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Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Humanities/Arts MCQ


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10 Questions MCQ Test Political Science Class 12 - Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2

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Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 1

Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follow:

A coup took place in 1991 that was encouraged by Communist Party hard-liners. The people had tasted freedom by then and did not want the old style rule of the Communist Party. Boris Yeltsin emerged as a national hero in opposing this coup. The Russian Republic, where Yeltsin won a popular election, began to shake off centralised control. Power began to shift from the Soviet centre to the republics, especially in the more Europeanised part of the Soviet Union, which saw themselves as sovereign states. The Central Asian republics did not ask for independence and wanted to remain with the Soviet Federation. In December 1991, under the leadership of Yeltsin, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, three major republics of the USSR, declared that the Soviet Union was disbanded. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was banned. Capitalism and democracy were adopted as the bases for the post-Soviet republics. The declaration on the disintegration of the USSR and the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) came as a surprise to the other republics, especially to the Central Asian ones. The exclusion of these republics was an issue that was quickly solved by making them founding members of the CIS. Russia was now accepted as the successor state of the Soviet Union. It inherited the Soviet seat in the UN Security Council. Russia accepted all the international treaties and commitments of the Soviet Union. It took over as the only nuclear state of the post-Soviet space and carried out some nuclear disarmament measures with the US. The old Soviet Union was thus dead and buried.

Q. Who opposed the coup of 1991?

Detailed Solution for Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 1

Boris Yeltsin denounced the coup and asked the world to help maintain the Soviet Union’s movement towards democracy. Within two days the coup collapsed. One of the largest public demonstrations in Russian history celebrated the failure of the coup in Moscow.

Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 2

Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follow:

A coup took place in 1991 that was encouraged by Communist Party hard-liners. The people had tasted freedom by then and did not want the oldstyle rule of the Communist Party. Boris Yeltsin emerged as a national hero in opposing this coup. The Russian Republic, where Yeltsin won a popular election, began to shake off centralised control. Power began to shift from the Soviet centre to the republics, especially in the more Europeanised part of the Soviet Union, which saw themselves as sovereign states. The Central Asian republics did not ask for independence and wanted to remain with the Soviet Federation. In December 1991, under the leadership of Yeltsin, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, three major republics of the USSR, declared that the Soviet Union was disbanded. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was banned. Capitalism and democracy were adopted as the bases for the post-Soviet republics. The declaration on the disintegration of the USSR and the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) came as a surprise to the other republics, especially to the Central Asian ones. The exclusion of these republics was an issue that was quickly solved by making them founding members of the CIS. Russia was now accepted as the successor state of the Soviet Union. It inherited the Soviet seat in the UN Security Council. Russia accepted all the international treaties and commitments of the Soviet Union. It took over as the only nuclear state of the post-Soviet space and carried out some nuclear disarmament measures with the US. The old Soviet Union was thus dead and buried.

Q. Which type of government was adopted by the post-soviet countries?

Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 3

Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follow:

The Soviet Union had become stagnant in an administrative and political sense as well. The Communist Party that had ruled the Soviet Union for over 70 years was not accountable to the people. Ordinary people were alienated by slow and stifling administration, rampant corruption, the inability of the system to correct mistakes it had made, the unwillingness to allow more openness in government, and the centralisation of authority in a vast land. Worse still, the party bureaucrats gained more privileges than ordinary citizens. People did not identify with the system and with the rulers, and the government increasingly lost popular backing. Gorbachev’s reforms promised to deal with these problems. Gorbachev promised to reform the economy, catch up with the West, and loosen the administrative system. All this might not have led to the collapse of the Soviet Union but for another development that surprised most observers and indeed many insiders. The rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including Russia and the Baltic Republics (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), Ukraine, Georgia, and others proved to be the final and most immediate cause for the disintegration of the USSR.

Q. What led to the collapse of the Soviet System?

Detailed Solution for Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 3

The Soviet system became so weak and Soviet economy stagnant due to the following reasons

(i) The Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining nuclear and military arsenals.

(ii) Ordinary citizens became more knowledgeable about the economic advancement of the West and backwardness of Soviet system.

Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 4

Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follow:

The Soviet Union had become stagnant in an administrative and political sense as well. The Communist Party that had ruled the Soviet Union for over 70 years was not accountable to the people. Ordinary people were alienated by slow and stifling administration, rampant corruption, the inability of the system to correct mistakes it had made, the unwillingness to allow more openness in government, and the centralisation of authority in a vast land. Worse still, the party bureaucrats gained more privileges than ordinary citizens. People did not identify with the system and with the rulers, and the government increasingly lost popular backing. Gorbachev’s reforms promised to deal with these problems. Gorbachev promised to reform the economy, catch up with the West, and loosen the administrative system. All this might not have led to the collapse of the Soviet Union but for another development that surprised most observers and indeed many insiders. The rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including Russia and the Baltic Republics (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), Ukraine, Georgia, and others proved to be the final and most immediate cause for the disintegration of the USSR.

Q. What was the final and most immediate cause for the disintegration of Soviet Union?

Detailed Solution for Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 4

The rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including Russia and the Baltic Republic (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), Ukraine, Georgia and others proved to be the most immediate cause for disintegration of the USSR.

Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 5

Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follow:

The Soviet Union had become stagnant in an administrative and political sense as well. The Communist Party that had ruled the Soviet Union for over 70 years was not accountable to the people. Ordinary people were alienated by slow and stifling administration, rampant corruption, the inability of the system to correct mistakes it had made, the unwillingness to allow more openness in government, and the centralisation of authority in a vast land. Worse still, the party bureaucrats gained more privileges than ordinary citizens. People did not identify with the system and with the rulers, and the government increasingly lost popular backing. Gorbachev’s reforms promised to deal with these problems. Gorbachev promised to reform the economy, catch up with the West, and loosen the administrative system. All this might not have led to the collapse of the Soviet Union but for another development that surprised most observers and indeed many insiders. The rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including Russia and the Baltic Republics (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), Ukraine, Georgia, and others proved to be the final and most immediate cause for the disintegration of the USSR.

Q. How long has the communist party been ruling the Soviet Union?

Detailed Solution for Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 5

The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the Communist Party had been in power for a little more than 70 years. Similarly, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) ruled in Mexico from its founding in 1929 until its defeat in the 2000 elections—71 years.

Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 6

Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follow:

The Soviet Union had become stagnant in an administrative and political sense as well. The Communist Party that had ruled the Soviet Union for over 70 years was not accountable to the people. Ordinary people were alienated by slow and stifling administration, rampant corruption, the inability of the system to correct mistakes it had made, the unwillingness to allow more openness in government, and the centralisation of authority in a vast land. Worse still, the party bureaucrats gained more privileges than ordinary citizens. People did not identify with the system and with the rulers, and the government increasingly lost popular backing. Gorbachev’s reforms promised to deal with these problems. Gorbachev promised to reform the economy, catch up with the West, and loosen the administrative system. All this might not have led to the collapse of the Soviet Union but for another development that surprised most observers and indeed many insiders. The rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including Russia and the Baltic Republics (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), Ukraine, Georgia, and others proved to be the final and most immediate cause for the disintegration of the USSR.

Q. Gorbachev promised to…

Detailed Solution for Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 6

Gorbachev’s decision to allow elections with a multi-party system and create a presidency for the Soviet Union began a slow process of democratization that eventually destabilized Communist control and contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 7

Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follow:

Economist Jeffrey Sachs is widely associated with shock therapy. He developed a plan of shock therapy for post-communist Poland in 1990, for post-communist Russia in 1992, and several other countries, including Bolivia and Chile. Bolivia, in particular, in 1985, had success as a result of shock therapy in ending a period of hyperinflation.

Poland also initially seemed to benefit from shock therapy as inflation was controlled, but it saw a sharp rise in unemployment that peaked at 16.9%. Sachs did not like the term shock therapy, which he said was coined by the media and made the reform process sound more painful than it was.

In Russia, neo- liberal shock therapy did not produce favourable outcomes. Shock therapy was applied swiftly and on a large scale, as opposed to how it was applied in other nations. Almost all of Russia’s industries were undervalued and sold to private individuals and companies, with most acquired by a few Russian oligarchs.

With limited government intervention, most industries disappeared. The Russian currency declined, causing high inflation and the erosion of most citizens’ savings. Unemployment increased drastically, and government subsidies were removed, further pushing Russian families into poverty.

