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Test: Primary Activities- 2 - UPSC MCQ

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15 Questions MCQ Test Geography for UPSC CSE - Test: Primary Activities- 2

Test: Primary Activities- 2 for UPSC 2024 is part of Geography for UPSC CSE preparation. The Test: Primary Activities- 2 questions and answers have been prepared according to the UPSC exam syllabus.The Test: Primary Activities- 2 MCQs are made for UPSC 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Test: Primary Activities- 2 below.
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Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 1

Primary activities are directly dependent on what?

Detailed Solution for Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 1
Primary activities are directly dependent on Environment

  • Natural Resources: Primary activities such as agriculture, mining, forestry, and fishing rely on the environment for natural resources like water, soil, minerals, and forests.

  • Climate: The climate directly affects primary activities like agriculture and fishing. Different crops require specific climate conditions to grow, and fish populations are influenced by temperature and weather patterns.

  • Biodiversity: The diversity of plant and animal species in an ecosystem is crucial for primary activities. Loss of biodiversity can impact agriculture, forestry, and other primary sectors.

  • Pollution: Environmental pollution from activities like industrial production or waste disposal can harm primary activities by contaminating soil, water, and air essential for farming, fishing, and other primary sectors.

  • Land Use: Primary activities depend on suitable land for production. Changes in land use patterns due to urbanization, deforestation, or desertification can affect the availability of land for primary activities.

By understanding the direct dependence of primary activities on the environment, it becomes crucial to prioritize sustainable practices to ensure the long-term viability of these sectors while preserving the natural resources and ecosystems on which they rely.
Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 2

People located in icy and extremely hot climates survived on what?

Detailed Solution for Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 2
Survival in Icy and Extremely Hot Climates

  • Hunting: People in icy climates survived by hunting animals for food, clothing, and shelter. They relied on hunting to sustain themselves in harsh conditions.

  • Weaving: In extremely hot climates, people survived by weaving. They used weaving skills to create clothing and shelter that protected them from the intense heat.

  • Herding: Some communities in both icy and hot climates survived by herding animals. They relied on herding for food, clothing, and other resources necessary for survival.

  • Adaptation: People in these extreme climates had to adapt their lifestyles and skills to survive. They developed techniques and knowledge that allowed them to thrive in challenging environments.

Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 3

How many important regions is nomadism associated with?

Detailed Solution for Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 3
Regions associated with nomadism

  • Central Asia: Nomadism is commonly associated with regions in Central Asia such as Mongolia, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan where traditional nomadic lifestyles are still practiced.

  • Middle East: Nomadism is also prevalent in the Middle East, particularly in countries like Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Yemen where Bedouin tribes continue to maintain their nomadic way of life.

  • Africa: Nomadism is a significant aspect of many African cultures, with nomadic pastoralism being practiced in countries like Niger, Somalia, and Sudan where communities rely on livestock for their livelihood.

Therefore, nomadism is associated with three important regions: Central Asia, the Middle East, and Africa.

Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 4

The second region extends over the tundra region of what?

Detailed Solution for Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 4

  • The second region: The question is referring to a specific region, which is the tundra region.

  • Tundra region: The tundra region is a cold, treeless biome found in the Arctic, subarctic, and Antarctic regions.

  • Extends over: This means that the region in question covers or spans across a certain area.

  • Eurasia: The correct answer is d. Eurasia, which is a landmass that comprises the continents of Europe and Asia. The tundra region extends over parts of Eurasia, particularly in northern Russia, Scandinavia, and parts of Canada.

Therefore, the second region mentioned in the question extends over the tundra region of Eurasia.

Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 5

What is the name of the island on which nomadism is based?

Detailed Solution for Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 5
Island of Nomadism

  • Madagascar: The island of Madagascar is not typically associated with nomadism. It is known for its unique wildlife and biodiversity.

  • China: China is a large country with a diverse landscape, including nomadic tribes in regions like Inner Mongolia, but it is not the island on which nomadism is based.

  • New Zealand: New Zealand is known for its Maori culture, but nomadism is not a prominent feature of the island's history.

  • Mongolia: Mongolia is the correct answer. Nomadism has been a way of life for the Mongolian people for centuries, with many still practicing traditional nomadic herding today.


