back to Watergate, is a familiar method used by partisans and members of the media to indicate a serious scandal.

Looking at the messaging in blog posts about climategate, Nerlich found that another common theme was "science as a religion." Climate change deniers accused environmentalists and scientists of irrationally clinging to their belief in human-made climate change in the face of what they saw as evidence that it was a hoax. "The Global Warming religion is as virulent and insidious as all mind-bending cults of absolute certitude, and yet it has become mainstream orthodoxy and infallible spirituality faster than any faith-based cult in history," as one blogger put it.

Nerlich notes that, when it comes to scientists' levels of certainty, climate change deniers wanted to have it both ways. Any hint of uncertainty-which is almost always a factor in scientific analyses, especially concerning predictions about complex systems-was presented as a reason not to believe that change was happening at all. But too much certainty became proof that scientists were no longer operating from evidence, but instead trying to justify a cult-like faith.

Ultimately, Climategate was shown to be a fabrication.

In April 2010, an independent panel cleared the climate scientists of any wrongdoing in the leaked messages.

Yet the controversy apparently succeeded in changing public opinion, at least temporarily. In February of 2010, the Guardian reported that, in the previous year, the proportion of British adults who believed that climate change was "definitely" a reality had dropped from 44 to 31 percent.

Q. Why did the climate change deniers use the analogy of science as a religion?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 22

The author points out a theme used by some of the climate change deniers - "science is religion". They claimed that the climate change had become a faith-based cult which was not based on evidence.

So, just like how religion is based on faith and not on evidence, climate change is also not based on evidence. Hence (b) is the correct answer.

Incorrect Answers

(a) - There is nothing to suggest that those who criticize climate change say that climate change is based on moral arguments.

(c) - There is no evidence to suggest that the climate change deniers believe that religion denies climate change. (d) - This is plainly wrong. This is a positive statement about science. However, the deniers hold an opposite view when it comes to climate change.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 23

Why on Earth is it taking so long for the world's richest countries to take action on climate change? For a partial answer, we can look back to the controversy that started a decade ago this November, which came to be known as Climategate. In a 2010 paper in the journal Environmental Values, the sociologist Brigitte Nerlich looked at what happened.

Climategate began with the leaking of emails sent to and from climate scientists at the University of East Anglia, in the UK. The leaked file included more than 1,000 emails, but climate skeptics quickly seized on just a few of them: some messages in which scientists debated the publication of potentially flawed work, and some others in which they discussed adjusting data using a "trick"-a piece of mathematical jargon that commentators misinterpreted as an effort to deceive the public.

In the U.S. and UK, conservative bloggers quickly latched onto the messages as proof of dishonesty among climate scientists. Nerlich writes that they effectively reached their audiences with a few specific phrases. One of these was the word "climategate" itself apparently first used by conservative UK writer James Delingpole. The -gate suffix, referring back to Watergate, is a familiar method used by partisans and members of the media to indicate a serious scandal.

Looking at the messaging in blog posts about climategate, Nerlich found that another common theme was "science as a religion." Climate change deniers accused environmentalists and scientists of irrationally clinging to their belief in human-made climate change in the face of what they saw as evidence that it was a hoax. "The Global Warming religion is as virulent and insidious as all mind-bending cults of absolute certitude, and yet it has become mainstream orthodoxy and infallible spirituality faster than any faith-based cult in history," as one blogger put it.

Nerlich notes that, when it comes to scientists' levels of certainty, climate change deniers wanted to have it both ways. Any hint of uncertainty-which is almost always a factor in scientific analyses, especially concerning predictions about complex systems-was presented as a reason not to believe that change was happening at all. But too much certainty became proof that scientists were no longer operating from evidence, but instead trying to justify a cult-like faith.

Ultimately, Climategate was shown to be a fabrication.

In April 2010, an independent panel cleared the climate scientists of any wrongdoing in the leaked messages.

Yet the controversy apparently succeeded in changing public opinion, at least temporarily. In February of 2010, the Guardian reported that, in the previous year, the proportion of British adults who believed that climate change was "definitely" a reality had dropped from 44 to 31 percent.

Q. Which one of the following can replace the phrase "absolute certitude" as used in the fourth paragraph?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 23

Certitude means absolute conviction or unquestioning belief in something.

This has reference to the view held by a climate skeptic blogger who commented "…as all mind bending cults of absolute certitude". Cults are groups (usually religious) that have extreme beliefs based on blind faith. This makes answer choice (c) the correct answer.

Incorrect Answers

(a) - Though one may consider cults are completely stupid, the reference cults here is to explain faith without any form of evidence. The climate skeptics believe that climate change is a hoax and those who believe in climate change, believed in that without any evidence.

(b) - cult members do not have distrust; in fact, it is quite the opposite - they exhibit blind trust.

(d) - "tentative" is a wrong word - absolute cannot be tentative.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 24

Why on Earth is it taking so long for the world's richest countries to take action on climate change? For a partial answer, we can look back to the controversy that started a decade ago this November, which came to be known as Climategate. In a 2010 paper in the journal Environmental Values, the sociologist Brigitte Nerlich looked at what happened.

Climategate began with the leaking of emails sent to and from climate scientists at the University of East Anglia, in the UK. The leaked file included more than 1,000 emails, but climate skeptics quickly seized on just a few of them: some messages in which scientists debated the publication of potentially flawed work, and some others in which they discussed adjusting data using a "trick"-a piece of mathematical jargon that commentators misinterpreted as an effort to deceive the public.

