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Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions


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15 Questions MCQ Test Sociology Class 12 | Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions

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Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 1

Directions : In the following questions, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Mark the correct choice as:
Assertion (A):A significant yet paradoxical change in the caste system in the contemporary period is that it has tended to become ‘invisible’ for the upper caste, urban middle and upper classes.
Reason (R): Caste plays no part in their private lives.

Detailed Solution for Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 1

For the upper caste, caste plays no part in their public lives, being limited to the personal sphere of religious practice or marriage and kinship.

Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 2

Directions : In the following questions, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Mark the correct choice as:
Assertion (A): Matriarchy, unlike patriarchy, has been a theoretical rather than an empirical concept.
Reason (R): There is no historical or anthropological evidence of matriarchy – i.e., societies where women exercise dominance.

Detailed Solution for Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 2

There do exist matrilineal societies, i.e., societies where women inherit property from their mothers but do not exercise control over it, nor are they the decision makers in public affairs. But matriarchy only exists as conceptual opposition to patriarchy.

Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 3

Directions : In the following questions, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Mark the correct choice as:
Assertion (A): Castes are supposed to be complementary and competing groups.
Reason (R): Each caste has its own place in the system which cannot be taken by any other caste.

Detailed Solution for Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 3

Castes are not only unequal to each other in ritual terms, they are also supposed to be complementary and noncompeting groups. Since caste is also linked with occupation, the system functions as the social division of labour, except that, in principle, it allows no mobility.

Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 4

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

“Tribe’ is a modern term for communities that are very old, being among the oldest inhabitants of the sub-continent. Tribes in India have generally been defined in terms of what they were not. Tribes were communities that did not practice a religion with a written text; did not have a state or political form of the normal kind; did not have sharp class divisions; and, most important, they did not have caste and were neither Hindus nor peasants. The term was introduced in the colonial era. The use of a single term for a very disparate set of communities was more a matter of administrative convenience… In terms of positive characteristics, tribes have been classified according to their ‘permanent’ and ‘acquired’ traits.”

Q. If we look at the share of tribals in the state population, then the North Eastern states have the highest concentrations, with all states, except ____________, having concentrations of more than 30%.

Fill in the blanks using the following options:

Detailed Solution for Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 4 States like Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland have more than 60% and up to 95% of tribal population in terms of concentration. Assam is an only exception with less than 30% of tribal population.
Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 5

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

“Tribe’ is a modern term for communities that are very old, being among the oldest inhabitants of the sub-continent. Tribes in India have generally been defined in terms of what they were not. Tribes were communities that did not practice a religion with a written text; did not have a state or political form of the normal kind; did not have sharp class divisions; and, most important, they did not have caste and were neither Hindus nor peasants. The term was introduced in the colonial era. The use of a single term for a very disparate set of communities was more a matter of administrative convenience… In terms of positive characteristics, tribes have been classified according to their ‘permanent’ and ‘acquired’ traits.”

Q. Which of the following is NOT a permanent trait of tribes in India?

Detailed Solution for Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 5 Mode of livelihood is an acquired trait of the tribes. On the basis of livelihood, tribes can be categorised into fishermen, food gatherers and hunters, shifting cultivators, peasants and plantation and industrial workers.
Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 6

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

“Tribe’ is a modern term for communities that are very old, being among the oldest inhabitants of the sub-continent. Tribes in India have generally been defined in terms of what they were not. Tribes were communities that did not practice a religion with a written text; did not have a state or political form of the normal kind; did not have sharp class divisions; and, most important, they did not have caste and were neither Hindus nor peasants. The term was introduced in the colonial era. The use of a single term for a very disparate set of communities was more a matter of administrative convenience… In terms of positive characteristics, tribes have been classified according to their ‘permanent’ and ‘acquired’ traits.”

Q. Which of the following is not a physical-racial criterion for defining the tribes in India?

Detailed Solution for Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 6 Austric is a linguistic category.
Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 7

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

“Tribe’ is a modern term for communities that are very old, being among the oldest inhabitants of the sub-continent. Tribes in India have generally been defined in terms of what they were not. Tribes were communities that did not practice a religion with a written text; did not have a state or political form of the normal kind; did not have sharp class divisions; and, most important, they did not have caste and were neither Hindus nor peasants. The term was introduced in the colonial era. The use of a single term for a very disparate set of communities was more a matter of administrative convenience… In terms of positive characteristics, tribes have been classified according to their ‘permanent’ and ‘acquired’ traits.”

Q. According to Census Report 2011, it is ____% of the population of India, or about 104 million tribal persons in the country, or about 104 million tribal persons in the country.

Detailed Solution for Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 7

The total population of tribes amounts to about 8.2% of the population of India, or about 84 million persons according to the 2001 Census. The Census of 2011 reported an increase of 0.2%. It is now 8.6% of the population of India, or about 104 million tribal persons in the country.

Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 8

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same: “Compared to the ancient past, we know a lot more about caste in our recent history. If modern history is taken to begin with the nineteenth century, then Indian Independence in 1947 offers a natural dividing line between the colonial period (roughly 150 years from around 1800 to 1947) and the post-Independence or post-colonial period (the six decades from 1947 to the present day). The present form of caste as a social institution has been shaped very strongly by both the colonial period as well as the rapid changes that have come about in independent India.”

