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Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - CA Foundation MCQ


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40 Questions MCQ Test Quantitative Aptitude for CA Foundation - Test: Sampling Theory - 2

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 for CA Foundation 2024 is part of Quantitative Aptitude for CA Foundation preparation. The Test: Sampling Theory - 2 questions and answers have been prepared according to the CA Foundation exam syllabus.The Test: Sampling Theory - 2 MCQs are made for CA Foundation 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 below.
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Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 1

What is a key principle of sample surveys according to the text?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 1

The text describes the Law of Statistical Regularity as a key principle, which states that if a large sample size is drawn from the population under discussion at random, then on an average the sample will provide characteristics of that population.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 2

The Principle of Inertia suggests that survey results are more reliable when:

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 2

According to the Principle of Inertia, large numbers are likely to be more reliable, accurate, and precise as the sample size increases, provided other factors are kept constant.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 3

What does the Principle of Optimization ensure in sample surveys?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 3

The Principle of Optimization ensures that an optimum level of efficiency at a minimum cost or the maximum efficiency at a given level of cost can be achieved with the selection of an appropriate sampling design.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 4

Why is it not always possible to increase the sample size in surveys?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 4

The text explains that increasing the sample size would put an extra burden on available resources, time, and efficiency, hence it's not always possible or feasible.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 5

In the context of sampling, what is the term 'population' synonymous with?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 5

The text defines 'population' as the aggregate of all the units under consideration, also referred to as the 'universe'.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 6

What is 'sampling error' according to the text?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 6

Sampling errors are defined as the deviation between the value of population parameter as obtained from a sample and its observed value.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 7

Which of the following is NOT a type of non-sampling error?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 7

The text lists errors due to defective sampling design as a sampling error, not a non-sampling error.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 8

What is the 'Population Mean' represented by in the formula μ = Σx/N?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 8

The population mean, denoted by μ in the formula, represents the average length of life of all the lamps produced by General Electricals in the example given.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 9

According to the text, why might complete enumeration be preferred over sampling survey?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 9

The text suggests that complete enumeration is preferred when detailed information is necessary, the population size is not large, or when the occurrence of a particular attribute is so rare that it might merit complete enumeration.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 10

What is the primary advantage of sample surveys over complete enumeration?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 10

The text points out that sample surveys can usually be conducted much more quickly than complete enumeration or censuses, making speed a primary advantage.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 11

What is the total number of possible samples without replacement for a population of size 5 and sample size 3?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 11

The total number of possible samples without replacement is given by the combination formula
C(n,k), which for n = 5 and k = 3 is 10.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 12

How many possible samples of size 2 with replacement are there from a population of size 3?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 12

With replacement, each of the three elements can be paired with any of the three, including itself, for a total of
32=9
3=9 samples.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 13

What is the probability distribution of the sample mean for a size 2 sample from a population of 3 units using replacement?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 13

The table provided shows an equal probability for the sample means obtained, indicating a uniform distribution.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 14

For a population of 3 members with values 1, 5, and 3, what is the sample mean of all possible samples of size 2 with replacement?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 14

The sampling distribution table shows the mean of the sample means to be 3.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 15

What is the standard deviation of the sample mean for the population in the previous question using replacement?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 15

The standard deviation is calculated using the formula
SD=E(U2)−[E(U)]2, which in the example provided equals
2/3

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 16

In sample surveys, what is the definition of 'population'?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 16

The population, or universe, in the context of sampling, refers to all the units under consideration for the survey.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 17

The distribution of a —————— is called sampling distribution of that ——————.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 18

Stratified sampling is best used when the population is:

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 18

Stratified sampling is used to divide a heterogeneous population into smaller, more homogeneous groups to ensure that the sample accurately represents the population.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 19

What is the main advantage of systematic sampling over other methods?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 19

Systematic sampling is known for being less time-consuming and simpler compared to other methods of sampling.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 20

The purpose of judgement sampling is based on:

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 20

Judgement sampling relies on the discretion of the sampler to select units based on their knowledge or opinion, not on probability.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 21