The lifestyle of nomadism in Mongolia is closely tied to the vast open spaces of the country, where herders move with their livestock to find fresh grazing land. This way of life has shaped Mongolian culture and traditions, making it the island on which nomadism is based.

Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 6

What is the process of migration from plain areas to pastures on mountains during summers and again from mountain pastures to plain areas during winters called?

Detailed Solution for Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 6

  • Definition: Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock and herders between fixed summer and winter pastures. It involves moving animals to higher elevations in the mountains during the summer to graze on fresh grass and then moving them back down to lower elevations in the plains during the winter.

  • Process: The process of transhumance typically involves a well-established route that has been used for generations. Herders lead their livestock along these routes, taking into account factors such as weather conditions, availability of water and pasture, and the needs of the animals.

  • Benefits: Transhumance allows for the sustainable use of resources, as it prevents overgrazing in any one area and allows pastures to regenerate. It also helps to diversify the diet of the animals, as they have access to different types of vegetation in the mountains and plains.

  • Cultural Significance: Transhumance is not just a practical way to manage livestock, but it also has cultural significance for many communities. It is often a time for social gatherings, celebrations, and the sharing of knowledge and traditions related to herding.

Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 7

Where do nomadic herders move from south to north in summers and from north to south in winters?

Detailed Solution for Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 7

  • Location: Nomadic herders move from south to north in summers and from north to south in winters in the Tundra region.

  • Seasonal Migration: This movement is known as seasonal migration, where herders follow the availability of pasture for their livestock.

  • Climate: The Tundra region experiences harsh winters with low temperatures, making it difficult for herders to find suitable grazing grounds for their animals.

  • Adaptation: By moving towards the south in winters and north in summers, nomadic herders can ensure that their livestock have access to sufficient food and water throughout the year.

  • Traditional Lifestyle: This nomadic lifestyle has been practiced by herders for generations, allowing them to adapt to the challenging conditions of the Tundra region.

Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 8

How many types of animals are reared in commercial livestock rearing?

Detailed Solution for Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 8
Types of Animals in Commercial Livestock Rearing

  • Mammals: These include cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats which are commonly reared for meat, milk, and other products.

  • Poultry: Chickens, ducks, turkeys, and geese are raised for their meat and eggs in commercial livestock operations.

  • Aquatic Animals: Fish farming is also a part of commercial livestock rearing, with species like salmon, tilapia, and catfish being commonly raised.

  • Insects: Insect farming is gaining popularity in commercial livestock rearing, with species like mealworms and crickets being raised for protein-rich food and feed.

  • Others: Some commercial operations also rear animals like rabbits, bees, and even exotic species like alpacas for various products.

Therefore, there are multiple types of animals reared in commercial livestock rearing operations, each serving different purposes and providing various products to meet human needs.

Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 9

Where is jhum prevalent?

Detailed Solution for Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 9

  • Jhum cultivation is prevalent in tropical regions: Jhum, also known as slash and burn agriculture, is a traditional farming method practiced in tropical regions. It is commonly found in countries like India, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and some parts of Africa.

  • Characteristics of tropical regions: Tropical regions are characterized by high temperatures, high humidity, and abundant rainfall, which create favorable conditions for jhum cultivation.

  • Benefits of jhum cultivation in tropical regions: Jhum cultivation helps maintain soil fertility, promotes biodiversity, and provides livelihoods for many indigenous communities in tropical areas.

  • Challenges of jhum cultivation: While jhum cultivation has its benefits, it also poses challenges such as deforestation, soil erosion, and loss of biodiversity.

  • Conclusion: In conclusion, jhum cultivation is prevalent in tropical regions due to the favorable climatic conditions and traditional farming practices of indigenous communities in these areas.

Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 10

What type of cultivation is done in the tropics?

Detailed Solution for Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 10
Types of Cultivation in the Tropics

  • Shifting Cultivation: This is the most common type of cultivation in the tropics, where farmers clear a piece of land, grow crops for a few years until the soil is depleted, and then move on to a new piece of land. This allows the soil to regenerate and maintain its fertility.

  • Adjusting Cultivation: In this type of cultivation, farmers make small adjustments to their farming practices based on changing conditions such as weather patterns, soil fertility, and market demands. This allows for sustainable farming practices in the tropics.