In the U.S. and UK, conservative bloggers quickly latched onto the messages as proof of dishonesty among climate scientists. Nerlich writes that they effectively reached their audiences with a few specific phrases. One of these was the word "climategate" itself apparently first used by conservative UK writer James Delingpole. The -gate suffix, referring back to Watergate, is a familiar method used by partisans and members of the media to indicate a serious scandal.

Looking at the messaging in blog posts about climategate, Nerlich found that another common theme was "science as a religion." Climate change deniers accused environmentalists and scientists of irrationally clinging to their belief in human-made climate change in the face of what they saw as evidence that it was a hoax. "The Global Warming religion is as virulent and insidious as all mind-bending cults of absolute certitude, and yet it has become mainstream orthodoxy and infallible spirituality faster than any faith-based cult in history," as one blogger put it.

Nerlich notes that, when it comes to scientists' levels of certainty, climate change deniers wanted to have it both ways. Any hint of uncertainty-which is almost always a factor in scientific analyses, especially concerning predictions about complex systems-was presented as a reason not to believe that change was happening at all. But too much certainty became proof that scientists were no longer operating from evidence, but instead trying to justify a cult-like faith.

Ultimately, Climategate was shown to be a fabrication.

In April 2010, an independent panel cleared the climate scientists of any wrongdoing in the leaked messages.

Yet the controversy apparently succeeded in changing public opinion, at least temporarily. In February of 2010, the Guardian reported that, in the previous year, the proportion of British adults who believed that climate change was "definitely" a reality had dropped from 44 to 31 percent.

Q. Why did some of the conservative users add the suffix -gate in climategate?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 24

The author mentions that the suffix -gate refers to Watergate which was another scandal. This makes answer choice (c) the correct answer.
[Watergate - The Watergate scandal was a major federal political scandal in the United States involving the administration of President Richard Nixon from 1972 to 1974]

Incorrect Answers

(a) and (d) - There is no evidence in the passage for these suggestions.

(b) - While it is mentioned that "they effectively reached their audiences with a few specific phrases", that does not mean that the phrases were easy to explain. The question specifically asks as to why the suffix -gate was used and this suffix was borrowed from Watergate which was another scandal.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 25

Why on Earth is it taking so long for the world's richest countries to take action on climate change? For a partial answer, we can look back to the controversy that started a decade ago this November, which came to be known as Climategate. In a 2010 paper in the journal Environmental Values, the sociologist Brigitte Nerlich looked at what happened.

Climategate began with the leaking of emails sent to and from climate scientists at the University of East Anglia, in the UK. The leaked file included more than 1,000 emails, but climate skeptics quickly seized on just a few of them: some messages in which scientists debated the publication of potentially flawed work, and some others in which they discussed adjusting data using a "trick"-a piece of mathematical jargon that commentators misinterpreted as an effort to deceive the public.

In the U.S. and UK, conservative bloggers quickly latched onto the messages as proof of dishonesty among climate scientists. Nerlich writes that they effectively reached their audiences with a few specific phrases. One of these was the word "climategate" itself apparently first used by conservative UK writer James Delingpole. The -gate suffix, referring back to Watergate, is a familiar method used by partisans and members of the media to indicate a serious scandal.

Looking at the messaging in blog posts about climategate, Nerlich found that another common theme was "science as a religion." Climate change deniers accused environmentalists and scientists of irrationally clinging to their belief in human-made climate change in the face of what they saw as evidence that it was a hoax. "The Global Warming religion is as virulent and insidious as all mind-bending cults of absolute certitude, and yet it has become mainstream orthodoxy and infallible spirituality faster than any faith-based cult in history," as one blogger put it.

Nerlich notes that, when it comes to scientists' levels of certainty, climate change deniers wanted to have it both ways. Any hint of uncertainty-which is almost always a factor in scientific analyses, especially concerning predictions about complex systems-was presented as a reason not to believe that change was happening at all. But too much certainty became proof that scientists were no longer operating from evidence, but instead trying to justify a cult-like faith.

Ultimately, Climategate was shown to be a fabrication.

In April 2010, an independent panel cleared the climate scientists of any wrongdoing in the leaked messages.

Yet the controversy apparently succeeded in changing public opinion, at least temporarily. In February of 2010, the Guardian reported that, in the previous year, the proportion of British adults who believed that climate change was "definitely" a reality had dropped from 44 to 31 percent.

Q. Why does the author mention that the proportion of British adults who believed that climate change was "definitely" a reality had dropped from 44 to 31 percent?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 25

The author, in the last paragraph, mentions that in April 2010 an independent panel cleared the climate scientists of any wrongdoing. However, the controversy did have a negative impact on public opinion albeit temporarily. To justify that claim, the author presents the data of Feb 2010 that the percentage of British adults who believed that climate change was a reality dropped. Since the data was used to justify the claim that the climategate changed the public opinion temporarily answer choice (b) is the correct answer.

Incorrect answers

(a) - The author is not trying to reason as to why British adults think climate change is not real. The data was used to highlight the fact that climate gate had a negative impact on public perception.

(c) - The data is not being used to argue that climate change is real. While the author may hold that belief, the question is specifically asking as to why the data is used in the passage.

(d) - This is not the view of the author anyways.

The climate change is a hoax was the view of the proponents of climategate.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 26

Given overwhelming evidence for the primacy of sociocultural factors in determining both drinking patterns and their consequences, it is clear that ethnographic research findings on the social and cultural roles of alcohol may have important implications for policymakers - particularly in areas such as Europe where economic and political 'convergence' could have significant impact on drinking-cultures and their associated lifestyles.

In this context, it is essential for those concerned with policy and legislation on alcohol to have a clear understanding of the sociocultural functions and meanings of drinking. This passage outlines the principal conclusions that can be drawn from the available cross cultural material regarding the symbolic uses of alcoholic beverages, the social functions of drinking-places and the roles of alcohol in transitional and celebratory rituals.