Q. Which of the following is an example of the economic changes affecting caste?

Detailed Solution for Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 8 The first and the third options are examples of the resilience of the caste system. Emergence of caste-based political parties in the 1980s is an example of political changes. Growth of private modern industry opened new job opportunities that where caste rules did not apply. At a different level, modern educated Indians attracted to the liberal ideas of individualism and meritocracy, began to abandon the more extreme caste practices.
Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 9

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same: “Compared to the ancient past, we know a lot more about caste in our recent history. If modern history is taken to begin with the nineteenth century, then Indian Independence in 1947 offers a natural dividing line between the colonial period (roughly 150 years from around 1800 to 1947) and the post-Independence or post-colonial period (the six decades from 1947 to the present day). The present form of caste as a social institution has been shaped very strongly by both the colonial period as well as the rapid changes that have come about in independent India.”

Q. Choose the incorrect statement about the position of caste and caste-based issues in the nationalist movement.

Detailed Solution for Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 9 Efforts to organise the “depressed classes” and particularly the untouchable castes predated the nationalist movement, having begun in the second half of the nineteenth century.
Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 10

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same: “Compared to the ancient past, we know a lot more about caste in our recent history. If modern history is taken to begin with the nineteenth century, then Indian Independence in 1947 offers a natural dividing line between the colonial period (roughly 150 years from around 1800 to 1947) and the post-Independence or post-colonial period (the six decades from 1947 to the present day). The present form of caste as a social institution has been shaped very strongly by both the colonial period as well as the rapid changes that have come about in independent India.”

Q. In which area has caste proved to be the strongest?

Detailed Solution for Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 10 It was in the cultural and domestic spheres that caste has proved strongest. Endogamy, or the practice of marrying within the caste, remained largely unaffected by modernisation and change.
Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 11

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same: “Compared to the ancient past, we know a lot more about caste in our recent history. If modern history is taken to begin with the nineteenth century, then Indian Independence in 1947 offers a natural dividing line between the colonial period (roughly 150 years from around 1800 to 1947) and the post-Independence or post-colonial period (the six decades from 1947 to the present day). The present form of caste as a social institution has been shaped very strongly by both the colonial period as well as the rapid changes that have come about in independent India.”

The post-Independence Indian state inherited and reflected the contradictions of the nationalist movement.

Q. Choose the incorrect statement about the postIndependence India state?

Detailed Solution for Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 11 The other three statements prove that the efforts made by the Indian state were not sufficient and their actions were also contradictory towards the abolition of caste.
Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 12

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same: Opinions also differ on the exact age of the caste system. It is generally agreed, though, that the four varna classification is roughly three thousand years old. However, the ‘caste system’ stood for different things in different time periods, so that it is misleading to think of the same system continuing for three thousand years. In its earliest phase, in the late Vedic period roughly between 900 — 500 BC, the caste system was really a varna system and consisted of only four major divisions. These divisions were not very elaborate or very rigid, and they were not determined by birth. Movement across the categories seems to have been not only possible but quite common. It is only in the postVedic period that caste became the rigid institution that is familiar to us from well-known definitions.

Q. Castes were traditionally linked to occupations. Caste based occupations are ___________ in nature.

Detailed Solution for Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 12 A person born into a caste could only practice the occupation associated with that caste, so that occupations were hereditary, i.e., passed on from generation to generation.
Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 13

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same: Opinions also differ on the exact age of the caste system. It is generally agreed, though, that the four varna classification is roughly three thousand years old. However, the ‘caste system’ stood for different things in different time periods, so that it is misleading to think of the same system continuing for three thousand years. In its earliest phase, in the late Vedic period roughly between 900 — 500 BC, the caste system was really a varna system and consisted of only four major divisions. These divisions were not very elaborate or very rigid, and they were not determined by birth. Movement across the categories seems to have been not only possible but quite common. It is only in the postVedic period that caste became the rigid institution that is familiar to us from well-known definitions.

Q. Membership in a caste involves strict rules about marriage. Marriages are restricted to members of the caste group. What do we call this practice?

Detailed Solution for Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 13 Caste groups are “endogamous”, i.e., marriage is restricted to members of the group.
Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 14

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same: Opinions also differ on the exact age of the caste system. It is generally agreed, though, that the four varna classification is roughly three thousand years old. However, the ‘caste system’ stood for different things in different time periods, so that it is misleading to think of the same system continuing for three thousand years. In its earliest phase, in the late Vedic period roughly between 900 — 500 BC, the caste system was really a varna system and consisted of only four major divisions. These divisions were not very elaborate or very rigid, and they were not determined by birth. Movement across the categories seems to have been not only possible but quite common. It is only in the postVedic period that caste became the rigid institution that is familiar to us from well-known definitions.

Q. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about the term jati?

Detailed Solution for Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 14 Varna is a broad all-India aggregative classification, while jati is taken to be a regional or local sub-classification involving a much more complex system consisting of hundreds or even thousands of castes and subcastes.
Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 15

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same: Opinions also differ on the exact age of the caste system. It is generally agreed, though, that the four varna classification is roughly three thousand years old. However, the ‘caste system’ stood for different things in different time periods, so that it is misleading to think of the same system continuing for three thousand years. In its earliest phase, in the late Vedic period roughly between 900 — 500 BC, the caste system was really a varna system and consisted of only four major divisions. These divisions were not very elaborate or very rigid, and they were not determined by birth. Movement across the categories seems to have been not only possible but quite common. It is only in the postVedic period that caste became the rigid institution that is familiar to us from well-known definitions.

Q. Which of the following is not a principle on which the caste system is based?

Detailed Solution for Test: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions - Question 15 Theoretically, the caste system can be understood as the combination of two sets of principles, one based on difference and separation and the other on wholism and hierarchy.
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