Verbal For XAT 2016


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26 Questions MCQ Test Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) | Verbal For XAT 2016

Verbal For XAT 2016 for CAT 2022 is part of Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) preparation. The Verbal For XAT 2016 questions and answers have been prepared according to the CAT exam syllabus.The Verbal For XAT 2016 MCQs are made for CAT 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Verbal For XAT 2016 below.
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Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 1

"Assumptions are analogous to the basic ingredients in a gourmet recipe.   Only the final product of the recipe dictates whether the ingredients suffice........."

Q. Which of the following is ANALOGOUS to the statement above?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 1 The statement indicates that outcome gives an indication of input. Except E no other statement focuses on outcome being an indication of input. For example C is wrong as it says that if output is good, input is immaterial.

In A there is no mention of input. There is only a mention of outcome and promotion of the same.

B is wrong as it talks about how two related events occur together.

D talks about how input determines output. So the logic is exactly opposite of the statement.

E talks about how outcome is the ultimate proof of input and is hence the correct answer.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 2

Which of the following options best captures the relationship similar to INSPECT:

VIVISECT?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 2 The closest meaning of inspection is to check or examine.

Vivisection is a surgical operation on live animals for the purpose of research. Hence, the meaning of vivisection can be extended to sharp and detailed analysis.

The relationship between inspect and vivisect is the same as between checking/examining/finding and detailed analysis.

One has to check/examine before one conducts a detailed analysis i.e. vivisect. Vivisection shall therefore come after inspection. Inspection is more superficial/less intense than vivisection.

From the options available, to inquire is to seek information and ask a question while to explore is to go further and engage in deeper inquiry/ deeper experience. Therefore option B is the right answer.

In Option C, both investigate and interrogate are nearly similar, though good interrogation (preliminary) leads to good investigation (detailed) and not the other way round.

Investigation can also be defined as carrying out a research or study which is deeper than interrogation and which is closer to vivisect than inspection.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 3

Read the following poem and answer the question that follows:

I sought a soul in the sea

And found a coral there

Beneath the foam for me

An ocean was all laid bare.

Into my heart's night

Along a narrow way

I groped; and lol the light,

An infinite land of day.

Q. Which of the following would best capture the ESSENCE of the poem above?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 3 A only captures the first part of the poem. B talks only about the path and not about the destination. C is the right answer because it answers the first question i.e. exploring inner space raised in stanza 2 and the futility of external search mentioned in the first stanza. D is wrong because the heart's pathways are narrow according to the poem. E is wrong as the poem is about “inner journey” and not about “light”.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 4

This season will pass. The Prime Minister may not win Lok Sabha elections, or she may; she may not continue as Prime Minister, or she may. The country will survive whatever the texture of politics in this decade or the next.

Q. Which of the following, IF TRUE, will BEST reinforce the author's view?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 4 The core argument of the author is that the political texture (politics or the office of the prime minister) and survival of the country are not related.

The country’s survival is in “autopilot mode”, according to the author.

Except option D, the others say nothing about this “auto pilot mode” Option B can be a possible option to strengthen the author’s view but it can be only one of the ways the country can be on “auto pilot”.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 5

... there is a degree of convergence in the definition of trust which can be summarized as follows: Trust is a particular level of the subjective probability with which an agent assesses that another agent or group of agents will perform a particular action.

When we say we trust someone or that someone is trustworthy, we implicitly mean that the probability that he will perform an action that is beneficial to us ....

Q. Which of the following statements BEST COMPLETES the passage above?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 5 As the last sentence ends with trust, which is a positive word the phrases that follow should also be positive. All options A, C, D, E have ‘something negative” that we normally do not associate with trust leaving B to be the right answer.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 6

The FIRST and the LAST sentences of the paragraph are numbered 1 & 6. The others, labelled as P, Q, R and S are given below:

1. Supposed to know someone, Smith.

P. One day you come to me and say: "Smith is in Cambridge."

Q. I inquired, and found you stood at Guildhall and saw at the other end a man and said: "That was Smith."

R. I'd say: "Listen. This isn't sufficient evidence."

S. I've heard that he has been killed in a battle in this war.

6. If we had a fair amount of evidence he was killed I would try to make you say that you're being credulous.

Q. Which of the following combinations is the MOST LOGICALLY ORDERED?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 6 R is a refutation of something and it can refute Q but not P.

Because P is generic and therefore difficult to refute while Q can be refuted easily. Q is an attempt to specify P. R is a statement that refutes Q and not P. Therefore SPQR is the most logical order making A the correct answer.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 7

The FIRST and the LAST sentences of the paragraph are numbered 1 & 6. The others, labelled as P, Q, R and S are given below:

1. The word "symmetry" is used here with a special meaning, and therefore needs to be defined.

P. For instance, if we look at a vase that is leftand-right symmetrical, then turn it 180° around the vertical axis, it looks the same.

Q. When we have a picture symmetrical, one side is somehow the same as the other side.

R. When is a thing symmetrical - how can we define it?

S. Professor Hermann Weyl has given this definition of symmetry: a thing is symmetrical if one can subject it to a certain operation and it appears exactly the same after operation.

6. We shall adopt the definition of symmetry in Weyl's more general form, and in that form we shall discuss symmetry of physical laws.