From the ethnographic material available, it is clear that in all cultures where more than one type of alcoholic beverage is available, drinks are classified in terms of their social meaning, and the classification of drinks is used to define the social world. Few, if any, alcoholic beverages are 'socially neutral': every drink is loaded with symbolic meaning, every drink conveys a message.

Alcohol is a symbolic vehicle for identifying, describing, constructing and manipulating cultural systems, values, interpersonal relationships, behavioural norms and expectations. Choice of beverage is rarely a matter of personal taste.

At the simplest level, drinks are used to define the nature of the occasion. In many Western cultures, for example, champagne is synonymous with celebration, such that if champagne is ordered or served at an otherwise 'ordinary' occasion, someone will invariably ask "What are we celebrating?"

In the Wiener Becken in Austria, sekt is drunk on formal occasions, while schnapps is reserved for more intimate, convivial gatherings - the type of drink served defines both the nature of the event and the social relationship between the drinkers. The choice of drink also dictates behaviour, to the extent that the appearance of a bottle of schnapps can prompt a switch from the 'polite' form of address, sie, to the highly intimate du.

Q. The author states the different functions of drinking in order to

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 26

Except option (d), all the other options can be inferred from the passage. Refer to the third paragraph. It states that hardly any alcoholic drinks are socially neutral.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 27

Given overwhelming evidence for the primacy of sociocultural factors in determining both drinking patterns and their consequences, it is clear that ethnographic research findings on the social and cultural roles of alcohol may have important implications for policymakers - particularly in areas such as Europe where economic and political 'convergence' could have significant impact on drinking-cultures and their associated lifestyles.

In this context, it is essential for those concerned with policy and legislation on alcohol to have a clear understanding of the sociocultural functions and meanings of drinking. This passage outlines the principal conclusions that can be drawn from the available cross cultural material regarding the symbolic uses of alcoholic beverages, the social functions of drinking-places and the roles of alcohol in transitional and celebratory rituals.

From the ethnographic material available, it is clear that in all cultures where more than one type of alcoholic beverage is available, drinks are classified in terms of their social meaning, and the classification of drinks is used to define the social world. Few, if any, alcoholic beverages are 'socially neutral': every drink is loaded with symbolic meaning, every drink conveys a message.

Alcohol is a symbolic vehicle for identifying, describing, constructing and manipulating cultural systems, values, interpersonal relationships, behavioural norms and expectations. Choice of beverage is rarely a matter of personal taste.

At the simplest level, drinks are used to define the nature of the occasion. In many Western cultures, for example, champagne is synonymous with celebration, such that if champagne is ordered or served at an otherwise 'ordinary' occasion, someone will invariably ask "What are we celebrating?"

In the Wiener Becken in Austria, sekt is drunk on formal occasions, while schnapps is reserved for more intimate, convivial gatherings - the type of drink served defines both the nature of the event and the social relationship between the drinkers. The choice of drink also dictates behaviour, to the extent that the appearance of a bottle of schnapps can prompt a switch from the 'polite' form of address, sie, to the highly intimate du.

Q. Which of the following words is closest in meaning to the word "convivial" used in the fifth paragraph of the passage?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 27

"Convivial" means friendly or agreeable. Hence the word which is closest in meaning to this word is "genial" which carries the same meaning.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 28

Given overwhelming evidence for the primacy of sociocultural factors in determining both drinking patterns and their consequences, it is clear that ethnographic research findings on the social and cultural roles of alcohol may have important implications for policymakers - particularly in areas such as Europe where economic and political 'convergence' could have significant impact on drinking-cultures and their associated lifestyles.

In this context, it is essential for those concerned with policy and legislation on alcohol to have a clear understanding of the sociocultural functions and meanings of drinking. This passage outlines the principal conclusions that can be drawn from the available cross cultural material regarding the symbolic uses of alcoholic beverages, the social functions of drinking-places and the roles of alcohol in transitional and celebratory rituals.

From the ethnographic material available, it is clear that in all cultures where more than one type of alcoholic beverage is available, drinks are classified in terms of their social meaning, and the classification of drinks is used to define the social world. Few, if any, alcoholic beverages are 'socially neutral': every drink is loaded with symbolic meaning, every drink conveys a message.

Alcohol is a symbolic vehicle for identifying, describing, constructing and manipulating cultural systems, values, interpersonal relationships, behavioural norms and expectations. Choice of beverage is rarely a matter of personal taste.

At the simplest level, drinks are used to define the nature of the occasion. In many Western cultures, for example, champagne is synonymous with celebration, such that if champagne is ordered or served at an otherwise 'ordinary' occasion, someone will invariably ask "What are we celebrating?"

In the Wiener Becken in Austria, sekt is drunk on formal occasions, while schnapps is reserved for more intimate, convivial gatherings - the type of drink served defines both the nature of the event and the social relationship between the drinkers. The choice of drink also dictates behaviour, to the extent that the appearance of a bottle of schnapps can prompt a switch from the 'polite' form of address, sie, to the highly intimate du.

Q. According to the author,

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 28

Refer to the line, 'drinks are classified in terms of their social meaning, and the classification of drinks is used to define the social world'.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 29

Given overwhelming evidence for the primacy of sociocultural factors in determining both drinking patterns and their consequences, it is clear that ethnographic research findings on the social and cultural roles of alcohol may have important implications for policymakers - particularly in areas such as Europe where economic and political 'convergence' could have significant impact on drinking-cultures and their associated lifestyles.

