Sample Test: Biology

40 Questions MCQ Test NEET Mock Test Series | Sample Test: Biology

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The taxonomic unit ‘Phylum’ in the classification of animal is equivalent to which hierarchical level in classification of plants:

  • Classes comprising animals like fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds along mammals constitute the next higher category called Phylum.
    All these classes are included in the phylum Chordata.
  • In the case of plants, classes with a few similar characters are assigned to a higher category called Division.

Classification of taxonomical unit:
The taxonomic unit 'Phylum' in the classification of animals is equivalent  to which hierarchical level in classification of plants from Biology The  Living World Class 11 Haryana Board - English Medium


All living organisms are linked to one another because:


All living organisms share common genetic material, i.e., DNA but with variations.
Example: Bacteria have single-stranded circular DNA while in highly evolved eukaryotic cells of plants and animals, DNA is a long double-stranded helix.


Viruses are non-cellular organisms but replicate themselves once they infect the host cell. To which of the following kingdom do viruses belong to?

  • Viruses did not find a place in classification since they are not truly ‘living’ if we understand living as those organisms that have a cell structure.
  • Viruses are neither prokaryotes nor eukaryotes.
  • They are inert outside their specific host cell and cannot multiply of their own because they lack cellular machinery to use its genetic material.
  • Viruses can only multiply in host or living cell.

Members of Phycomycetes are found in:
(i) Aquatic habitats
(ii) On decaying wood
(iii) Moist and damp places
(iv) As obligate parasites on plants

Choose from the following options.

  • Phycomycetes are the members of fungi that can thrive well on dead and decaying wood as saprophytes.
  • These prefer to live in moist and damp places and need water for the movement of zoospore and sexual gametes and few members of Phycomycetes are obligate parasites like Phytophthora.

A dicotyledonous plant bears flowers but never produces fruits and Seeds. The most probable cause for the above situation is:

  • Fruits can develop from a single ovary of a single flower (simple fruit) or from several free carpels of a single flower (aggregate) or from whole inflorescence (multiple). In total, fruits develop from ovaries.
  • This is why a dioecious plant (unisexual) bearing only staminate(male) flowers will not produce fruits, whereas monoecious plants (bisexual) or dioecious plant bearing only pistillate (female) flowers or pistillate and staminate both can bear fruits.

Types of flower:Anim Agriculture Technology: Monoecious and Dioecious Plants


The outermost and innermost wall layers of microsporangium in an anther are respectively:


A typical microsporangium is generally surrounded by four-wall layers, i.e., the epidermis, (outermost protective layer), endothecia, (middle fibrous layers), and the tapetum (innermost nutritive layer).

Microsporangium of Anther:
The Microsporangium & the Male Gametophyte : Plantlet


Starting from the innermost part, the correct sequence of parts in an ovule is:


The correct sequence of parts in an ovule is (innermost to outermost):

Egg - Embryo sac - Nucellus - Integument

Draw the structure of an ovule and label its parts.


Autogamy can occur in a chasmogamous flower if:

  • Autogamy is pollination within a flower. Chasmogamous flowers are those in which anthers and stigma are exposed.
  • For autogamy, in such a flower to take place, pollen and ovule should mature simultaneously and anther and stigma should lie close to each other.

A particular species of plant produces light, non sticky pollen in large numbers and its stigma are long and feathery. These modifications facilitate pollination by

  • Pollination by wind is called anemophily.
  • Anemophilous flowers are small, inconspicuous non-scented without bright colours, nectar and fragrance.
  • Wind pollination also requires that the pollen grains are light and non-sticky which is in large numbers and its stigmas are long and feathery.

From among the situations given below, choose the one that Prevents autogamy and geitonogamy

  • Autogamy (same flower)
  • Geitonogamy (different flowers of same plants)
  • Xenogamy (different plant’s flower)

Dioecious plant bearing only male or female flowers prevents both autogamy and geitonogamy.


All genes located on the same chromosome:

  • All the genes located on the same chromosome form one linkage group.
  • A linkage group can be defined as all the genes on a single chromosome that move as a unit during the cell division.
  • These genes do not tend to separate, until the crossing-over and if the distance between them is very less, they will not undergo the crossing-over.
  • Examples: Human beings have 23 linkage groups due to 23 pairs of chromosomes.

The Formation of Recombinant Chromosomes via Crossing Over:
10.2 Dihybrid Crosses and Gene Linkage | BioNinja


Mycorrhiza does not help the host plant in:


Mycorrhiza helps the host plant in:

  • Enhancing its phosphorus uptake capacity,
  • In increasing its tolerance to drought.
  • Some chemicals which resist the pathogen like Fusarium.

