Test: Humanities


20 Questions MCQ Test Verbal for GMAT | Test: Humanities


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This mock test of Test: Humanities for GMAT helps you for every GMAT entrance exam. This contains 20 Multiple Choice Questions for GMAT Test: Humanities (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this Test: Humanities quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. GMAT students definitely take this Test: Humanities exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other Test: Humanities extra questions, long questions & short questions for GMAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Although postcolonial theory does not propose a simple causal relation between literature and political action, it nonetheless views literature as an enabler of nationalism and in turn political action: literature imagines the community of the nation, giving it a virtually mythical status. The power of the national imaginary to inspire political action is never in doubt, but the precise mechanisms by which this happens or whether indeed any kind of direct causality is involved remains unclear. It may very well be that literature and political action are reciprocating parts of a complex process for which such questions are peripheral.

 

An example of such reciprocation is an early play by Yeats, The King’s Threshold (1904), in which an ancient Irish poet goes on hunger strike to protest against his king.  This play might be thought to have engendered the hunger strikes Irish republicans resorted to, first during the struggle with Britain from 1916 to 1920, then in the civil war that followed as they fought against the Free State government forces, and finally in 1981 as they resisted continuing British rule in Northern Ireland. Similarly in reciprocation, when the Republican mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney, died in hunger strike in 1920, Yeats revised his play, and gave it a revised conclusion – a tragic ending, attributing the tragic ending as a great improvement & much more representative of the then political climate.

The passage mentions the instance of death of Republican mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney to illustrate

 

Solution:
QUESTION: 2

Scholars studying diversity in students pursuing higher education stress the need for diversity among the faculty and staff of institutions offering such education. It is seen as a way of creating a more welcoming and supportive environment for minorities and of enhancing education for all students. Accordingly, they argue that hiring more Native American faculty and staff is a potential way to help others in the university to become more aware of and responsive to the challenges faced by some Native American students, thereby leading to more effective and culturally competent programs. However, this argument ignores a crucial ground reality. Even though many proponents of the idea discuss variations in cultural orientations among indigenous people, there seems to be an assumption that Native American professors and students share common values and hence teachers of Native American ethnicity are thought to have more insight than their counterparts from other ethnicities into Native American students. But the reality is that Native Americans form an extremely heterogeneous population. Students and teachers of Native American origin can differ in a variety of ways, such as tribal background and level of connection to their culture, and therefore making blanket assumptions about the cultural identity of Native American people who become faculty is just as inappropriate as it is to make stereotypical assumptions about Native American people in general. Accordingly, before any key changes are implemented, it would be reasonable to probe how Native American people who have achieved an extensive background in higher education differ culturally from their tribal communities of origin. 

Which of the following statements would the author most likely agree with?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Summary and Main Point

 

Prethinking

Since this is a General Inference question, we cannot think pre-think for a specific answer. However, we must keep in mind that four out of the five given answer choices will not follow from what is stated in the passage; these answer choices are INCORRECT. Select the answer choice that is bolstered by the information given in the passage. 

Answer Choices

A

Scholars arguing for hiring more Native American staff and faculty underestimate the ways in which diversity can be achieved in institutions offering higher education.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The passage discusses only one way of achieving diversity.  It does not give any information that suggests that the scholars have ignored other ways of achieving diversity. 

B

Had the Native Americans formed a homogenous population, the suggestion proposed by the scholars would have been successful in achieving its purpose.

Incorrect: Out of Context

The author does state that the suggestion/argument should not ignore the fact the Native Americans form a heterogeneous group; however, there is no mention about how in the alternate scenario, with Native Americans forming a homogenous group, the solution would have been a success. 

C

Because Native American teachers have an extensive background in education, they are not a good fit for teaching Native American students with deep ties to their ethnic origin.

Incorrect: Out of Context

The author talks about the extensive educational backgrounds of Native American faculty to make a point about how one cannot ignore certain differences between them and students of Native American origin while addressing the issue of diversity. The author by no means intends to question their ability to teach any kind of students.

D

The fact that various Native Americans belong to different tribal origins needs to be accounted for while addressing the issue of diversity through hiring more Native American staff and faculty.

Correct

The author distinctly states that the scholars arguing for hiring more Native American faculty and staff ignore a crucial ground reality, i.e. the differences that people from the same ethnic minority can have. One of the stated differences is the difference in tribal backgrounds. Hence, combining these two pieces of information, we can conclude/infer the statement made in Choice D.

E

Hiring more Native American faculty and staff can be a way to eliminate prejudices against Native American students.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

First of all, the proposed suggestion comes not from the author’s side but from the scholars’ side.  Secondly, even the scholars consider it a way to increase a certain positive aspect in institutions offering higher education and do not pitch it as a way to “eliminate” anything. Also, there is no clear mention of any sort of prejudice faced by the Native American students.