In this context, it is essential for those concerned with policy and legislation on alcohol to have a clear understanding of the sociocultural functions and meanings of drinking. This passage outlines the principal conclusions that can be drawn from the available cross cultural material regarding the symbolic uses of alcoholic beverages, the social functions of drinking-places and the roles of alcohol in transitional and celebratory rituals.

From the ethnographic material available, it is clear that in all cultures where more than one type of alcoholic beverage is available, drinks are classified in terms of their social meaning, and the classification of drinks is used to define the social world. Few, if any, alcoholic beverages are 'socially neutral': every drink is loaded with symbolic meaning, every drink conveys a message.

Alcohol is a symbolic vehicle for identifying, describing, constructing and manipulating cultural systems, values, interpersonal relationships, behavioural norms and expectations. Choice of beverage is rarely a matter of personal taste.

At the simplest level, drinks are used to define the nature of the occasion. In many Western cultures, for example, champagne is synonymous with celebration, such that if champagne is ordered or served at an otherwise 'ordinary' occasion, someone will invariably ask "What are we celebrating?"

In the Wiener Becken in Austria, sekt is drunk on formal occasions, while schnapps is reserved for more intimate, convivial gatherings - the type of drink served defines both the nature of the event and the social relationship between the drinkers. The choice of drink also dictates behaviour, to the extent that the appearance of a bottle of schnapps can prompt a switch from the 'polite' form of address, sie, to the highly intimate du.

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 29

The main purpose of the passage is to indicate that drinking also has a symbolic purpose and meaning apart from the physical aspect which is generally associated with it.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 30

Given overwhelming evidence for the primacy of sociocultural factors in determining both drinking patterns and their consequences, it is clear that ethnographic research findings on the social and cultural roles of alcohol may have important implications for policymakers - particularly in areas such as Europe where economic and political 'convergence' could have significant impact on drinking-cultures and their associated lifestyles.

In this context, it is essential for those concerned with policy and legislation on alcohol to have a clear understanding of the sociocultural functions and meanings of drinking. This passage outlines the principal conclusions that can be drawn from the available cross cultural material regarding the symbolic uses of alcoholic beverages, the social functions of drinking-places and the roles of alcohol in transitional and celebratory rituals.

From the ethnographic material available, it is clear that in all cultures where more than one type of alcoholic beverage is available, drinks are classified in terms of their social meaning, and the classification of drinks is used to define the social world. Few, if any, alcoholic beverages are 'socially neutral': every drink is loaded with symbolic meaning, every drink conveys a message.

Alcohol is a symbolic vehicle for identifying, describing, constructing and manipulating cultural systems, values, interpersonal relationships, behavioural norms and expectations. Choice of beverage is rarely a matter of personal taste.

At the simplest level, drinks are used to define the nature of the occasion. In many Western cultures, for example, champagne is synonymous with celebration, such that if champagne is ordered or served at an otherwise 'ordinary' occasion, someone will invariably ask "What are we celebrating?"

In the Wiener Becken in Austria, sekt is drunk on formal occasions, while schnapps is reserved for more intimate, convivial gatherings - the type of drink served defines both the nature of the event and the social relationship between the drinkers. The choice of drink also dictates behaviour, to the extent that the appearance of a bottle of schnapps can prompt a switch from the 'polite' form of address, sie, to the highly intimate du.

Q. The author states the different functions of drinking in order to

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 30

Refer to the following lines, 'Alcohol is a symbolic vehicle for identifying, describing, constructing and manipulating cultural systems, values, interpersonal relationships, behavioural norms and expectations.

Choice of beverage is rarely a matter of personal taste.'

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 31

One of the kinds of human enhancement that has received extensive philosophical attention in recent years is the use of biomedical interventions to improve the physical performance of athletes in the context of sports.

One reason athletic performance enhancement garners so much attention is because of its currency, given the epidemic of "doping" scandals in contemporary sport.

At first impression, the ethical problem with performance enhancement in sport would seem to be simply a problem of cheating. If the rules of sport forbid the use of performance enhancements, then their illicit use confers an advantage to users against other athletes. That advantage, in turn, can create pressure for more athletes to cheat in the same way, undermining the basis for the competitions at stake and exacerbating the gap between those who can afford enhancements and those who cannot.

The rules of a game can be changed. In sports, novel forms of performance enhancing equipment and training are routinely introduced as athletic technology and expertise evolve. Where issues of athletes' equitable access arise, they can be dealt with in one of two ways.

Sometimes it is possible to ensure fair distribution, as for example, when the International Olympic Committee negotiated an agreement with the manufacturer of the new "FastSkin" swimming suit to provide suits to all the teams at the Sydney Olympics. In other cases, inequalities may simply come to be accepted as unfortunate but not unfair. This is, for example, how many people would view a story about an equatorial country that could not afford year-round artificial snow for its ski team, and so could not compete evenly with the ski teams of northern countries. If enhancement interventions can either be distributed fairly or the inequities they create can be written into the rules of the social game in question as part of the given advantages of the more fortunate, then individual users no longer face a fairness problem.

For those who can afford it, for example, what would be ethically suspect about mounting a mirror image of the "Special Olympics" for athletes with disabilities: a "Super Olympics", featuring athletes universally equipped with the latest modifications and enhancements? For answers to that challenge, the critics of biomedical enhancement have to dig beyond concerns about the fair governance of games to a deeper and broader sense of "cheating", in terms of the corrosive effects of enhancement on the integrity of admirable human practices.

Q. According to the passage, one of the reasons as to why athletic performance enhancements get so much attention is.

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 31

Refer : " One reason athletic performance enhancement garners so much attention is because of its currency, given the epidemic of "doping" scandals in contemporary sport."

