Water is absorbed by
Plants absorb water from the soil by osmosis. Root hair cells are adapted for this by having a large surface area to speed up osmosis. The absorbed water is transported through the rootsto the rest of the plant where it is used for different purposes: It is a reactant used in photosynthesis.
“Lily family” is
The lily family, Liliaceae, consists of about 15 genera and about 705 known species of flowering plants within the order Liliales. They are monocotyledonous, perennial, herbaceous, often bulbous geophytes. Plants in this family have evolved with a fair amount of morphological diversity despite genetic similarity.
“Awn” present in family
In botany an awn is either hair or bristle like appendage on a large structure , or in the case of asteraceae ,a stiff needle like element of pappus . Awns are characteristics of various plants families, including geraniacea and many grass (poaceae)
Urtica dioica is
Urtica diocia is nettles. It is a dioecious, herbaceous, perennial plant, having widely spreading rhizomes and stolons. In addition it produces inflammatory reactions on skin by biochemical irritants, such as, histamine, serotonin and choline.
Which of the following cell organelle can be viewed by a light microscope?
Thus, light microscopes allow one to visualize cells and their larger components such as nuclei, nucleoli, secretory granules, lysosomes, and large mitochondria.
Fruit of “love grass” & “spear grass” are dispersed by
love grass and spear grass are provided with stiff hairs curved backwards . So that they stick easily to animals
In Abrus and Pea the fruit disperses its seeds through
Because fabaceae plants have special type of dispersion called piston mechanism
The distinguishing character of imparipinnate leaf is that
Imparipinnate leaf is the pinnately compound leaf in which it has long terminal leaflet rather than a pair of leaflet and that terminal leaflet is called old pinnate or old leaf.
Pitcher (Nepenthes sp.) are formed from
Epiodium is leaf lamina. in nepenthes ,the pitcher is modified leaf lamina.This help the plant to pray insect and fulfill its nitrogen requirement
Stone cell is present in
Stone cell which is a type of scleroids provide rigidity to plant parts.it is present in Psidium sp. & Pear
Which is correct?
a) Argemone – axile,
b) China rose – free central,
c) Lemon – axile,
d) mustard – parietal.
“Bhojpatra” is obtained from
Bhojpatra is derived from Betula utilis.
Para rubber associated with
The para rubber tree is originated in Brazil. Its latex extracted from the tree’s trunk is a major source of natural rubber, which is obtained from vessel
Tunica corpus theory is connected with
Tunica-Corpus Theory: Schmidt in 1924 postulated tunica- corpus theory on the basis of studies of shoot apices of angiosperm. This theory is concerned with planes of cell division in the apex. In contrast to apical cell theory and histogen theory tunica-corpus theory is applicable only to shoot apex and not to root.
Root cap derived from
A fourth histogen, the calyptrogen, produces the root cap. The histogens have been thought to lie in linear order in the apex, with the initial cells of the vascular system toward the older part of the root, and those of the cap toward the tip.
Roots developed from parts of the plant other than radicle are called
Some roots, called adventitious roots, arise from an organ other than the root—usually a stem, sometimes a leaf. They are especially numerous on underground stems, such as rhizomes, corms, and tubers, and make it possible to vegetatively propagate many plants from stem or leaf cuttings.
Angiosperm without xylem vessel is
Here only utricularia is angiosperm
Dryopterris is pteridophyte
Gnetum and taxus are gymnosperms
Spring wood always with
The xylem formed during the spring season contains numerous large vessels with wider lumen and possess less amount fibres. So, it acquires a greater radial width than the summer wood. The xylem formed during the summer and autumn season is very less amount since the activity of the cambium is highly reduced.
Plasma membrane is made up of
All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane. The membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer arranged back-to-back. The membrane is also covered in places with cholesterol molecules and proteins. The plasma membrane is selectively permeable and regulates which molecules are allowed to enter and exit the cell.
Desmosomes are concerned with
Desmosomes (macula adherens) consists of intercellular thrckening matedals, disc-shaped intracellular thickening adjacent to each membrane with tonofibrils. These act as intercellular cementing material, adhere cells together at places like spot welding.