QUESTION: 3

Scholars studying diversity in students pursuing higher education stress the need for diversity among the faculty and staff of institutions offering such education. It is seen as a way of creating a more welcoming and supportive environment for minorities and of enhancing education for all students. Accordingly, they argue that hiring more Native American faculty and staff is a potential way to help others in the university to become more aware of and responsive to the challenges faced by some Native American students, thereby leading to more effective and culturally competent programs. However, this argument ignores a crucial ground reality. Even though many proponents of the idea discuss variations in cultural orientations among indigenous people, there seems to be an assumption that Native American professors and students share common values and hence teachers of Native American ethnicity are thought to have more insight than their counterparts from other ethnicities into Native American students. But the reality is that Native Americans form an extremely heterogeneous population. Students and teachers of Native American origin can differ in a variety of ways, such as tribal background and level of connection to their culture, and therefore making blanket assumptions about the cultural identity of Native American people who become faculty is just as inappropriate as it is to make stereotypical assumptions about Native American people in general. Accordingly, before any key changes are implemented, it would be reasonable to probe how Native American people who have achieved an extensive background in higher education differ culturally from their tribal communities of origin. 

The author is primarily concerned with

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Summary and Main Point

 

Prethinking

This is a Main Idea question. The correct answer must be broad enough to encompass all the content of the passage without veering outside the scope. Accordingly, let’s take a look at the summary and main point section to study the overall structure of the passage. We see that in the first section, the author talks about an argument and presents its reasoning. The author then goes on to present an aspect which the argument has completely ignored. It is on the basis of this analysis that the author recommends that a necessary step needs to be taken before the suggestion made in the argument is implemented. In all, we see that the entire discussion is geared towards explaining why the proposed idea needs to be explored more before it is implemented.

With this pre-thinking in mind, let’s look at the answer choices.

Answer Choices

A

advocating a course of action that is contrary to a proposed argument

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author does propose a course of action; however, it is not contrary to the argument by the scholar. Author recommends a step to help evaluate the merits of the proposed plan/argument.

B

explaining how an idea, though not fully sound, could lead to unintended consequences

Incorrect: Inconsistent

There are no unintended consequences mentioned or hinted at in the passage, although the author does call in to question an underlying assumption of the idea/argument proposed by the scholars

C

explaining why an idea needs to be explored more before it is actually adopted

Correct

This answer choice matches our pre-thinking analysis and is indeed the correct answer.

D

describing the merits and demerits of a proposed argument

Incorrect: Out of Scope

Although the author does question the argument proposed by the scholars, he/she never describes any merits of this argument.

E

questioning the underlying thought behind a suggestion while offering a simpler plan to achieve the stated purpose

Incorrect: Inconsistent

As mentioned in the explanation for choice D, the author does question the assumption made regarding Native American faculty. However, there is no information given to classify the suggestion made by the author in the last sentence of the passage as a “simpler” method or route to achieve the mentioned purpose.

QUESTION: 4

Scholars studying diversity in students pursuing higher education stress the need for diversity among the faculty and staff of institutions offering such education. It is seen as a way of creating a more welcoming and supportive environment for minorities and of enhancing education for all students. Accordingly, they argue that hiring more Native American faculty and staff is a potential way to help others in the university to become more aware of and responsive to the challenges faced by some Native American students, thereby leading to more effective and culturally competent programs. However, this argument ignores a crucial ground reality. Even though many proponents of the idea discuss variations in cultural orientations among indigenous people, there seems to be an assumption that Native American professors and students share common values and hence teachers of Native American ethnicity are thought to have more insight than their counterparts from other ethnicities into Native American students. But the reality is that Native Americans form an extremely heterogeneous population. Students and teachers of Native American origin can differ in a variety of ways, such as tribal background and level of connection to their culture, and therefore making blanket assumptions about the cultural identity of Native American people who become faculty is just as inappropriate as it is to make stereotypical assumptions about Native American people in general. Accordingly, before any key changes are implemented, it would be reasonable to probe how Native American people who have achieved an extensive background in higher education differ culturally from their tribal communities of origin. 

What can be inferred from the following statement made in the passage?

…making blanket assumptions about the cultural identity of Native American people who become faculty is just as inappropriate as it is to make stereotypical assumptions about Native American people in general...

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Summary and Main Point

 

Prethinking

This is a Detail based Inference question. Always read the highlighted segment before answering the question, even if you gained a rough idea of what it meant after your first, initial read. Accordingly, let’s take a look at the referred section:

…making blanket assumptions about the cultural identity of Native American people who become faculty is just as inappropriate as it is to make stereotypical assumptions about Native American people in general...

We see that the author states the above point as a conclusion as this section is preceded by the word “therefore”. The author says right before it that there might be key cultural differences between Native American Faculty and students and then goes on to draw the cited statement, implying that purely on the basis of ethnic origins one cannot assume similarities between the two groups. The author says that making such an assumption (based on ethnic origin) about the Native American faculty is no different from making stereotypical assumption about Native American people in general and doing so is clearly unwarranted and not appropriate.

With this understanding in mind, let’s move to the answer choice evaluation.

Answer Choices

A

Finding parallels between the two groups is unwarranted as they differ extensively with respect to their academic accomplishments.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The talk about the difference in academic achievement happens later in the passage. Hence, for this question, this information is beyond the scope of the cited section. 