Currency here refers to: "the fact or quality of being generally accepted or in use."

Answer choice (d) is correct answer

Incorrect Answers

(a) - currency here does not refer to money.

(b) - The improvement of athletic performance is not the reason why it got so much attention. The reason is that it is an epidemic - used commonly.

(c) - It is not because it is regarded as cheating that it is getting attention. Whether or not it amounts to cheating is something that the author discusses later in the passage.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 32

One of the kinds of human enhancement that has received extensive philosophical attention in recent years is the use of biomedical interventions to improve the physical performance of athletes in the context of sports.

One reason athletic performance enhancement garners so much attention is because of its currency, given the epidemic of "doping" scandals in contemporary sport.

At first impression, the ethical problem with performance enhancement in sport would seem to be simply a problem of cheating. If the rules of sport forbid the use of performance enhancements, then their illicit use confers an advantage to users against other athletes. That advantage, in turn, can create pressure for more athletes to cheat in the same way, undermining the basis for the competitions at stake and exacerbating the gap between those who can afford enhancements and those who cannot.

The rules of a game can be changed. In sports, novel forms of performance enhancing equipment and training are routinely introduced as athletic technology and expertise evolve. Where issues of athletes' equitable access arise, they can be dealt with in one of two ways.

Sometimes it is possible to ensure fair distribution, as for example, when the International Olympic Committee negotiated an agreement with the manufacturer of the new "FastSkin" swimming suit to provide suits to all the teams at the Sydney Olympics. In other cases, inequalities may simply come to be accepted as unfortunate but not unfair. This is, for example, how many people would view a story about an equatorial country that could not afford year-round artificial snow for its ski team, and so could not compete evenly with the ski teams of northern countries. If enhancement interventions can either be distributed fairly or the inequities they create can be written into the rules of the social game in question as part of the given advantages of the more fortunate, then individual users no longer face a fairness problem.

For those who can afford it, for example, what would be ethically suspect about mounting a mirror image of the "Special Olympics" for athletes with disabilities: a "Super Olympics", featuring athletes universally equipped with the latest modifications and enhancements? For answers to that challenge, the critics of biomedical enhancement have to dig beyond concerns about the fair governance of games to a deeper and broader sense of "cheating", in terms of the corrosive effects of enhancement on the integrity of admirable human practices.

Q. Which of the following is analogous to the example of equatorial countries' inability to complete in ski competitions?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 32

The example of equatorial countries is used to illustrate the concept of - "unfortunate but not unfair". Equatorial countries do not have snow. So, they are not able to compete effectively with northern countries in skiing competitions. Author says this not a 'fairness' issue. Neither can we stop skiing competition because of equatorial countries not having a level-playing ground nor can we give snow to equatorial countries! So, it is unfortunate not unfair.

We are looking an example like that - unfortunate but not unfair.

Answer choice (c) is an accurate analogy. Some candidates may have lot of money to spend in elections. That is allowed and there is nothing wrong with that. So, if some other candidates do not have resources, then it is unfortunate not unfair.

Incorrect Answers

(a) - This is out and out cheating. It is definitely unfair.

(b) - This is also unfair. It is clearly mentioned - the shopkeeper uses UNFAIR practices

(d) - This is unfair. Billing a patient just to make more money is unfair.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 33

One of the kinds of human enhancement that has received extensive philosophical attention in recent years is the use of biomedical interventions to improve the physical performance of athletes in the context of sports.

One reason athletic performance enhancement garners so much attention is because of its currency, given the epidemic of "doping" scandals in contemporary sport.

At first impression, the ethical problem with performance enhancement in sport would seem to be simply a problem of cheating. If the rules of sport forbid the use of performance enhancements, then their illicit use confers an advantage to users against other athletes. That advantage, in turn, can create pressure for more athletes to cheat in the same way, undermining the basis for the competitions at stake and exacerbating the gap between those who can afford enhancements and those who cannot.

The rules of a game can be changed. In sports, novel forms of performance enhancing equipment and training are routinely introduced as athletic technology and expertise evolve. Where issues of athletes' equitable access arise, they can be dealt with in one of two ways.

Sometimes it is possible to ensure fair distribution, as for example, when the International Olympic Committee negotiated an agreement with the manufacturer of the new "FastSkin" swimming suit to provide suits to all the teams at the Sydney Olympics. In other cases, inequalities may simply come to be accepted as unfortunate but not unfair. This is, for example, how many people would view a story about an equatorial country that could not afford year-round artificial snow for its ski team, and so could not compete evenly with the ski teams of northern countries. If enhancement interventions can either be distributed fairly or the inequities they create can be written into the rules of the social game in question as part of the given advantages of the more fortunate, then individual users no longer face a fairness problem.

For those who can afford it, for example, what would be ethically suspect about mounting a mirror image of the "Special Olympics" for athletes with disabilities: a "Super Olympics", featuring athletes universally equipped with the latest modifications and enhancements? For answers to that challenge, the critics of biomedical enhancement have to dig beyond concerns about the fair governance of games to a deeper and broader sense of "cheating", in terms of the corrosive effects of enhancement on the integrity of admirable human practices.

Q. What does the meaning of the word "exacerbate" as used in the passage mean?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 33

The meaning of exacerbate is to make something more severe.

The passage mentions - "…undermining the basis for the competitions at stake and exacerbating the gap…". Here the author says that the pressure to perform will make the athletics cheat and that in turn will increase the gap between those who have advantage and those who don't.