Q. Which of the following combinations is the MOST LOGICALLY ORDERED?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 7 R raises two questions: The first part is answered by “Q (When is a thing symmetrical?) and the second by S (How can we define it?). Q and S therefore should follow R. P illustrates what is defined in S i.e. something that looks exactly the same after an operation on it. So P after S provides the logical order. Therefore option D is the correct answer.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 8

In the recent past, Indian football team has lost most of the matches in international football tournaments.

The most successful coaches in Indian club football tournaments are from Latin American countries. In most of the Latin American countries, football is a more popular sport than cricket.

From the passage above, choose the correct option:

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 8 A is incorrect as no conclusions can be drawn from cricket from the information provided. B is wrong because “popularity” may not imply success, as some of the most popular teams may not be most successful.

C is incorrect since Indian football teams and Indian football clubs are different and cannot be compared. D is false as we do not have any data on coaches for Indian national team. E is erroneous because the popularity of a sport in a country need not definitely imply success and therefore may not generate a successful player or for that matter a coach.

Therefore the correct answer is Option E.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 9

Choose the best pronunciation of the word, Sobriquet, from the following options:

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 9 It is pronounced soo-bri or bruh and the last syllable rhymes with “day” or “pet” and therefore A is the correct answer.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 10

The subject of this book is knavery, skulduggery, cheating, betrayal, unfairness, crime, sneakiness, malingering, cutting corner, immorality, dishonesty, betrayal, graft, wickedness, and sin.

Q. Which of the following options best captures ALL the italicized words above?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 10 Dishonesty, betrayal, sin, unfairness may not be aggressive behaviours. B is wrong as unfairness, immorality, cheating may not be corrupt and/or “illegal”. Similarly knavery, cheating, cutting corners, sin etc. may not be banned. E is wrong as all of them may not be vetoed….hence the right answer is C.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 11

Read the following conversation:

OINOS: I can comprehend you thus far-that certain operations of what we term Nature, or the natural laws, will, under certain conditions, give rise to that which has all the appearance of creation. Shortly before the final overthrow of the earth, there were, I well remember, many very successful experiments in what some philosophers were weak enough to denominate the creation of animalculae.

AGATHOS: The cases of which you speak were, in fact, instances of the secondary creation-and of the only species of creation which has ever been, since the first word spoke into existence the first law.

Q. Which of the following options CANNOT be DEFINITELY inferred based on the above conversation?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 11 A can be definitely interpreted from the passage since Oinos admits to Agathos that Agathos was talking about “creation”.

B also can be interpreted (Shortly before the final overthrow of the earth).

C can be definitely interpreted from Oinos’ statement.

E (from the last line of the passage) can be interpreted.

Only D cannot be definitely interpreted, since the passage does not suggest that natural laws are the creations of philosophers.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 12

Consider the two related statements below:

Statement I: Offices and positions for the marginalized sections should be open to those with greater savings among them.

Statement II: Offices and positions must be open to everyone based on the principle of fair opportunity.

Q. Which of the following is true?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 12

A : It cannot be right as nowhere is it mentioned that marginalised sections are incapable of saving.

B: Statement 2 would make sense only when all sections of society are equally exposed to all opportunities. Else, Statement 2 would be less relevant as giving equal opportunities would be of no use if people are not exposed to equal opportunities. Hence B is the right answer.

C: Statement 2 assumes that everyone should be given equal opportunity but it does not say everyone is equal. This is consistent with “merit” and not against “merit”.

D: Statement 2 assumes that the only differentiator is the diligence of the citizens.

E: Statement 1 assumes that the marginal sections are laid back and rely on their entitlements.

There is an underlying belief in the statement 2 that contradicts statement 1.The two statements (1 and II) contradict each other especially when talking about “marginalised sections”.

Statement 1 can hold true if statement 2 is not applicable to the “marginalised sections”.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 13

Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers for the questions that follow:

Advances in economic theory in the 1970s and 1980s illuminated the limits of markets; they showed that unfettered markets do not lead to economic efficiency whenever information is imperfect or markets are missing (for instance, good insurance markets to cover the key risks confronting individuals). And information is always imperfect and markets are always incomplete. Nor do markets, by themselves, necessarily lead to economic efficiency when the task of a country is to absorb new technology, to close the "knowledge gap": a central feature of development. Today, most academic economists agree that markets, by themselves, do not lead to efficiency; the question is whether the government can improve matters.

While it is difficult for economists to perform experiments to test their theories, as a chemist or a physicist might, the world provides a vast array of natural experiments as dozens of countries try different strategies. Unfortunately, because each country differs in its history and circumstances and in the myriad of details in the policies -and details do matter-it is often difficult to get a clear interpretation. What is clear, however, is that there have been marked differences in performance, that the most successful countries have been those in Asia, and that in most of the Asian countries, government played a very active role.

As we look more carefully at the effects of particular policies, these conclusions are reinforced: there is a remarkable congruence between what economic theory says the government should do and what the East Asian governments actually did. By the same token, the economic theories based on imperfect information and incomplete risk markets that predicted that the free flow of short-term capital- a key feature of market fundamentalist policies-would produce not growth but instability have also been borne out.