Transformation of membrane is the function of
Morphological and biochemical studies indicate that plasma membranes (PM) are derived from nuclear membranes (NM) or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the Golgi apparatus (GA) by a process of membrane flow and differentiation.According to this concept, membranes are transferred and transformed along a chain of cell components in a subcellular developmental pathway.
Cell wall is rigid because of
A hemicellulose (also known as polyose) is a heteropolymer (matrix polysaccharide), such as arabinoxylans, present along with cellulose in almost all plant cell walls.While cellulose is crystalline, strong, and resistant to hydrolysis, hemicellulose has a random, amorphous structure with little strength. It is easily hydrolyzed by dilute acid or base as well as a myriad of hemicellulase enzymes.
One of the following membrane system is considered to be extension of infolded plasma membrane
“Zone of exclusion” is associated with
An exclusion zone is a territorial division established for various case specific purposes. Per the United States Department of Defense, an exclusion zone is a territory where sanctioning body prohibits specific activities in a specific geographic area (see Military exclusion zone).
GERL complex is associated with
The formation of new lysosomes is depend on gogli body and golgi body synthesise depend upon endoplasmic reticulam. So this chain is called GERL complex
What is nucleolar organizer
Nucleolar organizers are secondary construction within the mitotic chromosome of eukaryotes . Primary constriction occur at centromere . Nucleolar organizers give rise to Nucleolus in telophase of mitosis . During late telophase , RNA polymerase I being to transcribe rRNA gene once again , & newly synthesized rRNA likely nucleates the assembly of nucleolus by recruiting pre nuclear bodies to the transcription site.
Synaptonemal complex appears during
The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a protein structure that forms between homologous chromosomes (two pairs of sister chromatids) during meiosis and is thought to mediate chromosome pairing, synapsis, and recombination.
The interphase between meiosis I and II, when present, is called
Telophase I, is followed by an interphase, called interkinesis, similar to the mitoticinter phase. During interkinesis the chromatin is partially uncoiled; however, there is no replication of the genetic material, because each chromosome already consists of two chromatids.
Terminalisation occurs during
The two homologous chromosomes do not completely separate but remain attached together at one or more points as indicated by X arrangements known as Chiasmata.The displacement of Chiasmata is termed as terminalization.Terminalization is completed in Diakinesis stage.
Chromosomes counting is best done during
Because during metaphase, all the chromosomes lined up on the metaphase plate and further proceeding anaphase. So it is easy to count them at that stage by counting the number of functional centromere. Because the number of chromosomes = count the number of functional centromere.
Lampbrush chromosomes found in the oocytes of amphibians are seen in
Lampbrush chromosomes are a special form of chromosome found in the growing oocytes (immature eggs) of most animals, except mammals. They were first described by Walther Flemming in 1882. Lampbrush chromosomes of tailed and tailless amphibians, birds and insects are described best of all.
Which is the CORRECT order of phases ?
Prophase I is divided into five sub-phases: leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene and diakinesis. Another sub-phase called preleptonema is sometimes recognized prior to leptonema.
Nucleoproteins are synthesised in
Nucleoproteins are the conjugated proteins. These include ribonucleoproteins and occur in ribosomes. Deoxyribonucleoproteins occur in chromosomes.All proteins are formed in cytoplasm
Triglycerides on hydrolysis yield
Triglycerides (fats) can be hydrolyzed to produce glycerol and 3 fatty acids in the presence of acid and heat or with a suitable lipase enzyme under biological conditions.
An acidic amino acid is
Aspartic acid and glutamic acid are amino acids that have an additional carboxyl group that can release a proton and acquire a negative charge at the pH of body fluids.
The structure for hemoglobin is very similar to myoglobin except that it has a quaternary structure due to the presence of four protein chain subunits.Each protein chain subunit contains a heme group with the iron attached. Each hemoglobin molecule can bind to a total of four oxygen molecules.
The end product glucose -6- phosphate causes _________ of allosteric enzymes hexokinase.
It inhibits hexokinase from allosteric site and this process is known as competitive inhibition.
The ovary is half inferior in flowers of
The ovary here is said to be half inferior, i.e, plum rose, peach, etc. If gynoecium is situated in the centre and other parts of the flowers are located on the rim of the thalamus almost at the same level, it is called perigynous. The ovary here is said to be half inferior, i.e, plum rose, peach, etc.