What is a potential drawback of systematic sampling?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 21

If there is an unknown and undetected periodicity in the sampling frame, systematic sampling can introduce a bias linked to that periodicity.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 22

Which type of sampling is referred to as 'non-probabilistic'?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 22

Purposive or Judgement Sampling is non-probabilistic because it relies on the subjective judgment of the sampler rather than random selection.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 23

Multi-stage sampling is particularly useful when:

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 23

Multi-stage sampling allows for more manageable sampling from a large and heterogeneous population by breaking down the process into several stages.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 24

Linear systematic sampling is also known as:

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 24

'k' systematic sampling is a type of linear systematic sampling where the first unit is selected randomly and subsequent units are selected at regular intervals of k.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 25

What is the main disadvantage of purposive sampling?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 25

Purposive sampling is based on the judgment of the sampler and is non-probabilistic, which means that it does not allow for statistical inferences to be made about the population parameters.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 26

What is the principle behind Bowley's allocation in stratified sampling?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 26

Bowley's allocation suggests that sample sizes for different strata are taken as proportional to the population sizes when the strata variances differ significantly among themselves, we take recourse to “Neyman’s allocation.”

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 27

In multi-stage sampling, how is the ultimate sampling unit selected?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 27

Multi-stage sampling involves several stages of sampling, each nested within the other, until the ultimate sampling unit is reached and selected as an example.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 28

Which type of sampling is most likely to be less accurate but more cost-effective?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 28

Multi-stage sampling is known to be cost-effective because it simplifies the process, especially in large and complex populations, but this can sometimes come at the cost of lower accuracy compared to more direct sampling methods.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 29

When is circular systematic sampling used?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 29

Circular systematic sampling is used when the population size N is not a multiple of the sample size n, allowing for the sampling procedure to continue in a circular manner until the required sample size is obtained.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 30

In systematic sampling, if the population size N is not a multiple of the sample size n, how is the sample obtained?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 30

If N is not a multiple of n, circular systematic sampling is used, which involves continuing the count from the top after reaching the bottom of the list.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 31

Which sampling method is particularly useful when testing every unit is impractical or impossible?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 31

SRS is used when it is impractical to test every unit in the population because it provides each unit with an equal chance of being selected, which can be done without testing every individual unit.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 32

In the context of sampling, what does the term 'stratum' refer to?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 32

In stratified sampling, the population is divided into 'strata' or subgroups that are more homogeneous within themselves but heterogeneous between each other to improve sampling accuracy.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 33

What is the primary characteristic of non-probability sampling?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 33

Non-probability sampling methods, such as judgement sampling, do not rely on randomness and therefore do not give each unit a known or equal chance of being selected.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 34

What is the variance of the sampling distribution of the sample mean in systematic sampling?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 34

The variance of the sampling distribution of the sample mean in systematic sampling depends on the interval of selection and the underlying population characteristics, which are not provided.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 35

Which of the following is a potential drawback of stratified sampling?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 35

Stratified sampling requires prior information to divide the population into strata, which can be a limitation if such information is not readily available.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 36

In cluster sampling, what is typically done after the clusters are selected?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 36

In cluster sampling, all units within the selected clusters are typically sampled, which is different from stratified sampling where only a sample from each stratum is taken.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 37

What does the sample size in systematic sampling depend on?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 37

In systematic sampling, the sample size is determined by the interval 'k', which dictates how often a unit is selected from the ordered list of the population.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 38

What is an advantage of using stratified sampling over simple random sampling?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 38

Stratified sampling often results in a sample that is more representative of the population, providing higher precision in the estimates of population parameters.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 39

In multi-stage sampling, which of the following statements is true?

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 39

While multi-stage sampling is cost-effective and less time-consuming, it can be less accurate because of the potential for cumulative errors at each stage.

Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 40

Circular systematic sampling is used when:

Detailed Solution for Test: Sampling Theory - 2 - Question 40

Circular systematic sampling allows for continuous selection in a circular manner when the population size does not evenly divide by the sample size, ensuring that all units have a chance of being selected.

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