Incorrect answers

(a), (b) and (d) are incorrect. (a) and (d) are opposites. In answer choice (b) 'tense' is not the correct meaning.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 34

One of the kinds of human enhancement that has received extensive philosophical attention in recent years is the use of biomedical interventions to improve the physical performance of athletes in the context of sports.

One reason athletic performance enhancement garners so much attention is because of its currency, given the epidemic of "doping" scandals in contemporary sport.

At first impression, the ethical problem with performance enhancement in sport would seem to be simply a problem of cheating. If the rules of sport forbid the use of performance enhancements, then their illicit use confers an advantage to users against other athletes. That advantage, in turn, can create pressure for more athletes to cheat in the same way, undermining the basis for the competitions at stake and exacerbating the gap between those who can afford enhancements and those who cannot.

The rules of a game can be changed. In sports, novel forms of performance enhancing equipment and training are routinely introduced as athletic technology and expertise evolve. Where issues of athletes' equitable access arise, they can be dealt with in one of two ways.

Sometimes it is possible to ensure fair distribution, as for example, when the International Olympic Committee negotiated an agreement with the manufacturer of the new "FastSkin" swimming suit to provide suits to all the teams at the Sydney Olympics. In other cases, inequalities may simply come to be accepted as unfortunate but not unfair. This is, for example, how many people would view a story about an equatorial country that could not afford year-round artificial snow for its ski team, and so could not compete evenly with the ski teams of northern countries. If enhancement interventions can either be distributed fairly or the inequities they create can be written into the rules of the social game in question as part of the given advantages of the more fortunate, then individual users no longer face a fairness problem.

For those who can afford it, for example, what would be ethically suspect about mounting a mirror image of the "Special Olympics" for athletes with disabilities: a "Super Olympics", featuring athletes universally equipped with the latest modifications and enhancements? For answers to that challenge, the critics of biomedical enhancement have to dig beyond concerns about the fair governance of games to a deeper and broader sense of "cheating", in terms of the corrosive effects of enhancement on the integrity of admirable human practices.

Q. "Super Olympics", as per the passage:

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 34

This is the relevant part from the last paragraph: If enhancement interventions can either be distributed fairly or the inequities they create can be written into the rules of the social game in question as part of the given advantages of the more fortunate, then individual users no longer face a fairness problem. For those who can afford it, for example, what would be ethically suspect about mounting a mirror image of the "Special Olympics" for athletes with disabilities: a "Super Olympics", featuring athletes universally equipped with the latest modifications and enhancements?

Answer choice (b) is correct. "Super Olympics", featuring athletes universally equipped with the latest modifications and enhancements".

Incorrect Answers

(a) - What is mentioned in the passage is that it's a mirror image of Special Olympics. It is NOT a counter. Mirror image is a thing that closely resembles another. Author is merely saying that just like Special Olympics create a level playing ground, Super Olympics also creates a level playing ground. Counter means opposition.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 35

One of the kinds of human enhancement that has received extensive philosophical attention in recent years is the use of biomedical interventions to improve the physical performance of athletes in the context of sports.

One reason athletic performance enhancement garners so much attention is because of its currency, given the epidemic of "doping" scandals in contemporary sport.

At first impression, the ethical problem with performance enhancement in sport would seem to be simply a problem of cheating. If the rules of sport forbid the use of performance enhancements, then their illicit use confers an advantage to users against other athletes. That advantage, in turn, can create pressure for more athletes to cheat in the same way, undermining the basis for the competitions at stake and exacerbating the gap between those who can afford enhancements and those who cannot.

The rules of a game can be changed. In sports, novel forms of performance enhancing equipment and training are routinely introduced as athletic technology and expertise evolve. Where issues of athletes' equitable access arise, they can be dealt with in one of two ways.

Sometimes it is possible to ensure fair distribution, as for example, when the International Olympic Committee negotiated an agreement with the manufacturer of the new "FastSkin" swimming suit to provide suits to all the teams at the Sydney Olympics. In other cases, inequalities may simply come to be accepted as unfortunate but not unfair. This is, for example, how many people would view a story about an equatorial country that could not afford year-round artificial snow for its ski team, and so could not compete evenly with the ski teams of northern countries. If enhancement interventions can either be distributed fairly or the inequities they create can be written into the rules of the social game in question as part of the given advantages of the more fortunate, then individual users no longer face a fairness problem.

For those who can afford it, for example, what would be ethically suspect about mounting a mirror image of the "Special Olympics" for athletes with disabilities: a "Super Olympics", featuring athletes universally equipped with the latest modifications and enhancements? For answers to that challenge, the critics of biomedical enhancement have to dig beyond concerns about the fair governance of games to a deeper and broader sense of "cheating", in terms of the corrosive effects of enhancement on the integrity of admirable human practices.

Q. In the last paragraph, what is the author's appeal to the critics of biomedical enhancements?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 35

The author's appeal is in the last sentence.

"For answers to that challenge, the critics of biomedical enhancement have to dig beyond concerns about the fair governance of games to a deeper and broader sense of "cheating", in terms of the corrosive effects of enhancement on the integrity of admirable human practices."

The author asks critics to have a deeper and broader understanding of cheating to evaluate the negative impact of biomedical enhancements. This is captured in answer choice (d)

Incorrect Answers

(a) - Author does not merely suggests that the debate should be improved. S/he gives a clear direction as to what needs to be done - to have a broader understanding of cheating.

(b) - The author does not ask critics to collect facts.

(c) - The author does not suggest that the critics should correlate various impacts. S/he recommend that critics understand what 'cheating' is.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 36

News media businesses can no longer rely solely on making money from traditional advertising and must embrace the multiple commercial opportunities from online, according to magazine publisher and broadcaster Andrew Neil.

