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Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Humanities/Arts MCQ


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10 Questions MCQ Test Psychology Class 12 - Test: Self and Personality- 1

Test: Self and Personality- 1 for Humanities/Arts 2024 is part of Psychology Class 12 preparation. The Test: Self and Personality- 1 questions and answers have been prepared according to the Humanities/Arts exam syllabus.The Test: Self and Personality- 1 MCQs are made for Humanities/Arts 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Test: Self and Personality- 1 below.
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Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 1

By the early years of the twentieth century, Sigmund Freud had begun to write about psychoanalysis, which he described as ‘a theory of the mind or personality, a method of investigation of unconscious process, and a method of treatment’ (1923/62). Identify the true statement from those given below, in relation to his psychoanalytic theories: 

Detailed Solution for Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 1

Central to a psychoanalytic approach is the concept of unconscious mental processes – the idea that unconscious motivations and needs have a role in determining our behaviour. This approach also emphasizes the irrational aspects of human behaviour and portrays aggressive and sexual needs as having a major impact on personality. Freud developed a number of hypothetical models to show how the mind (or what he called the psyche) works:

  • a topographic model of the psyche – or how the mind is organized;
  • a structural model of the psyche – or how personality works; and
  • a psychogenetic model of development – or how personality develops.
Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 2

According to Freud, fixation at which stage of development is associated with sarcasm, criticalness, overeating and nail-biting in adults? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 2

Fixation at the oral stage, and not the other stages, may lead to adults who are sarcastic, critical, overeat and bite their nails.

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Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 3

Which of the following are true of personal construct theory?

  1. George Kelly developed personal construct theory to examine how individuals view the world.
  2. Personal construct theory portrays people as victims of unconscious desires and impulses.
  3. Personal construct theory does not try to locate the individual on the personality theorists’ dimensions.
  4. Kelly basically took the view that we are all artists.

Detailed Solution for Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 3

To examine how individuals view the world, George Kelly (1905–67) developed personal construct theory. In contrast to the psychoanalytic emphasis on the person as a victim of unconscious desires and impulses, this humanistic theory portrays people as active hypothesis-generators. Personal construct theory treats the individual as her own personal scientist, one who is actively aware of how her own psychological world is constructed and construed.
By understanding how the individual perceives the world, we can anticipate how they will behave within it and understand their reactions to events. According to Kelly, trait theories try to locate the individual on the personality theorists’ dimensions, whereas personal construct theory looks at how people see and align events according to their own personal dimensions. Kelly basically took the view that we are all scientists – so each individual is continually categorizing, interpreting, labelling and judging himself and his world. Each of us generates constructs and hypotheses, which then help us to anticipate and control events in our lives.

Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 4

Which of the following is true of traits? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 4

Traits – or descriptors used to label personality – have their origins in the ways we describe personality in everyday language. In the early years of personality theory, many theorists used the term types to describe differences between people. Sheldon (1954), for example, categorized people according to three body types (ectomorphic, mesomorphic and endomorphic) and related these physical differences to differences in personality.
It is unlikely that personality can be mapped to body type, but the idea that all people can be allocated to a small number of categories is challenged by modern trait theories. Modern theorists view traits as continuous rather than discrete entities. So, rather than being divided into categories, people are placed on a trait continuum representing how high or low each individual is on any particular dimension. According to trait theorists, categorizing people into separate groups of ‘sociable’ versus ‘unsociable’ is considered to be meaningless. Instead, it is considered more useful by trait theorists to determine the amount of sociability each person exhibits.

Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 5

Which of the following traits is not part of the five-factor model of personality? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 5

Anxiety is not one of the traits in the five-factor theory of personality.

Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 6

What is the term used to describe the ability to change behavior in response to external demands and the resistance to situational pressures?

Detailed Solution for Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 6

Self-regulation has the ability to organize and monitor one's own behavior, change behavior according to external demands, and resist situational pressures. It is the overarching concept that encompasses these abilities.

Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 7

The ______ are stable, and are considered as the building blocks of personality.

Detailed Solution for Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 7

Source traits: The source traits are stable and are considered as the building blocks of personality. Source traits are less visible to other people and appear to underlie several different aspects of behavior.

Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 8

Students who experience a persistent depressed mood after failing an exam probably have which type of attributional style? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 8

A stable, global attributional style indicates that people view causes of events as persisting over time and affecting many aspects of our lives. This type of attributional style would best explain the persistent depressed mood of a student who failed an exam. The other types of attributional styles given do not explain a persistent depressed mood after failing an exam.

Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 9

Which dimension of personality can predict individual preferences for study areas, number of study breaks and performance on long vigilance tasks? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 9

The dimension of extraversion-introversion has been shown to predict differences in people’s preferences for work-related preferences and behaviors. Extraverts prefer open study areas, take more breaks and perform worse on long vigilance tasks compared to introverts. The alternative answers given do not predict these differences.

Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 10

Defensive pessimists set low expectations and ruminate over the worst possible outcomes; however, research has shown that they perform similarly in terms of academic performance compared to which group of people? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Self and Personality- 1 - Question 10

According to research, optimists and defensive pessimists perform similarly in terms of academic performance because they both cope with life in adaptive ways, just very differently.

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