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Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - UPSC MCQ


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20 Questions MCQ Test Indian Polity for UPSC CSE - Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2

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Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 1

When did the European states confront the ruin of their economies and destroy the assumptions and structures on which Europe had been founded?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 1

Explanation:


  • Background: The European states confronted the ruin of their economies and destruction of assumptions and structures during World War II.

  • Timeframe: The year in which this confrontation took place was 1945.

  • Impact of World War II: The devastation caused by the war led to the collapse of economies, infrastructure, and social systems in many European countries.

  • Rebuilding: In the aftermath of the war, European states had to rebuild their economies and societies from the ground up.

  • New foundations: The destruction of old assumptions and structures paved the way for the creation of new institutions such as the European Union, aimed at promoting peace and cooperation among European nations.

  • Legacy: The experience of confronting economic ruin and destruction during World War II continues to shape European politics and economics to this day.

Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 2

What plan did the U.S. extend massive financial help for reviving Europe’s economy?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 2

Marshall Plan:

  • Background: The Marshall Plan, officially known as the European Recovery Program, was a massive financial aid program initiated by the United States after World War II to help rebuild the economies of Western Europe.

  • Reason for Implementation: The plan aimed to prevent the spread of communism and promote economic stability in the war-torn countries of Europe.

  • Financial Assistance: The U.S. extended over $13 billion (equivalent to over $100 billion today) in economic assistance to European countries between 1948 and 1951.

  • Rebuilding Efforts: The Marshall Plan helped revive industries, rebuild infrastructure, and stabilize currencies in countries such as France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom.

  • Impact: The Marshall Plan played a crucial role in the economic recovery of Europe and laid the foundation for the continent's post-war prosperity.


Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 3

What was the name of the US’s new collective security structure?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 3

Explanation:



  • NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization):


    • NATO was the name of the US’s new collective security structure.

    • It was established in 1949 with the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty.

    • NATO's purpose was to provide collective defense against the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

    • Member countries agreed that an attack against one would be considered an attack against all.

    • NATO remains an important alliance today, with member countries working together on various security and defense issues.


Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 4

How many stars does the circle of gold stars have?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 4

How many stars does the circle of gold stars have?



  • A: Fourteen

  • B: Eleven

  • C: Fifteen

  • D: Twelve


Answer: d.


Detailed



  • Count the number of gold stars: The circle of gold stars has twelve stars.

  • Visualize the arrangement: Imagine a circle made up of twelve gold stars.

  • Verification: Check each option to confirm that the correct answer is twelve.

  • Eliminate incorrect options: Cross out options that do not match the visual representation of the circle of gold stars.

  • Final Answer: Confirm that option D, Twelve, is the correct number of stars in the circle.

Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 5

When was the OEEC established?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 5

Establishment of OEEC

  • Year: 1948


Detailed Explanation

  • Background: The Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) was established in 1948 in the aftermath of World War II.

  • Purpose: The main goal of the OEEC was to administer the Marshall Plan, which aimed to provide economic aid to Western Europe to help rebuild after the devastation of the war.

  • Members: The OEEC initially had 18 member countries, including the United States, Canada, and various European nations.

  • Evolution: In 1961, the OEEC was succeeded by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which expanded its focus beyond Europe to include countries from around the world.


Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 6

When was the council of Europe established?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 6


Establishment of the Council of Europe



  • Year of Establishment: 1949


Detailed Explanation:



  • Context: The Council of Europe was established in the aftermath of World War II to promote cooperation and unity among European countries.

  • Founding Members: The organization was founded by ten countries: Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

  • Significance: The Council of Europe plays a crucial role in promoting democracy, human rights, and the rule of law across Europe.

  • Key Achievements: Over the years, the Council of Europe has implemented various conventions and treaties to protect fundamental rights and freedoms.

  • Headquarters: The headquarters of the Council of Europe is located in Strasbourg, France.


Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 7

When was the European Union established?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 7

Establishment of the European Union

  • Year: 1992



Explanation:

  • Background: The European Union (EU) was established in 1992 through the Maastricht Treaty, also known as the Treaty on European Union.

  • Formation: The EU was formed with the aim of enhancing economic cooperation and political integration among European countries.

  • Key Objectives: The EU sought to create a single market with free movement of goods, services, and people, as well as to promote peace and stability in Europe.

  • Institutions: The EU has several key institutions, including the European Parliament, European Council, European Commission, and Court of Justice of the European Union.

  • Expansion: Since its establishment, the EU has grown to include 27 member states, with more countries seeking to join in the future.


By establishing the European Union in 1992, European countries have been able to work together on various economic, political, and social issues, leading to greater cooperation and integration across the continent.
Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 8

The European Union has evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly what type of union?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 8

The European Union's Evolution



  • Social Union: The European Union has evolved from being primarily an economic union to also encompassing social aspects. This includes policies and initiatives aimed at promoting social cohesion, such as addressing inequality, promoting social inclusion, and ensuring social protection.

