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Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Mechanical Engineering MCQ


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15 Questions MCQ Test General Aptitude for GATE - Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3

Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 for Mechanical Engineering 2024 is part of General Aptitude for GATE preparation. The Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 questions and answers have been prepared according to the Mechanical Engineering exam syllabus.The Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 MCQs are made for Mechanical Engineering 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 below.
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Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 1

Suppose that America adopted a single-term political system. Considering the foreign observers mentioned in the passage. how would they be expected to respond to such a development? 

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 1

Mapping the Passage
¶1 introduces the idea of a single presidential term.
¶2 argues that the single term is usually associated with countries with weak political parties and therefore popular when political parties are weak.
¶s3 and 4 argue that single-term systems encourage corruption.
¶5 argues that the single-term system is designed to make up for weak parties, but ends up making parties even weaker.

Go back to ¶5 to review what foreign observers say: they argue that fixed elections are a bad idea; elections should be held any time. Would a single-term system address this concern, work against it, or have no effect? Since the current terms are four years, and the single term would be six years, elections would be held less frequently, which would further irritate the foreign observers who consider democracy dependent on elections-on-demand. (B) fits.

Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 2

According to the passage, which of the following is most likely to be true of a political system with weak political parties? 

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 2

Mapping the Passage
¶1 introduces the idea of a single presidential term.
¶2 argues that the single term is usually associated with countries with weak political parties and therefore popular when political parties are weak.
¶s3 and 4 argue that single-term systems encourage corruption.
¶5 argues that the single-term system is designed to make up for weak parties, but ends up making parties even weaker.

What does the author say about weak political parties? They lead to a preference for single terms, which, when enacted, lead to corruption. Evaluate the choices with this main chain of causes and effects in mind. While three choices aren‘t touched on by the author, (C) is the main point made in ¶3 and the beginning of ¶ 4: single-term systems encourage individual bargains (which ultimately lead to corruption.)

Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 3

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author‘s claim about single-term political systems?  

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 3

Mapping the Passage
¶1 introduces the idea of a single presidential term.
¶2 argues that the single term is usually associated with countries with weak political parties and therefore popular when political parties are weak.
¶s3 and 4 argue that single-term systems encourage corruption.
¶5 argues that the single-term system is designed to make up for weak parties, but ends up making parties even weaker.

What is the author‘s main argument for avoiding the single-term system? It leads to corruption. Looking for something that would weaken this argument turns up (B), which contradicts the author‘s main reason for avoiding the single-term system.

Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 4

In the context of the passage, the phrase "age-old debate" (line 31) refers to:  

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 4

Mapping the Passage
¶1 argues that the universe had a beginning in time.
¶2 provides specific dates to put the universe‘s age in context.
¶3 describes the Big Bang and its relevance to the idea of an expanding universe.
¶4 argues that the expanding universe has significant implications for cultural ideas of time and argues that science intersects with philosophy in this area.
¶5 provides a metaphor that elucidates the nature of the universe‘s expansion.

What is the ―age-old debate‖ discussed at the end of ¶4? Read the previous lines for clues: astronomers are involved in a ―theological discussion‖ which involves the idea of a Creator. (A) summarizes this point in ¶4.

Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 5

According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true?  

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 5

Mapping the Passage
¶1 argues that the universe had a beginning in time.
¶2 provides specific dates to put the universe‘s age in context.
¶3 describes the Big Bang and its relevance to the idea of an expanding universe.
¶4 argues that the expanding universe has significant implications for cultural ideas of time and argues that science intersects with philosophy in this area.
¶5 provides a metaphor that elucidates the nature of the universe‘s expansion.

Review the gist of the passage and keep the author‘s main points in mind while evaluating the choices. Three of the choices match points the author makes, but (B) directly contradicts the time frames mentioned in ¶2, which indicate that the solar system is much younger than the universe itself. Note that your research for question 4 helps you here.

Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 6

Why does the author compare the universe to a motion picture?  

