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Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Humanities/Arts MCQ


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10 Questions MCQ Test Psychology Class 11 - Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1

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Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 1

Select the TWO correct statements from those below with regard to psychological research:

  1. You can fully understand the results of an IQ test without knowing anything about intelligence testing and standard scores.
  2. If two things are correlated this signifies that one is the cause of the other.
  3. A good knowledge of psychological research methods allows you to avoid making the mistakes that journalists, politicians and many others make because they lack the necessary conceptual understanding.
  4. In most countries, in order to become a psychologist you will be required to conduct a piece of psychological research

Detailed Solution for Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 1

Imagine that your employer requires you to sit an intelligence test before you can be considered for higher duties in your organization. Your immediate future may depend on how you perform, but you can only properly understand the findings if you know something about intelligence testing and standard scores. Indeed, newspapers and other sources are full of reports relating to research on psychological issues. Many draw alarming conclusions – often because they mistakenly assume that correlation is the same as causation.
For example, when researchers found that there was a high correlation between the presence of ‘spongy tar’ in children’s playgrounds and the incidence of polio, they misguidedly inferred that ‘spongy tar’ caused polio. As a result, some schools went to great expense to get rid of it. In fact, both spongy tar and polio were both caused by a third factor: excessively high temperature.
Similarly, just because the number of storks nesting on the roofs of Scandinavian houses may increase 9 months before there is a bulge in the number of newborn babies, this does not necessarily mean that the storks directly caused the conception of the babies! A good knowledge of psychological research methods allows you to avoid making the mistakes that journalists, politicians and many others make because they lack the necessary scientific understanding. Another consideration is that, in most countries, in order to become a psychologist you need to be not just an informed consumer of psychological research but also a producer of it. In other words, you need to conduct a piece (or several pieces) of research.

Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 2

Research ethics represent an important component of psychological research because: 

Detailed Solution for Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 2

Research ethics bind psychologists to a set of rules or code that delineates appropriate treatment of animal and human subjects. Research ethics do not provide statistical procedures, testable hypotheses or standards for variable selection.

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Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 3

Which approach differentiates psychology from the many other disciplines that address similar types of questions? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 3

Psychology relies on the scientific method whereas related disciplines that address similar types of questions do not. The other answers can apply to related disciplines as well.

Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 4

You have just conducted a research study. If the responses of the participants significantly differ from what would be expected if there was no relationship among the variables in your study, then it would be appropriate for you to: 

Detailed Solution for Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 4

All of the actions above would be appropriate to interpret and confirm results.

Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 5

Which THREE of the following are criteria for good psychological research?

  1. It should be public.
  2. It should be subjective.
  3. It should be cumulative.
  4. It should be parsimonious.
Detailed Solution for Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 5

As well as being valid and reliable, psychological research needs to be public, cumulative and parsimonious. To become public, research must be published in a reputable scholarly journal. Cumulative research builds on and extends existing knowledge and theory. Parsimonious research develops explanations of findings that are as simple, economical and efficient as possible. Good psychological research should never be subjective; instead, it should always be impartial and objective.

Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 6

If correlational analyses indicate that higher levels of depression are related to poorer physical health, can we infer that depression causes poor health?

Detailed Solution for Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 6

Correlation does not imply causation. Correlational analyses are based on inferential statistics, but that is not why we cannot infer causal relationships from correlations.

Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 7

Five qualities that best describe good psychological research include: 

Detailed Solution for Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 7

Five qualities of good research include the extent to which the research is demonstrated to be valid, reliable, available in the public domain, extends existing knowledge, and offers parsimonious explanations for the observations. The other answers do not include all five of these qualities. Ethical and scientific are important qualities for good research, but correlational and experimental are not necessary qualities.

Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 8

Which of the following statements is NOT true in relation to measures of dispersion? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 8

We might also want describe the typical distance of responses from one another – that is, how tightly they are clustered around the central point. This is typically established using one of two measures. The first and probably most obvious is the range of responses – the difference between the maximum and minimum values. But in fact the most commonly used measure of dispersion is standard deviation (SD). This is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of all the differences (deviations) between each score and the mean, divided by the number of scores (in fact, the number of scores minus one if we want a population estimate, as we usually do). The square of the standard deviation is called the variance.

Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 9

Which of the following are FALSE regarding the role of theories in psychology?

  1. Facts have to be integrated in terms of theoretical explanations.
  2. Theories are statements of what rather than why.
  3. Theories are capable of accounting for multiple facts, but cannot predict what might happen in novel situations.
  4. All of the above.
Detailed Solution for Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 9

Science does not progress simply through the accumulation of independent facts. These facts have to be integrated in terms of theoretical explanations (theories). Theories are statements of why, not just what. They are capable of: accounting for multiple facts and predicting what might happen in novel situations.
Theories generally precede experimentation, not vice versa. For example, the statement that absence makes the heart grow fonder is not a theory, but the following statement is: ‘separation from an object causes us to exaggerate an object’s qualities (whether good or bad) because memory distorts reality’. This is because this statement attempts to explain and not just describe the relationship between separation and emotion.

Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 10

Highlight the one FALSE statement about inferential statistics from the four given below:

Detailed Solution for Test: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology- 1 - Question 10

When we use inferential statistics, we might be in a position to make exact probability statements (as in the coin tossing example), but more usually we have to use a test statistic. Two things influence our judgement about whether a given observation is in any sense remarkable: (1) the information that something is ‘going on’; and (2) the amount of random error in our observations. For this reason, the statistics we normally use in psychology contain both an information term and an error term, and express one as a ratio of the other. So the test statistic will yield a high value (suggesting that something remarkable is going on) when there is relatively more information than error, and a low value (suggesting that nothing remarkable is going on) when there is more error than information.

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