B

The prejudice that Native American faculty face is a result of the stereotypical assumptions made about Native American people in general.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no mention of a prejudice against Native American faculty. So, the stated cause and effect relationship is invalid.

C

Irrespective of their achievements in the field of education, Native American faculty and staff are often mistreated because of their ethnic origin.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no mention of any ill-treatment meted out to Native American faculty and staff.

D

Drawing opinions based purely on ethnic origins is equally unseemly in both the situations. 

Correct

This choice matches our pre-thinking.

E

Assumptions that are not rooted in ethnic affiliations lead to progressive attitude towards Native Americans.

Incorrect: Out of  Scope

The author does imply generally in the passage that purely on the basis of ethnic affiliations, no conclusions should be formed; however, there is no talk of what would happen if the opinions are formed otherwise. More importantly, as shown in the pre-thinking, in this section the author does not concern himself/herself with this thought.

QUESTION: 5

Émile Durkheim, a French sociologist who rose to prominence in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, is credited with being one of the principal founders of modern sociology. When Durkheim began writing, sociology was not recognized as an independent field of study. As part of the campaign to change this scenario, he went to great lengths to separate sociology from all other disciplines, especially philosophy.

Durkheim’s perspective differed from other sociologists of his era as his theories were founded on things external in nature such as social facts, as opposed to those internal in nature, such as the motivations and desires of individuals. As per him, social phenomena arise when a certain reality emerges from the behavior of interacting individuals, but this same reality cannot be explained in terms of the characteristics of individual agents. For instance, he could argue that social formations such as gangs, political parties and associations are comprised of individual members, but the macro outcome resulting from such organizations operates in a different level and produces results that would not occur on an individual level. He, therefore, believed that the society was far superior to any of its individual components and could hence exert a coercive power on individuals to lead them to acceptable levels of satisfaction. His idea was that happiness and wants are tied to each other. He said, “To pursue a goal which is by definition unattainable is to condemn oneself to a state of perpetual unhappiness... To achieve any other result, the passions first must be limited. But since the individual has no way of limiting them, this must be done by some force exterior to him”. This exterior force of course in his opinion was the society.

Which of the following best describes the main focus of the passage?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Summary and Main Point

Prethinking

This is a Main Idea question. As seen in the summary and main point section, the first paragraph is dedicated to introducing Durkheim and emphasizing his contribution to modern sociology. The second paragraph takes about his perspective on social phenomena and society as a whole. Therefore, the author’s purpose is to focus on a key sociologist and some of his ideas in the field.

Answer Choices

A

explanation of a particular perspective on society 

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The author does explain a take on society but it is done from the point of view of presenting Durkheim’s position on something. The perspective on its own is not the focus of the passage. So, while this choice does account for some of the contents of the passage, it does not capture the essence of the passage.

B

the recognition of a subject as a separate field of study

Incorrect: Partial Scope

This choice barely captures the contents of the first paragraph and is, hence, too narrow.

C

the work and ideas of a key sociologist 

Correct

This choice matches our pre-thinking analysis.

establishing the superiority of a 20th century sociologist over his peers

Incorrect: Out of Context

Yes, Durkheim, a 20th century sociologist, is considered one of the founding members of modern sociology and yes, his perspective of society was different from his peers, but this difference is not the focus of the passage. The author does not make any effort to suggest that Durkheim’s work was more thorough or better in any fashion to other sociologists.

E

appreciation a particular take on the role of society 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

First of all, as stated in the explanation for choice A, the explanation of Durkheim’s perspective is not by itself the main focus of the passage. The author delves in to it to explain what Durkheim as a sociologist thought about society. Secondly, and more importantly, the author does not appreciate this take. The tone of the author on this aspect is neutral.

QUESTION: 6

Émile Durkheim, a French sociologist who rose to prominence in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, is credited with being one of the principal founders of modern sociology. When Durkheim began writing, sociology was not recognized as an independent field of study. As part of the campaign to change this scenario, he went to great lengths to separate sociology from all other disciplines, especially philosophy.

Durkheim’s perspective differed from other sociologists of his era as his theories were founded on things external in nature such as social facts, as opposed to those internal in nature, such as the motivations and desires of individuals. As per him, social phenomena arise when a certain reality emerges from the behavior of interacting individuals, but this same reality cannot be explained in terms of the characteristics of individual agents. For instance, he could argue that social formations such as gangs, political parties and associations are comprised of individual members, but the macro outcome resulting from such organizations operates in a different level and produces results that would not occur on an individual level. He, therefore, believed that the society was far superior to any of its individual components and could hence exert a coercive power on individuals to lead them to acceptable levels of satisfaction. His idea was that happiness and wants are tied to each other. He said, “To pursue a goal which is by definition unattainable is to condemn oneself to a state of perpetual unhappiness... To achieve any other result, the passions first must be limited. But since the individual has no way of limiting them, this must be done by some force exterior to him”. This exterior force of course in his opinion was the society.

Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the section below?