The Press Holdings chairman, BBC presenter and former Sunday Times editor said the changes sweeping the media industry were "transformative and revolutionary" and that traditional ways of making money had all but eroded as increased competition and the explosion of online media erodes the exclusivity of advertising deals.

Speaking at today's SIIA Global Information Industry Summit in London, Neil said that the internet was not a threat to the traditional printed media companies, but an "essential" opportunity to diversify and ultimately save them. "Sensible newspaper and magazine publishers do not see online as a threat or something they have to do because 'it is the future, so let's do it and grit our teeth'," he said. "Offline publications are still necessary for brand building and because people still like to hold a newspaper or particularly a magazine. But the revenues for that are in decline as search engines make classified ads increasingly irrelevant."

Neil pointed out that his magazine websites - he is also chairman of ITP Publishing, the Gulf's largest magazine publishers - were visited mainly by people who also read the print version and visit the site "for the additional material that is only online". He said The Spectator, owned by Press Holdings, had achieved great success with its Coffee House network of blogs, which has 200,000 unique users a month and will contribute "20 percent of the bottom line" this year in terms of revenue.

He also pointed out that the one of the biggest spikes in traffic for Telegraph.co.uk was around 10am every day, when the print readers had finished their Daily Telegraph and wanted to know what else its journalists were doing. "You now need to use online to do a whole host of things that you just could not before," he added. "It ceases to be an either-or situation."

Neil admitted the going was tough for the media in a multi-platform world with complex revenue streams but it was, for him at least, "a lot more fun".

He contrasted the UK market with the US, in which newspapers are run by big city monopolies that are unused to competition and "run for the journalists and not for the readers".

In the UK many mainstream publishers grasped the need to diversify early on: "Most trends like this begin in the US but in this trend the British media are particularly much ahead of them," he said. "British newspapers have always been used to competition: it's the most competitive newspaper market in the world bar none."

Q. Why do the people visit the website after reading newspapers and magazines?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 36

Refer to the lines, 'Neil pointed out that his magazine websites……were visited mainly by people who also read the print version and visit the site "for the additional material that is only online".

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 37

News media businesses can no longer rely solely on making money from traditional advertising and must embrace the multiple commercial opportunities from online, according to magazine publisher and broadcaster Andrew Neil.

The Press Holdings chairman, BBC presenter and former Sunday Times editor said the changes sweeping the media industry were "transformative and revolutionary" and that traditional ways of making money had all but eroded as increased competition and the explosion of online media erodes the exclusivity of advertising deals.

Speaking at today's SIIA Global Information Industry Summit in London, Neil said that the internet was not a threat to the traditional printed media companies, but an "essential" opportunity to diversify and ultimately save them. "Sensible newspaper and magazine publishers do not see online as a threat or something they have to do because 'it is the future, so let's do it and grit our teeth'," he said. "Offline publications are still necessary for brand building and because people still like to hold a newspaper or particularly a magazine. But the revenues for that are in decline as search engines make classified ads increasingly irrelevant."

Neil pointed out that his magazine websites - he is also chairman of ITP Publishing, the Gulf's largest magazine publishers - were visited mainly by people who also read the print version and visit the site "for the additional material that is only online". He said The Spectator, owned by Press Holdings, had achieved great success with its Coffee House network of blogs, which has 200,000 unique users a month and will contribute "20 percent of the bottom line" this year in terms of revenue.

He also pointed out that the one of the biggest spikes in traffic for Telegraph.co.uk was around 10am every day, when the print readers had finished their Daily Telegraph and wanted to know what else its journalists were doing. "You now need to use online to do a whole host of things that you just could not before," he added. "It ceases to be an either-or situation."

Neil admitted the going was tough for the media in a multi-platform world with complex revenue streams but it was, for him at least, "a lot more fun".

He contrasted the UK market with the US, in which newspapers are run by big city monopolies that are unused to competition and "run for the journalists and not for the readers".

In the UK many mainstream publishers grasped the need to diversify early on: "Most trends like this begin in the US but in this trend the British media are particularly much ahead of them," he said. "British newspapers have always been used to competition: it's the most competitive newspaper market in the world bar none."

Q. Why are the offline publications still necessary when the online version is so comprehensive?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 37

Refer to the fifth paragraph, "Offline publications are still necessary for brand building and because people still like to hold a newspaper or particularly a magazine."

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 38

News media businesses can no longer rely solely on making money from traditional advertising and must embrace the multiple commercial opportunities from online, according to magazine publisher and broadcaster Andrew Neil.

The Press Holdings chairman, BBC presenter and former Sunday Times editor said the changes sweeping the media industry were "transformative and revolutionary" and that traditional ways of making money had all but eroded as increased competition and the explosion of online media erodes the exclusivity of advertising deals.

Speaking at today's SIIA Global Information Industry Summit in London, Neil said that the internet was not a threat to the traditional printed media companies, but an "essential" opportunity to diversify and ultimately save them. "Sensible newspaper and magazine publishers do not see online as a threat or something they have to do because 'it is the future, so let's do it and grit our teeth'," he said. "Offline publications are still necessary for brand building and because people still like to hold a newspaper or particularly a magazine. But the revenues for that are in decline as search engines make classified ads increasingly irrelevant."

Neil pointed out that his magazine websites - he is also chairman of ITP Publishing, the Gulf's largest magazine publishers - were visited mainly by people who also read the print version and visit the site "for the additional material that is only online". He said The Spectator, owned by Press Holdings, had achieved great success with its Coffee House network of blogs, which has 200,000 unique users a month and will contribute "20 percent of the bottom line" this year in terms of revenue.