  • Fixed Cultivation: This type of cultivation involves permanent or semi-permanent farming systems where crops are grown continuously on the same piece of land. This type of cultivation is less common in the tropics due to the high risk of soil depletion and erosion.


  • Shifting cultivation is the most suitable and sustainable type of cultivation in the tropics due to its ability to maintain soil fertility and prevent land degradation.

Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 11

What is an example of a crop that is dominated by intensive subsidence agriculture?

Detailed Solution for Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 11

There are two types of the intensive subsistence agriculture. One is dominated by wet paddy and the other is dominated by crops other than paddy, e.g., wheat, pulses, maize, millets, sorghum, kaoling, soya-beans, tubers and vegetables.

Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 12

Who established cocoa and coffee plantations in west Africa?

Detailed Solution for Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 12
Establishment of Cocoa and Coffee Plantations in West Africa

  • French Colonization: The French were the ones who established cocoa and coffee plantations in West Africa.

  • History of Colonization: During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, France colonized many parts of West Africa, including countries like Ivory Coast, Ghana, and Cameroon.

  • Economic Exploitation: The French colonizers introduced cocoa and coffee plantations as cash crops to exploit the economic potential of these regions.

  • Plantation System: They set up large-scale plantations where local African laborers were employed to work on the plantations to cultivate and harvest cocoa and coffee beans.

  • Economic Impact: The establishment of cocoa and coffee plantations had a significant impact on the economy of West Africa, as these crops became major export commodities for the region.

By following these guidelines, you can provide a detailed and informative solution while maintaining a structured and visually appealing format.
Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 13

Where did Spanish and Americans invest heavily in coconut and sugarcane plantations?

Detailed Solution for Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 13
Spanish and American Investment in Coconut and Sugarcane Plantations

  • Location: The Spanish and Americans heavily invested in coconut and sugarcane plantations in the Philippines.

  • Historical Context: During the colonial period, both Spanish and American colonial powers established large plantations in the Philippines.

  • Coconut Plantations: The Philippines is one of the world's largest producers of coconuts, and the Spanish and Americans saw the potential for profit in investing in coconut plantations.

  • Sugarcane Plantations: Sugarcane was another lucrative crop for plantation owners, and the Philippines offered fertile land for its cultivation.

  • Economic Impact: The investments in coconut and sugarcane plantations boosted the economy of the Philippines but also led to exploitation of local labor and resources.

Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 14

The Dutch once had a monopoly over what plantation in Indonesia?

Detailed Solution for Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 14
Monopoly of Dutch over Sugarcane Plantations in Indonesia

  • Introduction: The Dutch East India Company, known as the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC), established a monopoly over various plantations in Indonesia during the colonial period.

  • Sugarcane Plantations: Among the plantations, sugarcane was one of the major crops that the Dutch had a monopoly over in Indonesia.

  • Reasons for Monopoly: The Dutch controlled the production and trade of sugarcane in Indonesia to maximize their profits and maintain dominance in the global sugar market.

  • Impact on Local Economy: The Dutch monopoly over sugarcane plantations had detrimental effects on the local economy, as it exploited the resources and labor of the Indonesian population for economic gain.

  • Resistance and Independence: The control of plantations, including sugarcane, by the Dutch sparked resistance movements and played a role in the fight for Indonesian independence from colonial rule.

Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 15

What is the most advanced and efficient type of rearing of milch animals?

Detailed Solution for Test: Primary Activities- 2 - Question 15
Most Advanced and Efficient Type of Rearing of Milch Animals: Dairy Farming

  • Modern Technology: Dairy farming involves the use of advanced technologies such as automated milking machines, monitoring systems, and feed management software to optimize production.

  • Breeding Programs: Dairy farms often implement selective breeding programs to improve milk yield, quality, and overall health of the animals.

  • Nutritional Management: Dairy farmers carefully monitor the diet and nutrition of their animals to ensure optimal milk production and health.

  • Healthcare: Regular veterinary care and disease prevention programs are essential in dairy farming to maintain the health and well-being of the animals.

  • Environmental Sustainability: Many modern dairy farms focus on sustainable practices such as waste management, energy efficiency, and water conservation to reduce their environmental impact.

  • Economic Viability: Dairy farming is a profitable business when managed efficiently, with a focus on maximizing milk production while minimizing costs.

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