Q. "...whether government can improve matters". Here 'matters' indicates

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 13 Refer to the last line of the first paragraph of passage viz. “Today, most academic economists agree that markets, by themselves, do not lead to efficiency; the question is whether the government can improve matters.” Option A therefore is the correct answer.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 14

Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers for the questions that follow:

Advances in economic theory in the 1970s and 1980s illuminated the limits of markets; they showed that unfettered markets do not lead to economic efficiency whenever information is imperfect or markets are missing (for instance, good insurance markets to cover the key risks confronting individuals). And information is always imperfect and markets are always incomplete. Nor do markets, by themselves, necessarily lead to economic efficiency when the task of a country is to absorb new technology, to close the "knowledge gap": a central feature of development. Today, most academic economists agree that markets, by themselves, do not lead to efficiency; the question is whether the government can improve matters.

While it is difficult for economists to perform experiments to test their theories, as a chemist or a physicist might, the world provides a vast array of natural experiments as dozens of countries try different strategies. Unfortunately, because each country differs in its history and circumstances and in the myriad of details in the policies -and details do matter-it is often difficult to get a clear interpretation. What is clear, however, is that there have been marked differences in performance, that the most successful countries have been those in Asia, and that in most of the Asian countries, government played a very active role.

As we look more carefully at the effects of particular policies, these conclusions are reinforced: there is a remarkable congruence between what economic theory says the government should do and what the East Asian governments actually did. By the same token, the economic theories based on imperfect information and incomplete risk markets that predicted that the free flow of short-term capital- a key feature of market fundamentalist policies-would produce not growth but instability have also been borne out.

Q. Which of the following options CANNOT be inferred from the above passage?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 14 Option A can be interpreted as it is clearly mentioned in the last line of the passage.

Option B can be interpreted from the first paragraph of the passage.

Option C can be interpreted from the middle portion of the second paragraph of the passage.

Option D can be interpreted from the first paragraph of the passage (second last line of the first paragraph).

Option E cannot be interpreted since there is no mention in the passage that state intervention and imperfect information can never go hand in hand.

Option E therefore is the correct answer.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 15

Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers for the questions that follow:

Advances in economic theory in the 1970s and 1980s illuminated the limits of markets; they showed that unfettered markets do not lead to economic efficiency whenever information is imperfect or markets are missing (for instance, good insurance markets to cover the key risks confronting individuals). And information is always imperfect and markets are always incomplete. Nor do markets, by themselves, necessarily lead to economic efficiency when the task of a country is to absorb new technology, to close the "knowledge gap": a central feature of development. Today, most academic economists agree that markets, by themselves, do not lead to efficiency; the question is whether the government can improve matters.

While it is difficult for economists to perform experiments to test their theories, as a chemist or a physicist might, the world provides a vast array of natural experiments as dozens of countries try different strategies. Unfortunately, because each country differs in its history and circumstances and in the myriad of details in the policies -and details do matter-it is often difficult to get a clear interpretation. What is clear, however, is that there have been marked differences in performance, that the most successful countries have been those in Asia, and that in most of the Asian countries, government played a very active role.

As we look more carefully at the effects of particular policies, these conclusions are reinforced: there is a remarkable congruence between what economic theory says the government should do and what the East Asian governments actually did. By the same token, the economic theories based on imperfect information and incomplete risk markets that predicted that the free flow of short-term capital- a key feature of market fundamentalist policies-would produce not growth but instability have also been borne out.

Q. Which of the following statements BEST captures the ESSENCE of the two paragraphs in the above passage?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 15 First paragraph explains why markets fail. Paragraph II discusses a natural experiment wherein market driven economic theories fail to explain success of Asian economies.

Option C is the right answer based on the above rationale.

Option A is hence wrong since both the paragraphs are related.

Option B is wrong since Para I does not describe markets in general but market failure in particular.

Option D is factually correct but raising and answering a question cannot be the essence of the passage. Moreover while the first paragraph raises a question “can government improve matters”, the second paragraph goes beyond answering the question to discuss the failure of market based economic theories in explaining success of Asian economies.

Option E is wrong since para I discusses the failure of an economic theory rather than stating it, and paragraph II does not disprove/prove any theory but shows some support for government intervention.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 16

Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers for the questions that follow:

An effective way of describing what interpersonal communication is or is not, is perhaps to capture the underlying beliefs using specific game analogies.

Communication as Bowling: The bowling model of message delivery is probably the most widely held view of communication. I think that's unfortunate. This model sees the bowler as the sender, who delivers the ball, which is the message. As it rolls down the lane (the channel), clutter on the boards (noise) may deflect the ball (the message).

Yet if it is aimed well, the ball strikes the passive pins (the target audience) with a predictable effect. In this one – way model of communication, the speaker (bowler) must take care to select a precisely crafted message (ball) and practice diligently to deliver it the same way every time.

Of course, that makes sense only if target listeners are interchangeable, static pins waiting to be bowled over by our words – which they aren't.

This has led some observers to propose an interactive model of interpersonal communication.

Communication as Ping-Pong: Unlike bowling, PingPong is not a solo game. This fact alone makes it a better analogy for interpersonal communication. One party puts the conversational ball in play, and the other gets into position to receive. It takes more concentration and skill to receive than to serve because while the speaker (server) knows where the message is going, the listener (receiver) doesn't. Like a verbal or nonverbal message, the ball may appear straightforward yet have a deceptive spin. PingPong is a back-and-forth game; players switch roles continuously. One moment the person holding the paddle is an initiator; the next second the same player is a responder, gauging the effectiveness of his or her shot by the way the ball comes back. The repeated adjustment essential for good play closely parallels the feedback process described in a number of interpersonal communication theories.