Q. Which country benefited with the Shock therapy in 1985?

Detailed Solution for Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 7

Bolivia, in particular, in 1985, had success as a result of shock therapy in ending a period of hyperinflation. Poland also initially seemed to benefit from shock therapy as inflation was controlled, but it saw a sharp rise in unemployment that peaked at 16.9%.

Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 8

Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follow:

Economist Jeffrey Sachs is widely associated with shock therapy. He developed a plan of shock therapy for post-communist Poland in 1990, for post-communist Russia in 1992, and several other countries, including Bolivia and Chile. Bolivia, in particular, in 1985, had success as a result of shock therapy in ending a period of hyperinflation.

Poland also initially seemed to benefit from shock therapy as inflation was controlled, but it saw a sharp rise in unemployment that peaked at 16.9%. Sachs did not like the term shock therapy, which he said was coined by the media and made the reform process sound more painful than it was.

In Russia, neo- liberal shock therapy did not produce favourable outcomes. Shock therapy was applied swiftly and on a large scale, as opposed to how it was applied in other nations. Almost all of Russia’s industries were undervalued and sold to private individuals and companies, with most acquired by a few Russian oligarchs.

With limited government intervention, most industries disappeared. The Russian currency declined, causing high inflation and the erosion of most citizens’ savings. Unemployment increased drastically, and government subsidies were removed, further pushing Russian families into poverty.

Q. What was the aftermath of the shock therapy in Russia?

Detailed Solution for Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 8

In Russia, the state-controlled industrial sector lost 90% of its industries. The industries were sold to private individuals and companies.

Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 9

Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follow:

Economist Jeffrey Sachs is widely associated with shock therapy. He developed a plan of shock therapy for post-communist Poland in 1990, for post-communist Russia in 1992, and several other countries, including Bolivia and Chile. Bolivia, in particular, in 1985, had success as a result of shock therapy in ending a period of hyperinflation.

Poland also initially seemed to benefit from shock therapy as inflation was controlled, but it saw a sharp rise in unemployment that peaked at 16.9%. Sachs did not like the term shock therapy, which he said was coined by the media and made the reform process sound more painful than it was.

In Russia, neo- liberal shock therapy did not produce favourable outcomes. Shock therapy was applied swiftly and on a large scale, as opposed to how it was applied in other nations. Almost all of Russia’s industries were undervalued and sold to private individuals and companies, with most acquired by a few Russian oligarchs.

With limited government intervention, most industries disappeared. The Russian currency declined, causing high inflation and the erosion of most citizens’ savings. Unemployment increased drastically, and government subsidies were removed, further pushing Russian families into poverty.

Q. Who developed the plan of the Shock therapy for the post-communist Poland?

Detailed Solution for Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 9

Jeffrey Sachs is widely associated with shock therapy. He developed a plan of shock therapy for post-communist Poland in 1990.

Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 10

Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follow:

Economist Jeffrey Sachs is widely associated with shock therapy. He developed a plan of shock therapy for post-communist Poland in 1990, for post-communist Russia in 1992, and several other countries, including Bolivia and Chile. Bolivia, in particular, in 1985, had success as a result of shock therapy in ending a period of hyperinflation.

Poland also initially seemed to benefit from shock therapy as inflation was controlled, but it saw a sharp rise in unemployment that peaked at 16.9%. Sachs did not like the term shock therapy, which he said was coined by the media and made the reform process sound more painful than it was.

In Russia, neo- liberal shock therapy did not produce favourable outcomes. Shock therapy was applied swiftly and on a large scale, as opposed to how it was applied in other nations. Almost all of Russia’s industries were undervalued and sold to private individuals and companies, with most acquired by a few Russian oligarchs.

With limited government intervention, most industries disappeared. The Russian currency declined, causing high inflation and the erosion of most citizens’ savings. Unemployment increased drastically, and government subsidies were removed, further pushing Russian families into poverty.

Q. What happened in Poland after the initial success of the shock therapy?

Detailed Solution for Test: The End of Bipolarity - Case Based Type Questions - 2 - Question 10

Poland has been cited by some[according to whom] as an example of the successful use of shock therapy, though this is disputed. When economic liberalism came to this nation, the government took Sachs' advice and immediately withdrew regulations, price controls and subsidies to state-owned industries. However, with respect to the privatization of the state sector (which may or may not be considered as part of shock therapy depending on the definition being used) the change was much more gradualist.

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