(Second paragraph, second last sentence)

To pursue a goal which is by definition unattainable is to condemn oneself to a state of perpetual unhappiness... To achieve any other result, the passions first must be limited. But since the individual has no way of limiting them, this must be done by some force exterior to him

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Summary and Main Point

Prethinking

This is a Detail based Inference question. We need to go back to refereed section and re-read the statement and solidify our understanding of the context in which it is made. Please do not rely only on memory to select the correct answer. Accordingly, let’s understand how the author has given us this information. Right before the statement is made, the author talks about how Durkheim thought the society could play a moderating role and lead individuals to acceptable levels of contentment. The author then quotes Durkheim and states the cited statement. As seen in the passage analysis, the gist of his thought is: humans have unlimited wants and if they keep running after these wants, they will be always unhappy. To have any other result (other than unhappiness), the passions/wants must be limited. However, since humans cannot limit these wants, some outside force must do so. (This outside force we are told later is the society.)

With this understanding in mind, let’s evaluate the answer choices.

Answer Choices

A

The plethora of choices available to humans leads to the problem of plenty, causing unhappiness and dissatisfaction.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no mention of choices anywhere in the passage, leave alone this section. The remark is about human wants.

B

Left alone to the individual, a result other than unhappiness is not possible.

Correct

Durkheim clearly states that to achieve a result other than unhappiness, passions must be limited and that an individual is himself not capable of limiting wants. The limitless wants lead to unhappiness. As per Durkheim, an exterior force is a must to limit these wants/passions. Hence, left alone to the individual, unhappiness is the only possible result. Note that the language of the choice is extreme, but the context clearly allows us to infer so. 

C

Setting a goal in life is akin to setting oneself for failure and unhappiness.

Incorrect: Out of Context

The author sets the context very clearly for what kind of goal is being talked about in the referred statement. It is not that every goal in life is likely to cause unhappiness. The goal mentioned in the statement is the goal of running after endless wants.

D

Humans always run after material things that they cannot fully attain, thereby obtaining nothing but unhappiness. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

Yes, running after unlimited wants is defined by Durkheim as something that leads to unhappiness. But these wants do not necessarily have to be materialistic in nature. There is no given information to support this aspect.

E

Because an individuals is incapable of limiting his passions, he exerts force on society to fulfil these wants.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The first half of this choice is correct. Durkheim does say that an individual is not capable of limiting his wants; however, he never says anything about the individual exerting force on the society. Durkheim, in fact, appeals to the society to control these wants/passions.  

QUESTION: 7

Émile Durkheim, a French sociologist who rose to prominence in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, is credited with being one of the principal founders of modern sociology. When Durkheim began writing, sociology was not recognized as an independent field of study. As part of the campaign to change this scenario, he went to great lengths to separate sociology from all other disciplines, especially philosophy.

Durkheim’s perspective differed from other sociologists of his era as his theories were founded on things external in nature such as social facts, as opposed to those internal in nature, such as the motivations and desires of individuals. As per him, social phenomena arise when a certain reality emerges from the behavior of interacting individuals, but this same reality cannot be explained in terms of the characteristics of individual agents. For instance, he could argue that social formations such as gangs, political parties and associations are comprised of individual members, but the macro outcome resulting from such organizations operates in a different level and produces results that would not occur on an individual level. He, therefore, believed that the society was far superior to any of its individual components and could hence exert a coercive power on individuals to lead them to acceptable levels of satisfaction. His idea was that happiness and wants are tied to each other. He said, “To pursue a goal which is by definition unattainable is to condemn oneself to a state of perpetual unhappiness... To achieve any other result, the passions first must be limited. But since the individual has no way of limiting them, this must be done by some force exterior to him”. This exterior force of course in his opinion was the society.

 

Which of the following is stated in the passage?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Summary and Main Point

Prethinking

Since this is an open ended Detail question we cannot pre-think on specific terms. However, we must keep in mind that the correct answer will directly flow from what’s explicitly stated in the passage. 

Answer Choices

A

Durkheim was the first sociologist to try to separate the fields of sociology and philosophy.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

Although we are told that he made a lot of efforts to separate the two, there is no information given regarding whether he was the first one to do so.

B

As per Durkheim, individuals interacting with one another are responsible for giving birth to a social phenomenon. 

Correct

This piece of information is given to us explicitly in the following statement:

As per him, social phenomena arise when a certain reality emerges from the behavior of interacting individuals…

C

As per Durkheim, wants always lead to unhappiness.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

Durkheim said pursuing the goal of limitless wants leads to unhappiness and not that wants invariably lead to unhappiness. 

D

Durkheim started working in the field of sociology in the late 19th century.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

In the first paragraph, we are told that Durkheim became famous in the latter half of the nineteenth century but we are not told when he started working.

E

Durkheim’s perspective of society is unique since no other sociologist has ever formed theories that are based on external elements.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The only comparison we are given in this context is between Durkheim and other sociologists of his era. However, this choice makes a comparison between him and all other, including those before and after his time, sociologists.

QUESTION: 8

Characterized by change of ideals, Sanskritization traditionally denoted the process by which castes placed lower in the caste hierarchy sought upward mobility by emulating the rituals and practices of the upper castes. It became an inevitable feature of those castes that experienced a vast gap between their ritual and politico-economic positions. Such castes enjoyed a high level of political and economic power. Accordingly, economic elevation was not a sought- after goal through Sanskritization. Infact, sometimes a group could start by acquiring political power, which led to economic betterment and Sanskritization.

