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Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - UPSC MCQ


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10 Questions MCQ Test Lucent for GK - Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1

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Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 1

Read the following extract carefully and answer the following question by choosing the correct option:

The Hijri era was established during the caliphate of Umar with the first year falling 622 CE.

A date in the Hijri calendar is followed by the letters AH.

The Hijri year is a lunar year of 354 days, 12 months (Muharram to Dhul Hijja) of 29 or 30 days. Each day begins at Sunset and each month with the sighting of the Crescent moon. The Hijri year is about 11 days shorter than the Solar year. Therefore, none of the Islamic religious festivals, including the Ramazan fast, Id and Hajj, corresponds in any way to seasons. There is no easy way to match in the Hijri calendar with the dates in the Gregorian calendar. One can calculate the rough equivalents between the Islamic (H) and Gregorian Christian (C) years with the following formulae:

(H × 32/33) + 622 = C

(C – 622) × 33/ 32 = H

Q. What do you know about the Hijri year?

Detailed Solution for Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 1
The Hijri year is a lunar year of 354 days, 12 months (Muharram to Dhul Hijja) of 29 or 30 days. Each day begins at sunset and each month with the sighting of the crescent moon. The Hijri year is about 11 days shorter than the solar year.
Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 2

Read the following extract carefully and answer the following question by choosing the correct option:

The Hijri era was established during the caliphate of Umar with the first year falling 622 CE.

A date in the Hijri calendar is followed by the letters AH.

The Hijri year is a lunar year of 354 days, 12 months (Muharram to Dhul Hijja) of 29 or 30 days. Each day begins at Sunset and each month with the sighting of the Crescent moon. The Hijri year is about 11 days shorter than the Solar year. Therefore, none of the Islamic religious festivals, including the Ramazan fast, Id and Hajj, corresponds in any way to seasons. There is no easy way to match in the Hijri calendar with the dates in the Gregorian calendar. One can calculate the rough equivalents between the Islamic (H) and Gregorian Christian (C) years with the following formulae:

Q. How can we calculate the rough equivalents between the Islamic and Gregorian Christian years?

It can be calculated by the following formulae:

(i) (H × 32/33) + 622 = C

(C – 622) x 33/ 32 = H

(ii) (H × 32/33) + 622 = C

(C – 622) x 33/ 34 = H

Detailed Solution for Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 2
One can calculate the rough equivalents between the Islamic (H) and Gregorian Christian (C) years with the following formulae

(H × 32 / 33) + 622 = C

(C – 622) × 33 / 32 = H

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Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 3

Read the following extract carefully and answer the following question by choosing the correct option:

The Arabs were divided into tribes (qabila), each led by a chief who was chosen partly on the basis of his family connections but more for his personal courage, wisdom and generosity. Each tribe had its own God or Goddesses, who was worshipped as an idol in a Shrine. Many Arab tribes were Nomadic, moving from dry to Green areas of the desert in search of food (mainly dates) and fodder for their camels. Some settled in cities and practiced trade or agriculture. Muhammad’s own tribe Quraysh, lived in Mecca and controlled the main shrine there, a cube-like structure called Kaaba, in which idols were placed. Even tribes outside Mecca considered the Kaba Holy and installed their own idols at this shrine, making annual pilgrimage (Hajj) to the shrine. Mecca was located on the crossroads of a trade route between Yemen and Syria which further enhanced the city’s importance. The Meccan Shrine was a sanctuary (Haram) where violence was Forbidden and protection given to all visitors. Pilgrimage and Commerce gave the Nomadic and settled tribes an opportunity to communicate with one another and share their beliefs and Customs. Although the polytheistic Arabs were vaguely familiar with the notion of a Supreme God, Allah (possibly under the influence of the Jewish and Christian tribes living in their midst), their attachment to Idols and shrines was more immediate and stronger.

Q. To which tribe did Prophet Muhammad belong to?

Detailed Solution for Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 3
Prophet Muhammad belonged to Quraysh tribe. He attained enlightenment in 612 CE.
Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 4

Read the following extract carefully and answer the following question by choosing the correct option:

At the beginning of the 11th century Ghazni became the centre of Persian literary life. Poets were naturally attracted by the brilliance of the Imperial Court. Rulers, too, realised the importance of patronising Arts and learning for enhancing their prestige. Mahmud of Ghazni gathered around him a group of poets who composed anthologies (diwans) and Epic poetry (mathnawi). The most outstanding was Firdausi (d. 1020) who took 30 years to complete the Shahnama (Books of Kings), an epic of 50,000 couplets which has become a masterpiece of Islamic literature. The Shahnama is a collection of traditions and legends (the most popular being that of Rustam), which poetically depicts Iran from creation up until the Arab conquest.