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 6

Mapping the Passage
¶1 argues that the universe had a beginning in time.
¶2 provides specific dates to put the universe‘s age in context.
¶3 describes the Big Bang and its relevance to the idea of an expanding universe.
¶4 argues that the expanding universe has significant implications for cultural ideas of time and argues that science intersects with philosophy in this area.
¶5 provides a metaphor that elucidates the nature of the universe‘s expansion.

Go back to the comparison to a motion picture described in ¶1. What is the author‘s purpose in the first paragraph? To argue that the universe had a beginning
in time. The comparison is used to reinforce this point: (A) reflects this.

Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 7

According to the passage, which of the following statements is/are NOT true?  

I. Most maps produced before the 18th century are not as accurate as maps produced after the 18th century.  

II. The maps of Claudius Ptolemy were not used as a model by later mapmakers.

III. Historians have generally been uninterested in using maps as a tool to learn about the past. 

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 7

Mapping the Passage
¶1 states that maps are valuable to historical research.
¶2 discusses the various traits of old maps and ways of studying them.
¶3 and 4 describe the value of old maps in relation to how much information they provide.
¶5 provides some examples of maps useful to the study of historical geography and describes the transition from pre-modern to modern maps.

Don‘t start with RN I to answer this question! It appears in only one choice and so isn‘t a time-effective starting point. RN II appears in three choices, so start there. RN II directly contradicts the author‘s point in ¶4 that Ptolemy‘s maps served as templates for other maps for centuries. Eliminate (B). RN III contradicts the main point of the passage: historians are interested in maps as historical tools. Since RNs II and III are both untrue, only choice (D) is possible. Though there‘s no need to check RN I, it can be verified as true by looking at the main point of the last paragraph.

Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 8

With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?  

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 8

Mapping the Passage
¶1 states that maps are valuable to historical research.
¶2 discusses the various traits of old maps and ways of studying them.
¶3 and 4 describe the value of old maps in relation to how much information they provide.
¶5 provides some examples of maps useful to the study of historical geography and describes the transition from pre-modern to modern maps.

There‘s not much to go on in the passage by way of opinion, but even a simple prediction can yield fast results. What is the author‘s main point? Old maps have historical value. Scanning the answer choices with even this broad prediction immediately turns up (A), which states much the same thing.

 

Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 9

According to the passage, all of the following would be considered maps EXCEPT:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 9

Mapping the Passage
¶1 states that maps are valuable to historical research.
¶2 discusses the various traits of old maps and ways of studying them.
¶3 and 4 describe the value of old maps in relation to how much information they provide.
¶5 provides some examples of maps useful to the study of historical geography and describes the transition from pre-modern to modern maps.

The ―according to the passage opening tips you off that this is a detail question, and consequently, that we‘re only looking for types of maps supported by examples in the passage. While three of the maps deal with geographic features similar to those the author touches on in the passage, a star chart wouldn‘t have anything to do with the author‘s idea of maps as something representing terrestrial features.

Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 10

According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT false?  

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 10

¶1 states that people do things they otherwise wouldn‘t when so ordered by authority.
¶2 argues that psychological studies have to take into account the practical aspects of obedience in addition to theoretical ideas.
¶3 suggests that laboratory-tested obedience effectively highlights these practical aspects.
¶4 says that obedience is influenced by fear and the desire to cooperate, and that the individual obeying has trouble controlling his own behaviour.
¶5 expands on the point in ¶4: the laboratory can effectively simulate real-world conditions that lead to obedience.

Review the main points in the map, and read the stem carefully: you‘re looking for something that‘s not false, i.e., that is true. While three choices don‘t follow from the passage, (D) summarizes the point made in ¶3 that the lab is a good place to study obedience.

Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 11

In the context of the points being made by the author in the passage, the phrase ―absence of compulsion‖ (line 30) refers to: 

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 11

In the passage, the author discusses the different factors that influence obedience, including the presence or absence of compulsion. The phrase "absence of compulsion" refers to a situation where obedience is not compelled by fear or the threat of force or punishment. Instead, it is colored by a cooperative mood, and individuals willingly give obedience to their superiors. This is supported by the statement in the passage that "to the degree that an absence of compulsion is present, obedience is colored by a cooperative mood." Therefore, option 2) is the correct answer.

Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 12

Which of the following findings would serve to most WEAKEN the author‘s claim in the passage about obedience to authority?  

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 12

¶1 states that people do things they otherwise wouldn‘t when so ordered by authority.
¶2 argues that psychological studies have to take into account the practical aspects of obedience in addition to theoretical ideas.
¶3 suggests that laboratory-tested obedience effectively highlights these practical aspects.
¶4 says that obedience is influenced by fear and the desire to cooperate, and that the individual obeying has trouble controlling his own behaviour.
¶5 expands on the point in ¶4: the laboratory can effectively simulate real-world conditions that lead to obedience.

What is the author‘s main argument about obedience? People do things they don‘t want to do because they feel compelled to by authority. Look for something that challenges this point: If (C) is true, the author‘s point about not wanting to do things, most clearly expressed in ¶1, makes no sense. If people have no strong ethical values, then bad actions wouldn't necessarily be against their will.

Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 13

A claim that things have ethical value to corporations only insofar as they are instrumental in furthering the ultimate goals of the corporation is:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 13

Mapping the Passage
¶1 discusses the goals and ethical limitations of corporations (3M example)
¶2 explains methods for making corporations respond to moral concerns.
¶3 contrasts the corporations with individuals and outlines some individual ethics.
¶4 asks if corporations can be held responsible for ethical crimes. ¶s5 and 6 describe a failed attempt to prosecute a corporation for such crimes (Pinto).
¶7 presents a possible argument in favour of prosecution: deterrence. Evidence shows no deterring effect on corporations, though.

The author argues that this is true, and gives an example in ¶s1 and 2. (C) and (D) can be eliminated. Does this argument have to necessarily be true? There‘s nothing in the argument to indicate that there could never be an exception. (B) is the only choice left standing.

Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 14

If a company that produced shampoo products opted to stop the routine testing of its products on animals because it decided that it is wrong to cause the animals pain, what effect would this have on the argument made in the passage?  

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 14

The correct answer is D. It would support the argument somewhat, but not conclusively.
The argument in the passage is that corporations are primarily goal-directed and focused on maximizing profits, growth, and survival. They are not inherently concerned with ethical considerations unless it directly affects their profitability.

If a company decides to stop routine animal testing because it believes it is wrong to cause animals pain, it does show that the company is considering ethical concerns. However, this decision alone does not conclusively prove that corporations can acknowledge acts as wrong in and of themselves. It could be argued that the company made this decision because it believes it will enhance its reputation and attract more customers who are concerned about animal welfare. Therefore, while it does support the argument to some extent, it does not provide conclusive evidence.

Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 15

Which of the following assertions would most strengthen the author‘s claim that deterrence will not work on corporations?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Reading Comprehension- 3 - Question 15

Mapping the Passage
¶1 discusses the goals and ethical limitations of corporations (3M example)
¶2 explains methods for making corporations respond to moral concerns.
¶3 contrasts the corporations with individuals and outlines some individual ethics.
¶4 asks if corporations can be held responsible for ethical crimes.
¶s5 and 6 describe a failed attempt to prosecute a corporation for such crimes (Pinto).
¶7 presents a possible argument in favour of prosecution: deterrence. Evidence shows
no deterring effect on corporations, though.

A strengthen question. Quickly paraphrase the author‘s reasons for claiming (in the last paragraph) that deterrence won‘t work: companies will just treat it as an economic consideration like any other. Search for a choice that reflects this. Only (B) has to do with economics! Further, it reinforces the idea that companies will shrug off potential penalties that have little economic consequence.

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