Although there is no unanimity on whether it has been a major process of cultural change in Indian history, it has occurred almost in every part of the Indian sub-continent. However, the nature of the process is by no means uniform as the cultural norms or customs being imitated may vary from Sanskrit or Hindu traditional forms to tribal and even the Islamic patterns. Also, with the passage of time, the boundaries of the definition have blurred and today Sanskritization is no longer limited to the changes in the customs, rituals and ideology and way of life of a caste placed lower in the caste hierarchy; it has now begun to stand for cross imitation of customs and way of life among different social groups. In essence, Sanskritization is only an illustration of the operation of the ‘reference group’ process. A reference group is a group that is used as a standard to evaluate one’s rituals, attitudes, customs etc. As long as the caste has prestige in the social groups, it serves as a model. Accordingly, a ruling group or caste will also serve as a model if it commands prestige in the society.

The author is primarily concerned with

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Main Idea question. The correct answer must be broad enough to encompass all the content of the passage without veering outside the scope.

The first paragraph introduces the concept of Sanskritization within its historical context and the second paragraph defines it in its contemporary form. Hence, the author is primarily concerned with defining Sanskritization and its development over time.

Answer Choices

A

To trace the development of a process across various sects of a religion

Incorrect: Partial Scope

One could argue that the author traces the development of Sanskritization but there is no mention of any sects of a religion.

B

To mitigate potential criticism for a process by presenting a liberal perspective on it

Incorrect: Irrelevant

There is no hint of any potential criticism in the passage. Also, the author more or less presents facts rather than liberal opinion or perspective in it.

C

To define a process by tracing its development over time

Correct

This choice is on the same lines as the one pre-thought by us in the summary and main point section. In both the paragraphs, the author defines the process of Sanskritization with respect to what was considered part of the process and what is now considered Sanskritization.

D

To define a process of social, cultural and political change by discussing its features

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The author hasn’t pitched Sanskirtization as a process of any change and certainly not political change.

E

To enlist the basic features of a process

Incorrect: Partial Scope

Yes, the author does list the basic features of the process but he/she does so for a bigger purpose. The purpose is to define Sanskritization. Hence, this choice does not capture the main idea of the passage.

QUESTION: 9

Characterized by change of ideals, Sanskritization traditionally denoted the process by which castes placed lower in the caste hierarchy sought upward mobility by emulating the rituals and practices of the upper castes. It became an inevitable feature of those castes that experienced a vast gap between their ritual and politico-economic positions. Such castes enjoyed a high level of political and economic power. Accordingly, economic elevation was not a sought- after goal through Sanskritization. Infact, sometimes a group could start by acquiring political power, which led to economic betterment and Sanskritization.

Although there is no unanimity on whether it has been a major process of cultural change in Indian history, it has occurred almost in every part of the Indian sub-continent. However, the nature of the process is by no means uniform as the cultural norms or customs being imitated may vary from Sanskrit or Hindu traditional forms to tribal and even the Islamic patterns. Also, with the passage of time, the boundaries of the definition have blurred and today Sanskritization is no longer limited to the changes in the customs, rituals and ideology and way of life of a caste placed lower in the caste hierarchy; it has now begun to stand for cross imitation of customs and way of life among different social groups. In essence, Sanskritization is only an illustration of the operation of the ‘reference group’ process. A reference group is a group that is used as a standard to evaluate one’s rituals, attitudes, customs etc. As long as the caste has prestige in the social groups, it serves as a model. Accordingly, a ruling group or caste will also serve as a model if it commands prestige in the society.

Which of the following statements would the author most likely agree with?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is an Inference question. Four out of the five given answer choices will not follow from what is stated in the passage; these answer choices are INCORRECT. Select the answer choice that is bolstered by specific facts mentioned in the passage.

Answer Choices

A

A group that has prestige and dominance in the society but ranks lower than the highest group in the hierarchical order will quite likely not be a reference group.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

This information is inconsistent with that given towards the end of the passage. The author clearly states there that a ruling caste (not necessarily a high caste) can be a model/reference group so far as it has prestige in the society.

B

Although upward social mobility could result out of Sanskiritization, economic elevation could not.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author states that economic elevation was not a sought after goal Sanskritization; however, this information does not imply that it could not result out of Sanskritization.

C

An affluent caste that enjoyed limited ritual position was extremely likely to experience Sanskritization.

Correct

This information can be derived from the following extract from the passage:

It became an inevitable feature of those castes that experienced a vast gap between their ritual and politico-economic positions. Such castes enjoyed a high level of political and economic power.

The vast gap mentioned above was that between the ritual and politico-economic positions of some castes. Now since these castes enjoyed high level of economic power, it can be said that they enjoyed limited ritual position- hence the gap.

D

Even though Sanskritization could involve emulation of tribal or Islamic patterns, it now normally involves adopting the ideologies of the dominant Hindu caste, which is not necessarily the highest ranking caste.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no such comparison given in the passage.