He also pointed out that the one of the biggest spikes in traffic for Telegraph.co.uk was around 10am every day, when the print readers had finished their Daily Telegraph and wanted to know what else its journalists were doing. "You now need to use online to do a whole host of things that you just could not before," he added. "It ceases to be an either-or situation."

Neil admitted the going was tough for the media in a multi-platform world with complex revenue streams but it was, for him at least, "a lot more fun".

He contrasted the UK market with the US, in which newspapers are run by big city monopolies that are unused to competition and "run for the journalists and not for the readers".

In the UK many mainstream publishers grasped the need to diversify early on: "Most trends like this begin in the US but in this trend the British media are particularly much ahead of them," he said. "British newspapers have always been used to competition: it's the most competitive newspaper market in the world bar none."

Q. Why don't sensible newspapers and magazine publishers see the internet as a menace to their business?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 38

Refer to the 4th paragraph, it says "Sensible newspaper and magazine publishers do not see online as a threat or something they have to do because 'it is the future, so let's do it and grit our teeth',"

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 39

News media businesses can no longer rely solely on making money from traditional advertising and must embrace the multiple commercial opportunities from online, according to magazine publisher and broadcaster Andrew Neil.

The Press Holdings chairman, BBC presenter and former Sunday Times editor said the changes sweeping the media industry were "transformative and revolutionary" and that traditional ways of making money had all but eroded as increased competition and the explosion of online media erodes the exclusivity of advertising deals.

Speaking at today's SIIA Global Information Industry Summit in London, Neil said that the internet was not a threat to the traditional printed media companies, but an "essential" opportunity to diversify and ultimately save them. "Sensible newspaper and magazine publishers do not see online as a threat or something they have to do because 'it is the future, so let's do it and grit our teeth'," he said. "Offline publications are still necessary for brand building and because people still like to hold a newspaper or particularly a magazine. But the revenues for that are in decline as search engines make classified ads increasingly irrelevant."

Neil pointed out that his magazine websites - he is also chairman of ITP Publishing, the Gulf's largest magazine publishers - were visited mainly by people who also read the print version and visit the site "for the additional material that is only online". He said The Spectator, owned by Press Holdings, had achieved great success with its Coffee House network of blogs, which has 200,000 unique users a month and will contribute "20 percent of the bottom line" this year in terms of revenue.

He also pointed out that the one of the biggest spikes in traffic for Telegraph.co.uk was around 10am every day, when the print readers had finished their Daily Telegraph and wanted to know what else its journalists were doing. "You now need to use online to do a whole host of things that you just could not before," he added. "It ceases to be an either-or situation."

Neil admitted the going was tough for the media in a multi-platform world with complex revenue streams but it was, for him at least, "a lot more fun".

He contrasted the UK market with the US, in which newspapers are run by big city monopolies that are unused to competition and "run for the journalists and not for the readers".

In the UK many mainstream publishers grasped the need to diversify early on: "Most trends like this begin in the US but in this trend the British media are particularly much ahead of them," he said. "British newspapers have always been used to competition: it's the most competitive newspaper market in the world bar none."

Q. What does Neil mean when he says 'let's do it and grit our teeth'?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 39

Refer to the fourth paragraph. The text clearly states that publishers do not consider online media as a threat, rather they are ready to work to employ it for further gain.

Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 40

News media businesses can no longer rely solely on making money from traditional advertising and must embrace the multiple commercial opportunities from online, according to magazine publisher and broadcaster Andrew Neil.

The Press Holdings chairman, BBC presenter and former Sunday Times editor said the changes sweeping the media industry were "transformative and revolutionary" and that traditional ways of making money had all but eroded as increased competition and the explosion of online media erodes the exclusivity of advertising deals.

Speaking at today's SIIA Global Information Industry Summit in London, Neil said that the internet was not a threat to the traditional printed media companies, but an "essential" opportunity to diversify and ultimately save them. "Sensible newspaper and magazine publishers do not see online as a threat or something they have to do because 'it is the future, so let's do it and grit our teeth'," he said. "Offline publications are still necessary for brand building and because people still like to hold a newspaper or particularly a magazine. But the revenues for that are in decline as search engines make classified ads increasingly irrelevant."

Neil pointed out that his magazine websites - he is also chairman of ITP Publishing, the Gulf's largest magazine publishers - were visited mainly by people who also read the print version and visit the site "for the additional material that is only online". He said The Spectator, owned by Press Holdings, had achieved great success with its Coffee House network of blogs, which has 200,000 unique users a month and will contribute "20 percent of the bottom line" this year in terms of revenue.

He also pointed out that the one of the biggest spikes in traffic for Telegraph.co.uk was around 10am every day, when the print readers had finished their Daily Telegraph and wanted to know what else its journalists were doing. "You now need to use online to do a whole host of things that you just could not before," he added. "It ceases to be an either-or situation."

Neil admitted the going was tough for the media in a multi-platform world with complex revenue streams but it was, for him at least, "a lot more fun".

He contrasted the UK market with the US, in which newspapers are run by big city monopolies that are unused to competition and "run for the journalists and not for the readers".

In the UK many mainstream publishers grasped the need to diversify early on: "Most trends like this begin in the US but in this trend the British media are particularly much ahead of them," he said. "British newspapers have always been used to competition: it's the most competitive newspaper market in the world bar none."

Q. How is the US media market different from that of the UK?

Detailed Solution for Languages: Mock Test - 6 - Question 40

Refer to the last two paragraphs of the passage. Options (b) and (c) are correct. Option (a) is incorrect because the UK market felt the need to diversify and not the US market. As a result, online advertisement is the much more popular in the UK than in the US.

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