So, the correct option is 'increasing its resistance to insects'


Person having genotype IA IB would show the blood group as AB. This is because of:


Both genes are equally expressed hence its co-dominance.


A cross between two tall Plants resulted in offspring having few dwarf plants. What would be the genotypes of both the parents?


Tt and Tt let's use Mendel's cross of tall and dwarf pea plants as an example. The F1 plants of genotype Tt are self-pollinated. (both tall (T) but with dwarf (t) alleles).

  • The letters T and t are used to represent the alleles of the gene that determine plant height by conventions.
  • The upper case letter (T) represents the dominant allele and the recessive allele (t) is represented by the same letter in lower case. Thus, the tall parents plants having heterozygous alleles, results in off springs which comprises of both tall and dwarf plants.
  • For the parental cross, both the parents are true breeding plants, the tall plant is homozygous for the tall allele T, while the dwarf plant is homozygous for the dwarf allele 't'.
  • Mendel tracked each trait through two generations. When true breeding plants were crossed to each other, this is called a parental cross and offspring comprise the first filial or F1 -generation.
  • When the members of the F1 - generation were crossed, this produced the F2 - generation or second filial generation.
  • A cross between true breeding tall and dwarf plants of the parent generation yield phenotypically tall plants.
  • The cross between TT and Tt is called back cross, which results into two homozygous and two heterozygous dominant gametes.
  • The cross between Tt and tt is called testcross which results into 1:1 ratio of gametes.

In a dihybrid cross, if you get 9:3:3:1 ratio it denotes that:

  • Cross involving two contrasting characters is called dihybrid cross.
  • The two flowers of each trait assort at random and independent of their traits at the time of meiosis (gametogenesis) and get randomly as well as independently rearranged in the offspring producing both parental and new combinations of traits.
  • This explained the law of independent assortment given by Mendel.


Mendel’s law of independent assortment always holds good for genes situated on the:

  • Mendal's Law of independent assortment tells us that the pairs of the alleles get separated when the gametes are being formed which means the traits or characters that are being transferred to the offspring are independent.
  • Now the non-homologous chromosomes are different from each other completely and they do not take part in crossing-over.

Relationship between Chromosomes and chromatids:


Occasionally, a single gene may express more than one effect. The phenomenon is called:

  • Occasionally, a single gene may express more than one trait. This phenomenon is called pleiotropy.
  • Sometimes, one trait will be very evident and others will be less evident,
    Example: A gene for white eye in Drosophila also affect the shape of organs in male responsible for sperm storage as well as other structures.
  • Similarly, sickle-cell anemic individuals suffer from a number of problems, all of which are pleiotropic effects of the sickle-cell alleles.
  • Multiple allelism is a series of three or more alternative or allelic forms of a gene, only two of which can exist in any normal diploid individual,
    Example: Genes of blood groups in humans. Mosaicism describes the occurrence of cells that differ in their genetic component from other cells of the body.
  • Polygeny refers to a single characteristic that is controlled by more than two genes. (it is also known as multifactorial inheritance).

Pleiotropy | BioNinja


In the F2 generation of a Mendelian dihybrid cross, the number of Phenotypes and genotypes are:


In the F2 generation of a Mendelian dihybrid cross, the number of phenotypes and genotypes are 4, 9 respectively.


In a DNA Strand, the nucleotides are linked together by:


Two nucleotides are linked through 3 → 5 phosphodiester linkage to form a dinucleotide. More nucleotides are joined in a similar manner to form a polynucleotide chain.


A male human is heterozygous for autosomal genes A and B. He is also hemizygous for hemophilic gene h. What proportion of sperms will carry abh.


Heterozygous for A and B ;Hemizygous for h.
Therefore the genotype would be:
AaBbXh Y
(hemizygous for h as in for human males can only fall on X)
(hemizygous for female would be Xh X)
All the kinds of gametes you can get with this,,,
but they are asking for portion of abXh..
Therefore its 1 / 8
So, the correct answer is '1 / 8'. 


The antrum is filled with fluid and is found in:

  • During oogenesis, each primary oocyte gets surrounded by a layer of granulosa cells and then called the primary follicle.
  • The primary follicles get surrounded by more layers of granulosa cells and a new theca and called secondary follicles.
  • The secondary follicle soon transforms into a mature tertiary follicle or Graafian follicle, which is characterized by a fluid-filled cavity, called an antrum. 

So, the correct answer is 'Graafian follicle of ovary'

Graffian Follicle | Basement membrane, Pie chart, Biology


Ester linkages occur in:


Lipids are actually triglycerides .a triglyceride consist of glycerol and fatty acids which are held together by Ester linkages in condensation reaction releasing three water molecules.