E

There is no one opinion on the ability of Sanskritization to act as a major process of social change.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author states that there is agreement over whether Sanskritization has been a major process of social change. There is no mention of its potential to cause social change.

QUESTION: 10

Characterized by change of ideals, Sanskritization traditionally denoted the process by which castes placed lower in the caste hierarchy sought upward mobility by emulating the rituals and practices of the upper castes. It became an inevitable feature of those castes that experienced a vast gap between their ritual and politico-economic positions. Such castes enjoyed a high level of political and economic power. Accordingly, economic elevation was not a sought- after goal through Sanskritization. Infact, sometimes a group could start by acquiring political power, which led to economic betterment and Sanskritization.

Although there is no unanimity on whether it has been a major process of cultural change in Indian history, it has occurred almost in every part of the Indian sub-continent. However, the nature of the process is by no means uniform as the cultural norms or customs being imitated may vary from Sanskrit or Hindu traditional forms to tribal and even the Islamic patterns. Also, with the passage of time, the boundaries of the definition have blurred and today Sanskritization is no longer limited to the changes in the customs, rituals and ideology and way of life of a caste placed lower in the caste hierarchy; it has now begun to stand for cross imitation of customs and way of life among different social groups. In essence, Sanskritization is only an illustration of the operation of the ‘reference group’ process. A reference group is a group that is used as a standard to evaluate one’s rituals, attitudes, customs etc. As long as the caste has prestige in the social groups, it serves as a model. Accordingly, a ruling group or caste will also serve as a model if it commands prestige in the society.

Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the first paragraph?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Function question. From our individual summary review, we know that the first paragraph introduces Sanskritization in its historical context. Hence, that’s the function of the first paragraph.

Answer Choices

A

To describe a rigid concept that has become more accepted over time

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author neither states nor suggests anywhere in the passage that Sanskritization was a rigid concept. Yes, its definition changed over time but it doesn’t mean that it became more accepted.

B

To introduce a process within a specific context

Correct

The choice matches our understanding of the overall contents of the first paragraph. The author concentrates on what was traditionally considered Sanskritization.

C

To define a process that was more politically motivated than economically

Incorrect: Irrelevant

There is no such comparison given in the whole passage, leave alone the first paragraph.

D

To introduce a phenomenon by discussing its limitations

Incorrect: Partial Scope

Yes, the author introduces the phenomenon of Sanskritization but there is no mention of any limitations of this process.

E

To present a social scenario that accentuated hierarchical differences

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author does present a social scenario but the function is not to present it but instead present it within the context of defining a process. Also, there is no mention of accentuating any kind of differences.

QUESTION: 11

Characterized by change of ideals, Sanskritization traditionally denoted the process by which castes placed lower in the caste hierarchy sought upward mobility by emulating the rituals and practices of the upper castes. It became an inevitable feature of those castes that experienced a vast gap between their ritual and politico-economic positions. Such castes enjoyed a high level of political and economic power. Accordingly, economic elevation was not a sought- after goal through Sanskritization. Infact, sometimes a group could start by acquiring political power, which led to economic betterment and Sanskritization.

Although there is no unanimity on whether it has been a major process of cultural change in Indian history, it has occurred almost in every part of the Indian sub-continent. However, the nature of the process is by no means uniform as the cultural norms or customs being imitated may vary from Sanskrit or Hindu traditional forms to tribal and even the Islamic patterns. Also, with the passage of time, the boundaries of the definition have blurred and today Sanskritization is no longer limited to the changes in the customs, rituals and ideology and way of life of a caste placed lower in the caste hierarchy; it has now begun to stand for cross imitation of customs and way of life among different social groups. In essence, Sanskritization is only an illustration of the operation of the ‘reference group’ process. A reference group is a group that is used as a standard to evaluate one’s rituals, attitudes, customs etc. As long as the caste has prestige in the social groups, it serves as a model. Accordingly, a ruling group or caste will also serve as a model if it commands prestige in the society.

In the passage, which of the following is NOT mentioned?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Detail EXCEPT question. Keep crossing out answer choices that ARE explicitly stated in the passage and choose the one for which you cannot directly refer to a portion in the passage.

Answer Choices

A

Sanskirtization was an unavoidable feature of castes that faced a huge gap between their ritual and politico-economic positions.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

This information is clearly stated in the second sentence of the first paragraph.

B

The nature of Sanskritization is not the same everywhere.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

This information is explicitly stated in the second sentence of the second paragraph – ref:

However, the nature of the process is by no means uniform

C

Sanskritization now represents emulation of customs etc. across social groups.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

This information is given to us in the following section of the second paragraph:

…it has now begun to stand for cross imitation of customs

D

Sanskritization has occurred in most of the Indian sub-continent.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

This information is distinctly given to us in the first sentence of the last paragraph.

E

A ruling group is synonymous with a reference group.

Correct: Not given in the passage

The author states that a ruling group can be a reference group if it has prestige in the society. We are given no information that states or even suggests that by default, a ruling group is not a reference group.