Mycolic acid occurs in the wall of
mycolic acids are found in the wall of mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium leprae and rhodococcus(Actinomycetes)
The number of fatty acids present in a molecule of phospholipid is
The structure of the phospholipid molecule generally consists of two hydrophobic fatty acid "tails" and a hydrophilic "head" consisting of a phosphate group. The two components are joined together by a glycerol molecule.
An apoenzyme is a
The protienous part of an enzyme is known as apoenzyme.
Active site of an enzyme is formed of
Active site of an enzyme is formed of R - group of selected amino acid Because R - group of amino acid is variable part of amino acid . Which make bond with substrate & weaken the bond of substrate & form products .
Substrate concentration at which an enzyme attains half its maximum velocity is
A small Km indicates that the enzyme requires only a small amount of substrate to become saturated. Hence, the maximum velocity is reached at relatively low substrate concentrations. A large Km indicates the need for high substrate concentrations to achieve maximum reaction velocity.
The term meiosis was introduced by
Meiosis was discovered and described for the first time in sea urchin eggs in 1876 by the German biologist Oscar Hertwig. It was described again in 1883, at the level of chromosomes, by the Belgian zoologist Edouard Van Beneden, in Ascaris roundworm eggs.The term meiosis was introduced by Farmer and Moore
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum synthesis
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is especially prominent in cells such as hepatocytes. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes and functions in lipid synthesisand metabolism, the production of steroid hormones, and detoxification. The smooth ER is especially abundant in mammalian liver and gonad cells.
Neurilemma is the name for
Axon is sorrounded by sheath called (neurolemma) of special connective tissue called Schwann cell and ensheathed axon is called nerve fibre
Which of the following tissues has the minimum intercellular matrix?
In science, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular atoms emitted by cells that give auxiliary and biochemical help to the encompassing cells. Bones in our body are living tissue.
The camel’s hump is composed of a tissue which provides water when oxidized. It is
The animals in the Arctic and Antarctic lives there because of their layers of blubber, which is adipose tissue. The camel's hump is not a water storage organ but a thick hump of fat containing adipose tissue to protect the animal's internal organ from the heat of the desert.
If a tendon gets ossified to form bone, such type of bone is called
Although the hyoid bone is free-floating, it is not technically a sesamoid bone. All sesamoid bones form directly from the connective tissue found in tendons and ligaments. By contrast, the hyoid bone forms from a cartilaginous precursor like most other bones in the body.
Match the following column I with II
1) Oxyntic cell (parietal cell): secrete HCl.
2) Goblet cell secret mucus
3) Chief cell secret prorennin and pepsinogen both are proenzyme
4) Hepatic cell secret Bile.
Pancreatic juice rich in water and electrolytes but poor in enzymes is secreted in response to
Secretin enzyme stimulates the acinar cells of pancreas to secrete water and bicarbonate in pancreatic ducts that drain into the duodenum.
Total gastrectomy may lead to
Iron deficiency anemia develops because removal of the stomach often leads to a marked decrease in the production of gastric acid.
If the bile-pancreatic duct is blocked, the following will NOT be affected
Level of blood glucose, because it's controlled by INSULIN hormone and it's released into blood vessels or near tissue and bile-pancreatic duct is not affected insulin level.
An adult person consumers boiled potato. Mark the correct statement regarding the digestion of food components
Cellulose can't be digested in human body.Starch will be digested. Lactase has no effect on carbohydrates.So , the last option is correct. DNA of the potato will be digested by DNAse enzyme
Humans can synthesis following vitamins
Humans can produce some vitamins from precursors they consume: for example, vitamin A is synthesized from beta carotene; and niacin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan.
When exposed to the sun, your skin can manufacture its own vitamin D.
The chloride content of RBC will be higher than that of plasma in
While RBC is in systemic veins and pulmonary arteries, carrying some amount of CO2, the chloride ion is present in the RBC as a result of Haldane's effect/ Chloride shift effect. Hence, in systemic veins and pulmonary arteries the RBC have higher chloride ion concentration
Byssinosis is an occupational lung disease which may occur in
Byssinosis is an occupational lung disease that primarily affects workers in cotton processing, hemp or flax industries. Other names for byssinosis include Monday fever, brown lung disease, mill fever or cotton workers' lung.