Communication as Dumb Charades: The game of charades best captures the simultaneous and collaborative nature of interpersonal communication. A charade is neither an action, like bowling a strike, nor an interaction, like a rally in Ping-Pong. It's a transaction.

Charades is a mutual game; the actual play is cooperative.

One member draws a title or slogan from a batch of possibilities and then tries to act it out visually for teammates in a silent mini drama. The goal is to get at least one partner to say the exact words that are on the slip of paper. Of course, the actor is prohibited from talking out loud.

Suppose you drew the saying "God helps those who help themselves." For God you might try folding your hands and gazing upward. For help you could act out offering a helping hand or giving a leg-up boost over a fence. By pointing at a number of real or imaginary people you may elicit a response from them, and by this point a partner may shout out, "God helps those who help themselves." Success.

Like charades, interpersonal communication is a mutual, on-going process of sending, receiving, and adapting verbal and nonverbal messages with another person to create and alter the images in both of our minds. Communication between us begins when there is some overlap between two images, and is effective to the extent that overlap

increases. But even if our mental pictures are congruent, communication will be partial as long as we interpret them differently. The idea that "God helps those who help themselves" could strike one person as a hollow promise, while the other might regard it as a divine stamp of approval for hard work.

Dumb Charade goes beyond the simplistic analogy of bowling and ping pong. It views interpersonal communications as a complex transaction in which overlapping messages simultaneously affect and are affected by the other person and multiple other factors.

Q. The meaning CLOSEST to 'interchangeable' in the 'Communication as Bowling' paragraph is:

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 16 Here “interchangeable” is used in the context of listeners, who can be swapped as per the metaphor.

Complementary is used when two or more entities together complete or improve the picture (for e.g. razor and blade, where both together make a shave), contiguous is used in a ‘spatial’ sense to denote close entities, conforming means compliant, compatible is closer to complementary and conforming; comparable means “similar”…If something is comparable, it is interchangeable, hence E is the correct answer.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 17

Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers for the questions that follow:

An effective way of describing what interpersonal communication is or is not, is perhaps to capture the underlying beliefs using specific game analogies.

Communication as Bowling: The bowling model of message delivery is probably the most widely held view of communication. I think that's unfortunate. This model sees the bowler as the sender, who delivers the ball, which is the message. As it rolls down the lane (the channel), clutter on the boards (noise) may deflect the ball (the message).

Yet if it is aimed well, the ball strikes the passive pins (the target audience) with a predictable effect. In this one – way model of communication, the speaker (bowler) must take care to select a precisely crafted message (ball) and practice diligently to deliver it the same way every time.

Of course, that makes sense only if target listeners are interchangeable, static pins waiting to be bowled over by our words – which they aren't.

This has led some observers to propose an interactive model of interpersonal communication.

Communication as Ping-Pong: Unlike bowling, PingPong is not a solo game. This fact alone makes it a better analogy for interpersonal communication. One party puts the conversational ball in play, and the other gets into position to receive. It takes more concentration and skill to receive than to serve because while the speaker (server) knows where the message is going, the listener (receiver) doesn't. Like a verbal or nonverbal message, the ball may appear straightforward yet have a deceptive spin. PingPong is a back-and-forth game; players switch roles continuously. One moment the person holding the paddle is an initiator; the next second the same player is a responder, gauging the effectiveness of his or her shot by the way the ball comes back. The repeated adjustment essential for good play closely parallels the feedback process described in a number of interpersonal communication theories.

Communication as Dumb Charades: The game of charades best captures the simultaneous and collaborative nature of interpersonal communication. A charade is neither an action, like bowling a strike, nor an interaction, like a rally in Ping-Pong. It's a transaction.

Charades is a mutual game; the actual play is cooperative.

One member draws a title or slogan from a batch of possibilities and then tries to act it out visually for teammates in a silent mini drama. The goal is to get at least one partner to say the exact words that are on the slip of paper. Of course, the actor is prohibited from talking out loud.

Suppose you drew the saying "God helps those who help themselves." For God you might try folding your hands and gazing upward. For help you could act out offering a helping hand or giving a leg-up boost over a fence. By pointing at a number of real or imaginary people you may elicit a response from them, and by this point a partner may shout out, "God helps those who help themselves." Success.

Like charades, interpersonal communication is a mutual, on-going process of sending, receiving, and adapting verbal and nonverbal messages with another person to create and alter the images in both of our minds. Communication between us begins when there is some overlap between two images, and is effective to the extent that overlap

increases. But even if our mental pictures are congruent, communication will be partial as long as we interpret them differently. The idea that "God helps those who help themselves" could strike one person as a hollow promise, while the other might regard it as a divine stamp of approval for hard work.

Dumb Charade goes beyond the simplistic analogy of bowling and ping pong. It views interpersonal communications as a complex transaction in which overlapping messages simultaneously affect and are affected by the other person and multiple other factors.

Q. Which  of the  following  options   is  the   CLOSEST to  the  necessary  condition  of communication:

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 17 According to the passage the minimum necessary condition for successful communication is the overlap of images between the interlocutors (“Communication between us begins when there is some overlap between two images”).

Therefore Option A is the correct answer.