Two kingdom classification was established by:

  • Carolus Linnaeus was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist who created the binomial nomenclature.
  • In this system, every kind of animal and plant is given a name consisting of two Latin words, for its genus and species.

What is the main function of prostomium in earthworm?


Earthworms use the prostomium to see their environment, as earthworms have no eyes, ears, nose or hands. They depend on the prostomium and skin to help it feel their way through the soil.


What is the principal role of white blood cells in humans?

  • WBC helps in immunity.
  • The main job of white blood cells, or leukocytes, is to fight infection.
  • There are several types of white blood cells and each has its own role in fighting bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections.

Nucleus is the site of:


In nucleus, there is a region called nucleolus there will be the synthesis of r-RNA.


Classification of chromosomes with regards to shape based on:


Classification of chromosomes is based on position of middle part of centre of chromosome which is known as centromere.


Chromosome with centromere slightly away from center is known as:


Sub-metacentric chromosome or submedian centromere: The centromere is present slightly away from the center of a chromosome or nearer to one end of the chromosome. As a result, the chromosome is divided into one shorter and one long arm.

Types of chromosomes:
Help me please, The shorter and longer arm of a sub-metacentric chromosomes  are referred as:


Macro molecule chitin is

  • Chitin is a long-chain polymer of a N-acetylglucosamine.
  • It is a nitrogen containing polysaccharide and a derivative of glucose.
  • It is a characteristic component of the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans and insects, the radulae of molluscs, and the beaks and internal shells of cephalopods, including squid and octopuses.

The essential chemical components of many coenzymes are:


Essential chemical components of many coenzymes are vitamins,
Example: Coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and NADP contain the vitamin niacin.


Where do certain symbiotic microorganisms normally occur in human body?


Caecum, a part of the large intestine, is a small blind sac that hosts some symbiotic micro-organisms which help in the synthesis of Vitamin - B12 and helps in digestion.

Gastrointestinal tract 5: the anatomy and functions of the large intestine  | Nursing Times


Argentaffin cells in human beings are found in:


Argentaffin cells are located in deep parts of principal (fundic) glands found in the fundus part of stomach. These cells secrete gastrin, motilin, serotonin, somatostatin, histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine.


Which of the following is is true about Inspiratory capacity:


Inspiratoty Capacity (IC) is volume of air a person can inspire after a normal expiration. This includes tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume (TV+IRV). 


The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is:

  • Normally, an increased concentration of carbon dioxide is the strongest stimulus to breathe more deeply and more frequently.
  • Conversely, when the carbon dioxide concentration in the blood is low, the brain decreases the frequency and depth of breaths.

When we breathe in, we inhale many gases, including oxygen, What happens to the gases that the body can’t use?


When we inhale, many gases are present in air, as the saying goes, the air we inhale includes oxygen carbon dioxide etc, when we exhale, the gases that is not needed will be released.


The cells involved in inflammatory reactions are

  • The blood cells are of three major types they are erythrocytes(RBC), leucocytes(WBC) and platelets.
  • Two main categories of WBCs are granulocytes and agranulocytes.
  • Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are different types of granulocytes, while lymphocytes and monocytes are the agranulocytes.
  • When basophils are encountered with allergin they release histamine which causes increased blood flow to damaged tissues, resulting in swelling and inflammation.

Hence blood cells involved in inflammatory reactions are Basophils.


The heart sound (lubb) is associated with the closure of:

  • The first heart sound (lubb) is associated with the closure of tricuspid and bicuspid valves.
  • The second heart sound (dupp) is associated with the closure of the semilunar valves.

What would be the cardiac output of a person having 72 heart beats per minute and a stroke volume of 50 ml?

  • The cardiac output of a person is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume and the heart rate.
  • Hence, to alter a person’s cardiac output both the stroke volume and the heart rate can be altered.
  • So, the cardiac output of a person having 72 heart beats per minute and a stroke volume of 50 mL would be 72 x 50 = 3600 mL.

Vasa recta is:

  • Thin-walled blood vessels that branch from the efferent arterioles leaving each glomerulus in the vertebrate kidney.
  • The vasa recta form U-shaped loops adjacent to the loop of Henle and eventually drain into the renal vein.

​Renal blood supply:
Explain the function of the vasa recta class 10 biology CBSE


Bone has a very hard matrix due to the presence of:


The hardness and rigidity of bone is due to the presence of mineral salt in the osteoid matrix, which is a crystalline complex of calcium and phosphate (hydroxyapatite).

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