QUESTION: 12

Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or inductive, depending on the process used to arrive at them. In the process of deduction, you begin with some statements, called premises, which are assumed to be true, and you then determine what else would have to be true if the premises are true. For example, in mathematics you can begin with some axioms and then determine what you can prove to be true given those axioms are true. With deduction you can provide absolute proof of your conclusions, since your premises are considered correct. The premises themselves, however, remain unproven and unprovable; they must be accepted on face value, or by faith, or for the purpose of exploration.

On the other hand, in the process of induction, you begin with some data, and then determine what general conclusion(s) can logically be derived from that data. In other words, you determine what theory or theories could explain the data. For example, you note that the probability of becoming schizophrenic is greatly increased if at least one parent is schizophrenic, and from that you conclude that schizophrenia may be inherited. That is certainly a reasonable hypothesis given the data. Note, however, that induction does not prove that the theory is correct. There are often alternative theories that are also supported by the data. For example, the behavior of the schizophrenic parent may cause the child to be schizophrenic, not the genes. What is important in induction is that the theory does indeed offer a logical explanation of the data. To conclude that the parents have no effect on the schizophrenia of the children is not supportable given the data, and would not be a logical conclusion.

Both deduction and induction by themselves are inadequate for a scientific approach. While deduction gives absolute proof, it never makes contact with the real world; there is no place for observation or experimentation - no way to test the validity of the premises. And, while induction is driven by observation, it never approaches actual proof of a theory. Accordingly, a synthesis of these two logical approaches is required for an actual scientific method.

 

The author’s primarily concerned with

Solution:

The author’s primarily concerned with

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Prethinking

This is a Main Idea question. The correct choice must be broad enough to encompass the various sections of the passage but specific enough to not veer outside the scope of the passage. Also, before going in to the answer choices, you must come to an approximate idea of what the author wants to convey through the passage. In fact, as soon as you finish reading the passage, you should have a fair idea of the primary purpose/main idea of the passage. Accordingly, let’s take a look at the overall structure of the passage.

As seen in the summary and main point section above, the author explains the two processes in the first two paragraphs and then goes on to evaluate them in the last paragraph. This evaluation is done with respect to how scientific these processes are. So we can conclude that the main purpose of the author is to explain the two normal processes of arriving at a logical argument and evaluate them on a specific criterion.

With this understanding in mind, let’s evaluate the answer choices.

Answer Choices

A

describing two modes of constructing a logical argument

Incorrect: Partial Scope

This choice barely captures the scope of the first two paragraphs and fails to account for the final one. In addition to describing the two processes, the author also explains them in detail and then evaluates them in the end with respect to how they fare on a particular criterion.

B

explaining two processes while evaluating them on a specific criterion

Correct

This choice is on the same lines as our pre-thought answer. The specific criterion mentioned in the choice refers to how scientific these processes are.

C

discussing how neither one of the two mentioned processes is relevant for a scientific approach

Incorrect: Inconsistent

First of all, the author doesn’t say that the processes are not relevant for a scientific approach. He/she says that neither of two approaches is sufficient on its own. Secondly, this discussion is limited to only the third paragraph. 

D

establishing how logical arguments are more or less flawed, no matter through which process they are arrived at

Incorrect: Out of Context

The negative points of the two processes are mentioned with respect to evaluating these process in terms of how scientific they are. The author by no means call them illogical. In fact, this statement goes against the following information given to us in the passage:

For example, you note that the probability of becoming schizophrenic is greatly increased if at least one parent is schizophrenic, and from that you conclude that schizophrenia may be inherited. That is certainly a reasonable hypothesis given the data.

E

establishing the supremacy of one process over the other 

Incorrect: Opposite

First of all, the two processes are not pitched against each other in terms of which one of two is more credible in its way of developing an argument. Secondly, the author clearly states that neither of two processes is sufficient on its own for a scientific approach.

QUESTION: 13

Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or inductive, depending on the process used to arrive at them. In the process of deduction, you begin with some statements, called premises, which are assumed to be true, and you then determine what else would have to be true if the premises are true. For example, in mathematics you can begin with some axioms and then determine what you can prove to be true given those axioms are true. With deduction you can provide absolute proof of your conclusions, since your premises are considered correct. The premises themselves, however, remain unproven and unprovable; they must be accepted on face value, or by faith, or for the purpose of exploration.

On the other hand, in the process of induction, you begin with some data, and then determine what general conclusion(s) can logically be derived from that data. In other words, you determine what theory or theories could explain the data. For example, you note that the probability of becoming schizophrenic is greatly increased if at least one parent is schizophrenic, and from that you conclude that schizophrenia may be inherited. That is certainly a reasonable hypothesis given the data. Note, however, that induction does not prove that the theory is correct. There are often alternative theories that are also supported by the data. For example, the behavior of the schizophrenic parent may cause the child to be schizophrenic, not the genes. What is important in induction is that the theory does indeed offer a logical explanation of the data. To conclude that the parents have no effect on the schizophrenia of the children is not supportable given the data, and would not be a logical conclusion.

Both deduction and induction by themselves are inadequate for a scientific approach. While deduction gives absolute proof, it never makes contact with the real world; there is no place for observation or experimentation - no way to test the validity of the premises. And, while induction is driven by observation, it never approaches actual proof of a theory. Accordingly, a synthesis of these two logical approaches is required for an actual scientific method.