Simultaneous exchange is a result of threshold overlap of shared images. Simultaneous exchange (option B) may not imply communication if there is no overlap of images and without overlap the necessary condition is not met. The same argument applies to Options C, D and E.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 18

Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers for the questions that follow:

An effective way of describing what interpersonal communication is or is not, is perhaps to capture the underlying beliefs using specific game analogies.

Communication as Bowling: The bowling model of message delivery is probably the most widely held view of communication. I think that's unfortunate. This model sees the bowler as the sender, who delivers the ball, which is the message. As it rolls down the lane (the channel), clutter on the boards (noise) may deflect the ball (the message).

Yet if it is aimed well, the ball strikes the passive pins (the target audience) with a predictable effect. In this one – way model of communication, the speaker (bowler) must take care to select a precisely crafted message (ball) and practice diligently to deliver it the same way every time.

Of course, that makes sense only if target listeners are interchangeable, static pins waiting to be bowled over by our words – which they aren't.

This has led some observers to propose an interactive model of interpersonal communication.

Communication as Ping-Pong: Unlike bowling, PingPong is not a solo game. This fact alone makes it a better analogy for interpersonal communication. One party puts the conversational ball in play, and the other gets into position to receive. It takes more concentration and skill to receive than to serve because while the speaker (server) knows where the message is going, the listener (receiver) doesn't. Like a verbal or nonverbal message, the ball may appear straightforward yet have a deceptive spin. PingPong is a back-and-forth game; players switch roles continuously. One moment the person holding the paddle is an initiator; the next second the same player is a responder, gauging the effectiveness of his or her shot by the way the ball comes back. The repeated adjustment essential for good play closely parallels the feedback process described in a number of interpersonal communication theories.

Communication as Dumb Charades: The game of charades best captures the simultaneous and collaborative nature of interpersonal communication. A charade is neither an action, like bowling a strike, nor an interaction, like a rally in Ping-Pong. It's a transaction.

Charades is a mutual game; the actual play is cooperative.

One member draws a title or slogan from a batch of possibilities and then tries to act it out visually for teammates in a silent mini drama. The goal is to get at least one partner to say the exact words that are on the slip of paper. Of course, the actor is prohibited from talking out loud.

Suppose you drew the saying "God helps those who help themselves." For God you might try folding your hands and gazing upward. For help you could act out offering a helping hand or giving a leg-up boost over a fence. By pointing at a number of real or imaginary people you may elicit a response from them, and by this point a partner may shout out, "God helps those who help themselves." Success.

Like charades, interpersonal communication is a mutual, on-going process of sending, receiving, and adapting verbal and nonverbal messages with another person to create and alter the images in both of our minds. Communication between us begins when there is some overlap between two images, and is effective to the extent that overlap

increases. But even if our mental pictures are congruent, communication will be partial as long as we interpret them differently. The idea that "God helps those who help themselves" could strike one person as a hollow promise, while the other might regard it as a divine stamp of approval for hard work.

Dumb Charade goes beyond the simplistic analogy of bowling and ping pong. It views interpersonal communications as a complex transaction in which overlapping messages simultaneously affect and are affected by the other person and multiple other factors.

Q. The two inherent LIMITATIONS of Ping-Pong as a metaphor for communication are:

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 18 In option A both statements record the positives of Ping-Pong as a metaphor.

In option B the first statement is a limitation and the second statement is incorrect.

In option C the first statement is a limitation and the second statement is a limitation of all three metaphors.

In option D, the first statement is correct but the second statement is incorrect as Ping-Pong is interactive.

In option E, both statements are unrelated to Ping-Pong as a metaphor.

Therefore C is the correct answer.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 19

Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers for the questions that follow:

An effective way of describing what interpersonal communication is or is not, is perhaps to capture the underlying beliefs using specific game analogies.

Communication as Bowling: The bowling model of message delivery is probably the most widely held view of communication. I think that's unfortunate. This model sees the bowler as the sender, who delivers the ball, which is the message. As it rolls down the lane (the channel), clutter on the boards (noise) may deflect the ball (the message).

Yet if it is aimed well, the ball strikes the passive pins (the target audience) with a predictable effect. In this one – way model of communication, the speaker (bowler) must take care to select a precisely crafted message (ball) and practice diligently to deliver it the same way every time.

Of course, that makes sense only if target listeners are interchangeable, static pins waiting to be bowled over by our words – which they aren't.

This has led some observers to propose an interactive model of interpersonal communication.

Communication as Ping-Pong: Unlike bowling, Ping Pong is not a solo game. This fact alone makes it a better analogy for interpersonal communication. One party puts the conversational ball in play, and the other gets into position to receive. It takes more concentration and skill to receive than to serve because while the speaker (server) knows where the message is going, the listener (receiver) doesn't. Like a verbal or nonverbal message, the ball may appear straightforward yet have a deceptive spin. Ping Pong is a back-and-forth game; players switch roles continuously. One moment the person holding the paddle is an initiator; the next second the same player is a responder, gauging the effectiveness of his or her shot by the way the ball comes back. The repeated adjustment essential for good play closely parallels the feedback process described in a number of interpersonal communication theories.

Communication as Dumb Charades: The game of charades best captures the simultaneous and collaborative nature of interpersonal communication. A charade is neither an action, like bowling a strike, nor an interaction, like a rally in Ping-Pong. It's a transaction.

Charades is a mutual game; the actual play is cooperative.