Q. How many years did it take to complete Shahnama?

Detailed Solution for Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 4
Ferdowsi was not a court poet but was a friend of the influential Abu Mansur who may have encouraged Mansur I to give him the job of completing Daqiqi's work. Mansur I agreed to pay Ferdowsi a gold piece for each couplet he wrote as the work progressed but Ferdowsi, possibly believing at this time that it would not take him very long, requested a lump sum to be paid when the poem was completed. It would take him almost 30 years to write the Shahnameh and, by the time it was finished, Mansur I and the Samanids would no longer be in power and Ferdowsi would have to request patronage of the Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (r. 999-1030 CE) of the Ghaznavid Dynasty in order to be paid.
Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 5

Study this picture from The Central Islamic Lands carefully and answer the following question by choosing the correct option:

Q. The painting shown is named as:

Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 6

Study this picture from The Central Islamic Lands carefully and answer the following question by choosing the correct option:

Q. Maqamat (Assemblies) written by Hariri was a genre of:

Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 7

Read the following extract carefully and answer the following question by choosing the correct option:

In medieval Islamic societies, Christians were regarded as the People of the Book (ahl al-kitab) since they had their own scripture (the New Testament or Injil). Christians were granted safe conduct while venturing into Muslim States as merchants, pilgrims, ambassadors and travellers. These territories also include those which were once held by the Byzantine Empire, notably the holy land of Palestine. Jerusalem was conquered by Arabs in 638 but it was ever present in the Christians imagination as the place of Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection. This was an important factor in the formation of the image of Muslim in Christian Europe.

Hostility towards the Muslim word become more pronounced in the 11th century. Normans, Hungarians and some Slavs had been converted into Christianity, and the Muslim alone remained as the main enemy. There was also a change in the social and economic organisation of Western Europe in the 11th century which contributed to the hostility between Christendom and the Islamic world.

Q. By whom Jerusalem was conquered in 638?

Detailed Solution for Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 7
The Islamic history of Jerusalem begins with the conquest of the city by Caliph Umar in 635 (or 638). Umar had been one of the prophet Muhammad's closest companions and served as his second successor (khalifa) after Abu Bakr.
Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 8

Read the following extract carefully and answer the following question by choosing the correct option:

In medieval Islamic societies, Christians were regarded as the People of the Book (ahl al-kitab) since they had their own scripture (the New Testament or Injil). Christians were granted safe conduct while venturing into Muslim States as merchants, pilgrims, ambassadors and travellers. These territories also include those which were once held by the Byzantine Empire, notably the holy land of Palestine. Jerusalem was conquered by Arabs in 638 but it was ever present in the Christians imagination as the place of Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection. This was an important factor in the formation of the image of Muslim in Christian Europe.

Hostility towards the Muslim word become more pronounced in the 11th century. Normans, Hungarians and some Slavs had been converted into Christianity, and the Muslim alone remained as the main enemy. There was also a change in the social and economic organisation of Western Europe in the 11th century which contributed to the hostility between Christendom and the Islamic world.

Q. Which nation has been mostly converted into Christianity?

Detailed Solution for Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 8
Normans, Hungarians and some Slavs had been converted to Christianity, and the Muslims alone remained as the main enemy. There was also a change in the social and economic organisation of western Europe in the eleventh century which contributed to the hostility between Christendom and the Islamic world.
Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 9

Study this picture from The Central Islamic Lands carefully and answer the following question by choosing the correct option:

Q. Which of the manuscripts does the picture depict?

Detailed Solution for Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 9
The Islamic manuscripts collection covers subjects including the Qur'an and its sciences, hadith, theology, jurisprudence (fiqh), Sufism, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, rhetoric, grammar, poetry, history, geography, and medicine.
Test: Central Islamic lands- Source Based Type Questions - 1 - Question 10

Study this picture from The Central Islamic Lands carefully and answer the following question by choosing the correct option:

Q. The painting shows four men dancing, only one is shown with his hands in the correct position.

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