  • Political Union: In recent years, there has been a shift towards a more political union within the EU. This involves greater cooperation and integration of member states in areas such as foreign policy, defense, and migration.

  • Ideological Union: The EU has also developed into an ideological union, with a shared set of values and principles that guide its decision-making processes. This includes a commitment to democracy, human rights, and the rule of law.


Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 9

What currency can pose a threat to the dominance of the U.S. dollar?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 9

What currency can pose a threat to the dominance of the U.S. dollar?




Explanation:

  • Euro: The Euro is a strong contender to pose a threat to the dominance of the U.S. dollar due to the economic power of the European Union and the stability of the Eurozone.

  • Factors contributing to the Euro's potential threat:

    • The Eurozone is a major economic powerhouse, comprising several strong economies like Germany and France.

    • The European Central Bank plays a significant role in global financial markets.

    • The Euro is the second most traded currency in the world after the U.S. dollar.

    • The Euro's stability and credibility make it an attractive alternative to the U.S. dollar for international trade and investments.



  • Potential impact on the U.S. dollar:

    • If the Euro gains more prominence in global markets, it could reduce the dominance of the U.S. dollar as the primary reserve currency.

    • A shift towards the Euro could lead to changes in global trade patterns and currency valuations.

    • The competition between the Euro and the U.S. dollar could impact the stability of the global financial system.



  • Conclusion: While the U.S. dollar has been the dominant global currency for decades, the Euro's growing influence and stability make it a potential threat to its supremacy in the future.

Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 10

Along with the U.S., what country has a larger share of world trade than the U.S.?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 10

Country with a Larger Share of World Trade than the U.S.



  • China: Along with the U.S., China is one of the countries with a larger share of world trade. China has become a major player in global trade, with a significant portion of goods being produced and exported from China to various countries around the world.

  • Trade Volume: China's trade volume has been increasing steadily over the years, surpassing the U.S. in terms of total trade volume. This increase in trade has been driven by China's large manufacturing sector and its competitive advantage in producing goods at a lower cost.

  • Economic Growth: China's rapid economic growth has also contributed to its increasing share of world trade. As China's economy continues to grow, its trade volume is expected to increase even further, solidifying its position as a key player in global trade.

  • Global Market Influence: China's influence in the global market has been growing, with many countries relying on Chinese goods and services. This has further cemented China's position as a major player in world trade, with a share that surpasses that of the U.S.

Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 11

Which two EU members hold permanent seats on the UN security council?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 11

Which two EU members hold permanent seats on the UN Security Council?



- Answer: B
- Detailed
- Britain and France: These two EU members, Britain and France, hold permanent seats on the UN Security Council.
- Italy and Spain: While Italy and Spain are important EU members, they do not hold permanent seats on the UN Security Council.
- None: It is not accurate to say that no EU members hold permanent seats on the UN Security Council, as Britain and France do.
Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 12

Where does the EU's total spending on defence rank after the U.S.?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 12

EU's Total Spending on Defence Ranking

  • Ranking: Second


Detailed Explanation:

  • United States: The United States has the highest total spending on defence globally.

  • European Union: The European Union ranks second in terms of total spending on defence after the United States.

  • Significance: The EU's defence spending is substantial, but it is still behind the United States in terms of total expenditure.


Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 13

Which countries have resisted the European Union's integrationist agenda?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 13


Countries Resisting EU Integrationist Agenda

  • Denmark: Denmark has resisted certain aspects of the European Union's integrationist agenda, particularly in the areas of defense and security.

  • Sweden: Sweden has also been hesitant to fully embrace all aspects of EU integration, particularly in terms of joining the Eurozone and adopting the common currency.



Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 14

When was the Association of South East Asian Nations established?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 14

Establishment of Association of South East Asian Nations

  • Year: 1967



Explanation:

  • The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established on August 8, 1967.

  • It was founded by the five original member countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand.

  • The main objectives of ASEAN are to accelerate economic growth, social progress, and cultural development in the region, as well as to promote regional peace and stability.

  • Over the years, ASEAN has expanded its membership to include ten member countries, with Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia joining later.

  • ASEAN plays a crucial role in promoting cooperation and integration among its member countries, as well as in fostering dialogue and collaboration with other countries and organizations around the world.

Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 15

What broadened its objectives beyond the economic and social spheres?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 15

ASEAN

  • ASEAN stands for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

  • It is a regional organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries.

  • ASEAN was formed on 8 August 1967 with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration).


Broadening Objectives

  • Initially, ASEAN focused on economic and social objectives such as promoting economic growth, social progress, and cultural development in the region.