One member draws a title or slogan from a batch of possibilities and then tries to act it out visually for teammates in a silent mini drama. The goal is to get at least one partner to say the exact words that are on the slip of paper. Of course, the actor is prohibited from talking out loud.

Suppose you drew the saying "God helps those who help themselves." For God you might try folding your hands and gazing upward. For help you could act out offering a helping hand or giving a leg-up boost over a fence. By pointing at a number of real or imaginary people you may elicit a response from them, and by this point a partner may shout out, "God helps those who help themselves." Success.

Like charades, interpersonal communication is a mutual, on-going process of sending, receiving, and adapting verbal and nonverbal messages with another person to create and alter the images in both of our minds. Communication between us begins when there is some overlap between two images, and is effective to the extent that overlap

increases. But even if our mental pictures are congruent, communication will be partial as long as we interpret them differently. The idea that "God helps those who help themselves" could strike one person as a hollow promise, while the other might regard it as a divine stamp of approval for hard work.

Dumb Charade goes beyond the simplistic analogy of bowling and ping pong. It views interpersonal communications as a complex transaction in which overlapping messages simultaneously affect and are affected by the other person and multiple other factors.

Q. Action, interaction and transaction is CLOSEST to:

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 19

A, I, T

A, A, I

A, A, I

A, I, A

I, A, A

A = Action, I = Interaction and T = Transaction. Hence the best option is A.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 20

Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers for the questions that follow:

Each piece, or part, of the whole of nature is always merely an approximation to the complete truth, or the complete truth so far as we know it. In fact, everything we know is only some kind of approximation, because we know that we do not know all the laws as yet. Therefore, things must be learned only to be unlearned again or, more likely, to be corrected.

The principle of science, the definition, almost, is the following: The test of all knowledge is experiment. Experiment is the sole judge of scientific "truth." But what is the source of knowledge? Where do the laws that are to be tested come from? Experiment, itself, helps to produce these laws, in the sense that it gives us hints.

But also needed is imagination to create from these hints the great generalizations-to guess at the wonderful, simple, but very strange patterns beneath them all, and then to experiment to check again whether we have made the right guess. This imagining process is so difficult that there is a division of labour in physics: there are theoretical physicists who imagine, deduce, and guess at new laws, but do not experiment; and then there are experimental physicists who experiment, imagine, deduce, and guess.

We said that the laws of nature are approximate: that we first find the "wrong" ones, and then we find the "right" ones. Now, how can an experiment be "wrong"? First, in a trivial way: the apparatus can be faulty and you did not notice. But these things are easily fixed and checked back and forth. So without snatching at such minor things, how can the results of an experiment be wrong? Only by being inaccurate. For example, the mass of an object never seems to change; a spinning top has the same weight as a still one. So a "law" was invented: mass is constant, independent of speed. That "law" is now found to be incorrect. Mass is found to increase with velocity, but appreciable increase requires velocities near that of light.

A true law is: if an object moves with a speed of less than one hundred miles a second the mass is constant to within one part in a million. In some such approximate form this is a correct law. So in practice one might think that the new law makes no significant difference. Well, yes and no. For ordinary speeds we can certainly forget it and use the simple constant mass law as a good approximation. But for high speeds we are wrong, and the higher the speed, the more wrong we are.

Finally, and  most  interesting,  philosophically  we  are completely  wrong  with  the approximate law. Our entire picture of the world has to be altered even though the mass changes only by a little bit. This is a very peculiar thing about the philosophy, or the ideas, behind the laws.

Even a very small effect sometimes requires profound changes to our ideas.

Q. Which of the following options is DEFINITELY NOT an approximation to the complete truth?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 20 A, B, C and E can be known with some errors. i.e., in each of the four options there is an approximation. In option D there is no way somebody can know what he/she doesn’t know.

This is an impossible situation.

Example: Somebody says “I do not know quantum mechanics.” But he/she cannot say what quantum mechanics is and what in quantum mechanics he/she does not know.

Hence option D is the correct answer.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 21

Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers for the questions that follow:

Each piece, or part, of the whole of nature is always merely an approximation to the complete truth, or the complete truth so far as we know it. In fact, everything we know is only some kind of approximation, because we know that we do not know all the laws as yet. Therefore, things must be learned only to be unlearned again or, more likely, to be corrected.

The principle of science, the definition, almost, is the following: The test of all knowledge is experiment. Experiment is the sole judge of scientific "truth." But what is the source of knowledge? Where do the laws that are to be tested come from? Experiment, itself, helps to produce these laws, in the sense that it gives us hints.

But also needed is imagination to create from these hints the great generalizations-to guess at the wonderful, simple, but very strange patterns beneath them all, and then to experiment to check again whether we have made the right guess. This imagining process is so difficult that there is a division of labour in physics: there are theoretical physicists who imagine, deduce, and guess at new laws, but do not experiment; and then there are experimental physicists who experiment, imagine, deduce, and guess.

We said that the laws of nature are approximate: that we first find the "wrong" ones, and then we find the "right" ones. Now, how can an experiment be "wrong"? First, in a trivial way: the apparatus can be faulty and you did not notice. But these things are easily fixed and checked back and forth. So without snatching at such minor things, how can the results of an experiment be wrong? Only by being inaccurate. For example, the mass of an object never seems to change; a spinning top has the same weight as a still one. So a "law" was invented: mass is constant, independent of speed. That "law" is now found to be incorrect. Mass is found to increase with velocity, but appreciable increase requires velocities near that of light.

