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Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Humanities/Arts MCQ


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10 Questions MCQ Test Psychology Class 11 - Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2

Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 for Humanities/Arts 2024 is part of Psychology Class 11 preparation. The Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 questions and answers have been prepared according to the Humanities/Arts exam syllabus.The Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 MCQs are made for Humanities/Arts 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 below.
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Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 1

Which TWO of the following statements are true of simultaneous contrast illusions?

  1. In the simultaneous tilt illusion, vertical stripes appear tilted away from the tilt of their surrounding stripes.
  2. In the luminance illusion, a grey patch appears darker when surrounded by a dark area than when surrounded by a light area.
  3. A purple patch appears slightly closer to blue when surrounded by red, and closer to red when seen against a blue background.
  4. Visual illusion effects only exist for motion.

Detailed Solution for Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 1

Some further examples of perceptual phenomena that result from the process of exaggeration are shown in the ‘Everyday Psychology’ box . These are known collectively as simultaneous contrast illusions. In each case the central regions of the stimuli are identical, but their surrounds differ. Panel A lets you experience the simultaneous tilt illusion, in which vertical stripes appear tilted away from the tilt of their surrounding stripes. Panel B shows the luminance illusion: a grey patch appears lighter when surrounded by a dark area than when surrounded by a light area. Panel C shows the same effect for colour: a purple patch appears slightly closer to blue when surrounded by red, and closer to red when seen against a blue background. There is also an exactly analogous effect for motion, as well as for other visual dimensions such as size and depth.

Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 2

When visual information about an object is perceived, which model of perceptual processing emphasizes on-going feedback between the higher centres of the brain (e.g., cognition) and the early stages of processing (e.g., sensory receptors)?

Detailed Solution for Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 2

The recurrent processing model emphasizes the effects of a stimulus on the higher centres of the brain, suggesting that subjective perception and actual perception at the level of the sensory receptors is modulated by these higher processes. Serial processing and parallel processing were earlier models of perceptual processing, with the parallel model having some support but the serial model is completely outdated. Selective adaptation is not a model of visual processing, but rather a technique used by the sensory system to adjust to the properties of a constant background. Feedback processing is not a term used to refer to a visual processing model.

Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 3

One of the following statements is FALSE – but which one? 

Detailed Solution for Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 3

This system of channels can signal orientations which do not correspond to the preferred orientation of any single channel. How is the information from all these channels combined when a visual stimulus is presented? There is likely to be a process that combines the activities across all channels, weighted according to the level of activity in each channel. Such a process finds the ‘centre of gravity’ of the distribution of activity. The centre of gravity (in statistical terms, the weighted mean) corresponds to the perceived orientation of the stimulus.

Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 4

In conjunction search: 

Detailed Solution for Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 4

Parallel search tasks can be contrasted with a second search type, conjunction search, in which the target/distractor difference is not based on a single feature, but on conjunctions of features. For example, the target might be a vertical red line in an array of vertical blue lines and tilted red lines. In this scenario, search time for the target is not constant, but instead rises with the number of distractors. The observer apparently searches through the display serially, scanning each item (or small group of items) successively (serial search).
Both positive and negative trials are presented. In positive trials the target is present in the display, whereas in negative trials the target is absent in the display. This kind of task might arise in real life when you have forgotten the location of your car in a large car park. You have to find a blue Ford amongst an array of cars of many makes and colours, where, for example, red Fords and blue Volkswagens are the distractors. The target does not pop out, but finding it requires effortful attentive scrutiny (Treisman & Gormican, 1988).

Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 5

You parked your car in a large car park Monday morning. When you return to the car park Monday night, you have forgotten the location of your car. To find your green Fiesta in a large car park filled with green Volkswagons and red Fiestas, which type of visual search would you need to use? 

Detailed Solution for Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 5

To find one’s car in this situation would require a conjunction and serial search because it is necessary to search for the type and colour of car (conjunction of features) and to scan all the cars in order to be sure the target car (one’s own car) is not missed. Parallel search is used to find a target independent of the number of items or distracters in the visual display.

Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 6

How are cortical cells arranged to best transmit neural information? 

Detailed Solution for Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 6

Cortical cells are vertically organized in columns which stretch the entire depth of the cerebral cortex and respond to similar properties of the stimulus, while neighbouring columns respond to different aspects of the stimulus or visual field. Cells are not arranged horizontally, in straight lines, by volume, or around the optic nerve.

Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 7

Which, if any, of the following is FALSE? 

Detailed Solution for Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 7

The theory of parallel cortical organization became complicated by Livingstone and Hubel’s description of activity in a third type of column in V2, where the cells receive converging input from the magno and parvo systems. They suggested that these columns are used for spatial pattern analysis. However there are problems with this scheme. For example, Livingstone and Hubel claimed that images in which the different regions are red and green, but all of the same brightness, appear flat. They attributed this to the insensitivity of cells in the magno/depth system to differences purely in hue, which are detected primarily by the parvo system. Quantitative studies, however, found that perceived depth is not reduced at all in such images (Troscianko et al., 1991). It appears, then, that depth percepts can be derived from both magno and parvo information, though not necessarily equally well at all distances (Tyler, 1990).

Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 8

The ability to see very small differences in the alignment of two objects is referred to as ___________. 

Detailed Solution for Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 8

Vernier acuity is the term used to refer to the ability to see very small differences in the alignment of two objects, especially when the objects are close to one another. The other terms given do not refer to this specific ability.

Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 9

Which types of visual processing mechanisms involve memory, task-relevant knowledge, and personal goals? 

Detailed Solution for Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 9

Top-down processing refers to the influence of higher brain centres and processes on the perception of stimuli and not solely the product of sensory input. Bottom-up refers to the sensory input only. Vertical, horizontal, and parallel are not relevant terms to this specific process.

Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 10

Which of the following statements are true?

  1. On a vernier acuity task, humans can discern the direction of very tiny offsets, but performance deteriorates with practice.
  2. Different types of visual search have different behavioural characteristics and depend on different brain regions.
  3. Walsh et al. (1998) suggest that the right parietal lobe may be involved in setting up new templates in the temporal lobe for processing conjunctions of, say, colour and form.
  4. All of the above.
Detailed Solution for Tes: Sensory, Attentional, and Perceptual Processes- 2 - Question 10

Although the role of knowledge and assumptions in perception is now quite clear, the detailed ways in which past experience influences perception are less clear. Recently, experimenters have begun to examine these questions by studying how training can influence performance on apparently simple visual tasks, such as judging whether the lower line is offset to the left or right of the upper line (a vernier acuity task).
Humans can discern the direction of very tiny offsets, but can improve even more with practice, though this may require thousands of presentations (Fahle & Edelman, 1993).
Different types of visual search not only have different behavioural characteristics, but also depend on different brain regions. So some patients with attention deficits (due to damage to the part of the brain where the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes of the brain join) may be able to perform normally on feature search tasks but are markedly impaired in conjunction search tasks (Arguin et al., 1993).
A related study found that right parietal stimulation did not affect initially serial searches once they had become parallel through training. But when the observers were switched to another task, which they initially had to perform serially, right parietal stimulation could disrupt search again (Walsh et al., 1998). Walsh et al. (1998) suggest that the right parietal lobe may be involved in setting up new templates in the temporal lobe for processing conjunctions of, say, colour and form. Once the learning is complete, the right parietal lobe no longer plays a role in the task and so stimulating this region no longer impairs performance.

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