If the volume of CO2 liberated during respiration is more than the volume of O2 used, the respiratory substrate will be
This is because a respiratory quotient (RQ) for Organic acids is more than one. fats and proteins have RQ less than 1. While carbohydrate have RQ = 1
RQ = (volume of CO2 evolved)÷(volume of O2 required)
Deoxyhemoglobin binds with more H than oxyhaemoglobin does. It is described by
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction. The active site consists of residues that form temporary bonds with the substrate (binding site) and residues that catalyse a reaction of that substrate (catalytic site).
If the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curves of maternal and foetal haemoglobin are compared, the foetal curve will be on
As you know that efficiency of foetal RBC will be more then adults. So even at low pO2 (as compared to adults) %age of saturation will be high. So graph will move to left and sigmoid
First sound of heart beat is lower frequency and longer duration. It develops during
First heart sound is LUBB, produced at the beginning of ventricular systole due to closing of tricuspid and bicuspid valve and it is a dull sound for long period while second heart sound is DUPP produced at the beginning of ventricular diastole due to closing of semilunar valves and it is sharp sound for short period
Effect of acetylcholine on heart is
Acteyline choline is synthesis from parasymphatatic nervous system which decrease the action potantial of SA node . And sympathetic nero is system synthesis nonephinephrine which increase the heart rate . Increase of hart rate is called Tachycardia and decrease in heart rate is called Bradycardia.
Systemic heart refers to
Because systemic heart refers to systemic circulation of blood. Which is done only through the left auricles and left ventricles combine effort.
Heart block is an abnormal heart rhythm where the heart beats too slowly (bradycardia ). In this condition, the electrical signals that tell the heart to contract are partially or totally blocked between the upper chambers (atria) and the lower chambers (ventricles).
Following blood vessels help in regulating the blood pressure and the amount of blood flowing to the tissue
Blood is pumped from the ventricles into large elastic arteries that branch repeatedly into smaller and smaller arteries until the branching results in microscopic arteries called arterioles. The arterioles play a key role in regulating blood flow into the tissue capillaries. About 10 percent of the total blood volume is in the systemic arterial system at any given time.
In ECG the elevation of ST-segment indicates
ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is the term cardiologists use to describe a classic heart attack. It is one type of myocardial infarction in which a part of the heart muscle (myocardium) has died due to the obstruction of blood supply to the area.
The net pressure gradient that causes the fluid to filter out of the glomeruli in the capsule is
Net filtration pressure is the dynamic equilibrium force, which is measured in the capsular space of the renal corpuscle, which determines how much water and small dissolved solutes leave the blood in the glomerulus. This movement depends on the interaction of a set of four forces: glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure (GBHP= 70mm Hg), capsular hydrostatic pressure (CHP= 20 mm Hg), blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP= 30 mm Hg). NFP = GBHP - (CHP + BCOP); NFP is 20 mm Hg.
Which of the following pressure-change leads to an increased G.F.R.
Increases in the glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure cause increases in net filtration pressure and GFR. However, increases in Bowman space hydrostatic pressure causes decreases in filtration pressure and GFR. Filtration fraction (FF) is the fraction of renal plasma flow (RPF) filtered across the glomerulus.
Mark the incorrect statement
Match of the column I with the column II
The excretory organ of cockroach is the malpighian tubules. amphixous excretory organs are solanocytes. Excretory organs of Prawn are known as green glands or antennal glands.and excretory organ of cockroach is holonephredia. Hence option a is correct.
Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is released in response to the increases in blood volume and blood pressure. Which of the following is NOT the function of ANF ?
There will be more absorption of water which leads to increase in blood pressure and ANF is responsible for decreasing BP as it is also mentioned in question.
Which muscle protein acts as ATPase ?
Because actin and tropomyosin is binding protein in muscle and myosin is a maximum active for independent calcium bind
Movement at Atlanto-occipital joint is an example of
The movements permitted in this joint are:
Match the locomotory structure of column I with the name of phylum in column II
(A) Parapodia - Annelida
(B) Muscular foot - Mollusca
(C) Pseudopodia - Protozoa
(D) Tube feet - Echinodermata
So, the correct answer is Option B.
‘Uncinate process’ is associated with
Uncinate process – a projection arising from the lower part of the head and extending medially to lie beneath the body of the pancreas. It lies posterior to the superior mesenteric vessels.