A true law is: if an object moves with a speed of less than one hundred miles a second the mass is constant to within one part in a million. In some such approximate form this is a correct law. So in practice one might think that the new law makes no significant difference. Well, yes and no. For ordinary speeds we can certainly forget it and use the simple constant mass law as a good approximation. But for high speeds we are wrong, and the higher the speed, the more wrong we are.

Finally, and  most  interesting,  philosophically  we  are completely  wrong  with  the approximate law. Our entire picture of the world has to be altered even though the mass changes only by a little bit. This is a very peculiar thing about the philosophy, or the ideas, behind the laws.

Even a very small effect sometimes requires profound changes to our ideas.

Consider the two statements from the passage:

Statement I: The mass of an object never seems to change.

Statement II: Mass is found to increase with velocity.

Q. Which of the following options CANNOT be concluded from the above passage?

(d)  Statement I reveals that experimental physicists who imagine, deduce, and guess are philosophically wrong.

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 21 Option A can be concluded as TRUE.

In Option B, Statements I can be concluded as FALSE.

In Option C, Statement II can be concluded as FALSE.

Option D can be concluded TRUE because we all can be philosophically wrong and experimental physicists are amongst “us”.

Option E cannot be concluded as nowhere it is mentioned that theoretical physicist can pinpoint shortcoming of experimental physicists. In other words, this conclusion on Statement II cannot be definitely arrived at. Hence option E is the correct answer.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 22

Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers for the questions that follow:

Each piece, or part, of the whole of nature is always merely an approximation to the complete truth, or the complete truth so far as we know it. In fact, everything we know is only some kind of approximation, because we know that we do not know all the laws as yet. Therefore, things must be learned only to be unlearned again or, more likely, to be corrected.

The principle of science, the definition, almost, is the following: The test of all knowledge is experiment. Experiment is the sole judge of scientific "truth." But what is the source of knowledge? Where do the laws that are to be tested come from? Experiment, itself, helps to produce these laws, in the sense that it gives us hints.

But also needed is imagination to create from these hints the great generalizations-to guess at the wonderful, simple, but very strange patterns beneath them all, and then to experiment to check again whether we have made the right guess. This imagining process is so difficult that there is a division of labour in physics: there are theoretical physicists who imagine, deduce, and guess at new laws, but do not experiment; and then there are experimental physicists who experiment, imagine, deduce, and guess.

We said that the laws of nature are approximate: that we first find the "wrong" ones, and then we find the "right" ones. Now, how can an experiment be "wrong"? First, in a trivial way: the apparatus can be faulty and you did not notice. But these things are easily fixed and checked back and forth. So without snatching at such minor things, how can the results of an experiment be wrong? Only by being inaccurate. For example, the mass of an object never seems to change; a spinning top has the same weight as a still one. So a "law" was invented: mass is constant, independent of speed. That "law" is now found to be incorrect. Mass is found to increase with velocity, but appreciable increase requires velocities near that of light.

A true law is: if an object moves with a speed of less than one hundred miles a second the mass is constant to within one part in a million. In some such approximate form this is a correct law. So in practice one might think that the new law makes no significant difference. Well, yes and no. For ordinary speeds we can certainly forget it and use the simple constant mass law as a good approximation. But for high speeds we are wrong, and the higher the speed, the more wrong we are.

Finally, and  most  interesting,  philosophically  we  are completely  wrong  with  the approximate law. Our entire picture of the world has to be altered even though the mass changes only by a little bit. This is a very peculiar thing about the philosophy, or the ideas, behind the laws.

Even a very small effect sometimes requires profound changes to our ideas.

'Big Bang' is a popular theory related to the origin of the universe. It states that the universe was the outcome of a big bang that released enormous energy.

Q. Which of the following is the MOST PROBABLE inference about the big bang theory?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 22 Experimental physicists could not have experimented with the Big Bang as they were not present at the time of the event. It could have only been first imagined or deduced.

Then only there is a possibility of direct experiments. Hence, MOST LIKELY, big bang theory was proposed by theoretical physicists for the first time. Option D is an irrelevant option as passage never talks about “philosophers”. Option E cannot be the right answer if we refer to the following in the first Para: “Each piece, or part, of the whole of nature is always merely an approximation to the complete truth, or the complete truth so far as we know it.” Hence option B is the correct answer.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 23

Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers for the questions that follow:

The base of Objectivism according to Ayan Rand is explicit: "Existence exists-and the act of grasping that statement implies two corollary axioms: that something exists which one perceives and that one exists possessing consciousness, consciousness being the faculty of perceiving that which exists."

Existence and consciousness are facts implicit in every perception. They are the base of all knowledge (and the precondition of proof): knowledge presupposes something to know and someone to know it. They are absolutes which cannot be questioned or escaped: every human utterance, including the denial of these axioms, implies their use and acceptance. The third axiom at the base of knowledge-an axiom true, in Aristotle's words, of "being qua being"- is the Law of Identity. This law defines the essence of existence: to be is to be something, a thing is what it is; and leads to the fundamental principle of all action, the law of causality.

The law of causality states that a thing's actions are determined not by chance, but by its nature, i.e., by what it is.