  • Over time, ASEAN broadened its objectives to include political and security issues.

  • ASEAN established the ASEAN Political-Security Community which aims to ensure peace, stability, and security in the region.

  • ASEAN also plays a role in addressing regional challenges such as terrorism, transnational crime, and natural disasters.


Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 16

When did ASEAN agree to establish an ASEAN community?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 16

ASEAN Agreement on Establishing ASEAN Community

  • Date of Agreement: 2003




Details of ASEAN Community Establishment

  • ASEAN agreed to establish an ASEAN community in 2003 during the ASEAN Summit in Bali, Indonesia.

  • The community was aimed at creating a single market and production base, a competitive economic region, a region of equitable economic development, and a region fully integrated into the global economy.

  • It was a significant milestone in the history of ASEAN, marking a commitment to deeper integration and cooperation among member countries.




Key Objectives of the ASEAN Community

  • Political and Security Community

  • Economic Community

  • Socio-Cultural Community




Implementation of ASEAN Community

  • The implementation of the ASEAN community involved various initiatives, programs, and agreements to achieve the objectives set forth in the agreement.

  • Member countries worked together to enhance cooperation in various sectors and promote regional integration.


Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 17

Who is rapidly growing into a significant regional organization?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 17
ASEAN: A Growing Regional Organization

  • Background: ASEAN, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a regional organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries. It was established on August 8, 1967, in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration).


  • Membership: ASEAN's members include Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. These countries work together to promote economic growth, social progress, and regional stability.


  • Growth and Significance: ASEAN has been rapidly growing in importance as a regional organization. It plays a crucial role in promoting economic cooperation, cultural exchange, and political dialogue among its member states.


  • Economic Integration: ASEAN has been working towards greater economic integration through initiatives such as the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), which aims to create a single market and production base in the region.


  • Regional Stability: ASEAN also plays a vital role in maintaining regional stability and security through mechanisms like the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and the East Asia Summit (EAS).


  • International Relations: ASEAN has established strong relations with other regional organizations and countries worldwide, enhancing its influence and significance on the global stage.


In conclusion, ASEAN is rapidly growing into a significant regional organization, fostering cooperation and development among its member states and strengthening its role in regional and international affairs.

Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 18

ASEAN's vision 2020 has defined what kind of role for ASEAN in the international community?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 18

ASEAN's Role in the International Community

  • Outward-Looking: ASEAN's vision 2020 aims for the organization to be more outward-looking in its approach to the international community.

  • Engagement: ASEAN seeks to engage with other countries and international organizations to promote peace, stability, and prosperity in the region.

  • Trade and Economic Cooperation: ASEAN is focused on enhancing trade and economic cooperation with other countries to foster growth and development.

  • Regional Integration: ASEAN plays a crucial role in promoting regional integration and cooperation in Southeast Asia and beyond.

  • Global Issues: ASEAN is actively involved in addressing global issues such as climate change, terrorism, and pandemics through international partnerships and collaborations.


By being outward-looking, ASEAN can effectively contribute to the international community and play a significant role in shaping global affairs.
Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 19

When did the ASEAN-India FTA come into effect?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 19

ASEAN-India FTA:



  • Effective Date: The ASEAN-India Free Trade Agreement (FTA) came into effect in 2010.

  • Background: The FTA aims to promote economic cooperation between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and India by reducing or eliminating tariffs on goods traded between the two regions.

  • Trade Benefits: The agreement helps in boosting trade relations, enhancing market access, and fostering economic growth for both ASEAN countries and India.

  • Key Features: The FTA covers trade in goods, services, and investment, and includes provisions for cooperation in areas such as intellectual property rights and economic integration.

  • Implementation: Both ASEAN and India have been working towards full implementation of the FTA to maximize its benefits for businesses and consumers in the region.


Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 20

China's economic success since what year has been linked to its rise as a great power?

Detailed Solution for Test: Alternative Centres Of Power- 2 - Question 20

China's Economic Success and Rise as a Great Power

  • Year Linked to Economic Success: 1978

  • Explanation: China's economic success since 1978 can be attributed to the implementation of economic reforms under Deng Xiaoping, known as the "Reform and Opening-Up" policy. These reforms shifted China from a centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented economy, leading to significant economic growth and development.

  • Rise as a Great Power: China's economic success has been closely tied to its rise as a great power on the global stage. The country's rapid economic growth has enabled it to become the world's second-largest economy and a major player in international politics and trade.

  • Impact on Global Influence: China's economic success has also increased its influence in various international organizations and forums, allowing it to assert itself as a key player in shaping global economic policies and strategies.

  • Challenges and Criticisms: Despite its economic success, China faces challenges such as income inequality, environmental degradation, and concerns over human rights violations. These issues have led to criticisms of China's rise as a great power.


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