In the following disorder the synovial membrane starts secreting abnormal granules called Pannus which cause erosion of cartilage
Rheumatoidal arthritis it occurs due to accumulation of antibody IgM in synovial membrane and causes inflammation. it is an autoimmune disorder.
In an inflorescence where flowers are borne laterally in an acropetal succession, the position of the youngest floral bud shall be
In racemose type of inflorescences the main axis continues to grow, the flowers are borne laterally in an acropetal succession, i.e. youngest flower is present at apex and oldest flower is present at the base. In racemose, inflorescence the growth of floral axis is unlimited or indefinite.
In cymose type of inflorescence the main axis terminates in a flower, hence is limited in growth. The flowers are borne in a basipetal. order, i.e. youngest flower is present at the base and oldest flower is present at the apex. In cymose inflorescence oldest flower remains in center and youngest towards the periphery. This type of arrangement is called centrifugal.
Purkinje’s cells are most complex neurons of
A copy of the input also goes directly to the deep cerebellar nuclei. Granule cells are extremely small and extremely numerous. The only way out of cerebellar cortex is given by Purkinje cell axons, which make inhibitory connections with neurons in the deep cerebellar nuclei.
In excitable cells, re-polarization is closely associated with one of the following events
After depolarisation axon membrane causes potassium gates to open, within a fraction of secs, K+ diffuses outside the membrane and restores the resting potential of the membrane at the site of excitation & the nerve fibre becomes once more responsive to further stimulation.
All are None law (principle) states that
The all-or-none law is the principle that the strength by which a nerve or muscle fibre responds to a stimulus is independent of the strength of the stimulus. If that stimulus exceeds the threshold potential, the nerve or muscle fibre will give a complete response; otherwise, there is no response.
When we move from light to to dark, we fail to see for some time but soon the visibility becomes normal. It is
Our eyes cannot see everything clearly when we enter a dark room from a bright light. The reason for this is that in bright light the size of pupil of our eye is small. When we enter the dark room, due to small size of pupil, very little light enters our eyes. But after some time, the pupil expands and we become able to see things as more light enter our eyes now. so there is adaptation of pupil according to light intensity
Bowman's glands are found in
Olfactory glands, also known as Bowman's glands, are situated in the olfactory mucosa, beneath the olfactory epithelium, in the lamina propria, a connective tissue also containing fibroblasts, blood vessels, and bundles of fine axons from the olfactory neurons.
A person is wearing spectacles with concave lenses for correcting vision. While not using the glasses, the image of a distant object in his case will be formed
This defect in vision is called as 'myopia' - near sightedness. For correcting this defect in vision concave lend of suitable focal length is used. In this case the image of distant object is formed "Infront of the retina".
Which of the following serves as a second messenger for slowing contraction of the heart muscles in response to acetylcholine
cAMP acts as a secondary messenger when epinephrine binds to protein receptors on the plasma membrane. It also acts as a secondary messenger and mediates many cell and tissue responses. Especially in the heart, it slows muscle contraction in response to acetylcholine.
Mark the incorrect statement
The hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (better known as HCG) is produced during pregnancy. It is made by cells formed in the placenta, which nourishes the egg after it has been fertilized and becomes attached to the uterine wall.
Mark the correct statement
However, although hormones act more slowly than a nervous impulse, their effects are typically longer lasting. Additionally, the target cells can respond to minute quantities of hormones and are sensitive to subtle changes in hormone concentration.
A young boy has inflantile penis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland. The condition can be improved by treating with
Which hormone of anterior pituitary is inhibited by dopamine
Dopamine regulates the secretion of pituitary hormones: it inhibits permanently the production of prolactin and blocks the gonadotrophins and the thyroid-stimulating hormone. It stimulates inconstantly the secretion of growth hormone and it does not control corticotropin.
Hassel’s corpuscles are the macrophages present in
One of the small bodies of the medulla of the thymus having granular cells at the center surrounded by concentric layers of modified epithelial cells — called also thymic corpuscle.
‘Osteitis fibrosa cystica’ develops due to
Osteitis fibrosa cystica is a skeletal disorder resulting in a loss of bone mass, a weakening of the bones as their calcified supporting structures are replaced with fibrous tissue, is caused by hyperparathyroidism, from over-active parathyroid glands.