It is important to observe the interrelation of these three axioms. Existence is the first axiom. The universe exists independent of consciousness. Man is able to adapt his background to his own requirements, but "Nature, to be commanded, must be obeyed" (Francis Bacon). There is no mental process that can change the laws of nature or erase facts. The function of consciousness is not to create reality, but to apprehend it. "Existence is Identity, Consciousness is Identification."

Q. Which of the following is DEFINITELY CORRECT according to the passage:

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 23 A is wrong as perception helps to capture existence and all existence may not be perceived.

B is wrong since there are entities that exist which may not be perceived.

C is wrong because all that exist can have consciousness.

D is the right answer (“consciousness being the faculty of perceiving that which exists”).

E is wrong since “something to be known” and “someone to know” are two presuppositions of knowledge and not of existence.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 24

Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers for the questions that follow:

The base of Objectivism according to Ayan Rand is explicit: "Existence exists-and the act of grasping that statement implies two corollary axioms: that something exists which one perceives and that one exists possessing consciousness, consciousness being the faculty of perceiving that which exists."

Existence and consciousness are facts implicit in every perception. They are the base of all knowledge (and the precondition of proof): knowledge presupposes something to know and someone to know it. They are absolutes which cannot be questioned or escaped: every human utterance, including the denial of these axioms, implies their use and acceptance. The third axiom at the base of knowledge-an axiom true, in Aristotle's words, of "being qua being"- is the Law of Identity. This law defines the essence of existence: to be is to be something, a thing is what it is; and leads to the fundamental principle of all action, the law of causality.

The law of causality states that a thing's actions are determined not by chance, but by its nature, i.e., by what it is.

It is important to observe the interrelation of these three axioms. Existence is the first axiom. The universe exists independent of consciousness. Man is able to adapt his background to his own requirements, but "Nature, to be commanded, must be obeyed" (Francis Bacon). There is no mental process that can change the laws of nature or erase facts. The function of consciousness is not to create reality, but to apprehend it. "Existence is Identity, Consciousness is Identification."

Q. Which of the following is the ESSENCE of 'The law of Causality'?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 24 Law of causality means that change is possible (third para, last line “thing’s actions are determined not by chance but by its nature) but only after knowing its nature and hence E is the right answer.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 25

Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers for the questions that follow:

The base of Objectivism according to Ayan Rand is explicit: "Existence exists-and the act of grasping that statement implies two corollary axioms: that something exists which one perceives and that one exists possessing consciousness, consciousness being the faculty of perceiving that which exists."

Existence and consciousness are facts implicit in every perception. They are the base of all knowledge (and the precondition of proof): knowledge presupposes something to know and someone to know it. They are absolutes which cannot be questioned or escaped: every human utterance, including the denial of these axioms, implies their use and acceptance. The third axiom at the base of knowledge-an axiom true, in Aristotle's words, of "being qua being"- is the Law of Identity. This law defines the essence of existence: to be is to be something, a thing is what it is; and leads to the fundamental principle of all action, the law of causality.

The law of causality states that a thing's actions are determined not by chance, but by its nature, i.e., by what it is.

It is important to observe the interrelation of these three axioms. Existence is the first axiom. The universe exists independent of consciousness. Man is able to adapt his background to his own requirements, but "Nature, to be commanded, must be obeyed" (Francis Bacon). There is no mental process that can change the laws of nature or erase facts. The function of consciousness is not to create reality, but to apprehend it. "Existence is Identity, Consciousness is Identification."

Q. Which of the following can be best captured as 'Identity' and 'Identification'?

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 25 Identification is the process by which one identifies, ie. Identity is perceived.

Option B is correct as perception of Twitter is the process by which one identifies that Twitter exists. All others are indirect ways of identification with the identity given in the first part of the options. For e.g. perception of children results in identifying parenthood and not marriage. Similarly, perception of taxation of citizens results in the identification of taxation and not government.

Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 26

Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers for the questions that follow:

The base of Objectivism according to Ayan Rand is explicit: "Existence exists-and the act of grasping that statement implies two corollary axioms: that something exists which one perceives and that one exists possessing consciousness, consciousness being the faculty of perceiving that which exists."

Existence and consciousness are facts implicit in every perception. They are the base of all knowledge (and the precondition of proof): knowledge presupposes something to know and someone to know it. They are absolutes which cannot be questioned or escaped: every human utterance, including the denial of these axioms, implies their use and acceptance. The third axiom at the base of knowledge-an axiom true, in Aristotle's words, of "being qua being"- is the Law of Identity. This law defines the essence of existence: to be is to be something, a thing is what it is; and leads to the fundamental principle of all action, the law of causality.

The law of causality states that a thing's actions are determined not by chance, but by its nature, i.e., by what it is.

It is important to observe the interrelation of these three axioms. Existence is the first axiom. The universe exists independent of consciousness. Man is able to adapt his background to his own requirements, but "Nature, to be commanded, must be obeyed" (Francis Bacon). There is no mental process that can change the laws of nature or erase facts. The function of consciousness is not to create reality, but to apprehend it. "Existence is Identity, Consciousness is Identification."

Q. The author would interpret Francis Bacon's "Nature, to be commanded, must be obeyed" as:

Detailed Solution for Verbal For XAT 2016 - Question 26 Option E is the correct answer. This is the law of causality, which states that change can take place only after understanding nature.
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