Which one of the following statements can be inferred about the induction process of arriving at a logical argument?

Solution:

The author’s primarily concerned with

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Prethinking

This is an Inference question. We know that the correct answer will be based on the information given in the second or the third paragraph as induction as a process is only discussed in these two sections. However, since there are multiple ideas mentioned (regarding induction) in these paragraphs, we cannot pre-think on very specific lines.

With this understanding in mind, let’s evaluate the answer choices.

Answer Choices

A

There is no way to be certain whether the theories it provides are fully logical.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

In the second paragraph, the author says that the theories, though logical, cannot be fully proved as correct. Hence, this choice is not consistent with the information given in the passage.

B

A theory arrived at through it is not likely to be the only possible explanation of the observed facts.

Correct

This information is a combination of two pieces of information given to us in the second paragraph. First, we are told that:

In other words, you determine what theory or theories could explain the data.

Second, we are told that:

Note, however, that induction does not prove that the theory is correct. There are often alternative theories that are also supported by the data.

C

One can provide a hundred percent proof for the conclusion drawn through it.

Incorrect: Opposite

This statement is made in the first paragraph for the process of deduction. For induction, the author says that one can never be fully sure of the theory one arrives at through it.

Reference (final paragraph):

And, while induction is driven by observation, it never approaches actual proof of a theory.

D

The conclusion arrived at through it are very likely to be causal in nature.

Incorrect: Out of Context

The causal relation drawn between parents behavior/ genetic makeup and children’s chances of developing schizophrenia does not suggest that most of the conclusions arrived at through the process of induction are causal in nature. This relation is specific to the example given to explain the process.

E

One of the reasons it fails to provide a single theory is that no two individuals are likely to interpret a given set of information in the same way.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

Although we are told that there could be more than one theory to explain the data in induction, there is no information regarding the cause of the same.

QUESTION: 14

Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or inductive, depending on the process used to arrive at them. In the process of deduction, you begin with some statements, called premises, which are assumed to be true, and you then determine what else would have to be true if the premises are true. For example, in mathematics you can begin with some axioms and then determine what you can prove to be true given those axioms are true. With deduction you can provide absolute proof of your conclusions, since your premises are considered correct. The premises themselves, however, remain unproven and unprovable; they must be accepted on face value, or by faith, or for the purpose of exploration.

On the other hand, in the process of induction, you begin with some data, and then determine what general conclusion(s) can logically be derived from that data. In other words, you determine what theory or theories could explain the data. For example, you note that the probability of becoming schizophrenic is greatly increased if at least one parent is schizophrenic, and from that you conclude that schizophrenia may be inherited. That is certainly a reasonable hypothesis given the data. Note, however, that induction does not prove that the theory is correct. There are often alternative theories that are also supported by the data. For example, the behavior of the schizophrenic parent may cause the child to be schizophrenic, not the genes. What is important in induction is that the theory does indeed offer a logical explanation of the data. To conclude that the parents have no effect on the schizophrenia of the children is not supportable given the data, and would not be a logical conclusion.

Both deduction and induction by themselves are inadequate for a scientific approach. While deduction gives absolute proof, it never makes contact with the real world; there is no place for observation or experimentation - no way to test the validity of the premises. And, while induction is driven by observation, it never approaches actual proof of a theory. Accordingly, a synthesis of these two logical approaches is required for an actual scientific method.

 

Which one of the following statements is true as per the information given in the passage?

Solution:

The author’s primarily concerned with

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Prethinking

Since this is an open ended Detail question we cannot pre-think on specific terms. However, we must keep in mind that the correct answer will directly flow from what’s explicitly stated in the passage. 

 

 

Answer Choices

A

Deduction as a process does not allow for experimentation.

Correct

This information is explicitly given to us in the final paragraph.

Reference:

While deduction gives absolute proof, it never makes contact with the real world; there is no place for observation or experimentation - no way to test the validity of the premises.

B

There are only two ways to classify a logical argument.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

In the first sentence, the author tells us that logical arguments are usually classified in two ways, allowing for the possibility that there could be more, not so often used way of classifying them.

C

The conclusions arrived at through the process of induction do not take in to account any actual reference points.

Incorrect: Opposite

We are clearly told in the second paragraph that:

…in the process of induction, you begin with some data, and then determine what general conclusion(s) can logically be derived from those data.

The data sets are indeed reference points. Hence, this choice states just the opposite of what we are given in the passage.

D

If the premises of the arguments derived through the deduction process are tested, the validity of most such arguments will be jeopardized. 

Incorrect: Out of Context

The author says that deduction on its own is not scientific since the premises are never really validated. This does not mean that if the premises are tested, most of them will turn out to be invalid.

E

The process of deduction takes in to account the possibility that the basis of the conclusion is questionable.

 Incorrect: Opposite

This statement goes against the information given in the first paragraph.

Reference:

The premises themselves, however, remain unproven and unprovable; they must be accepted on face value, or by faith, or for the purpose of exploration.

QUESTION: 15

The concept of difference feminism, proposed by psychologist Carol Gilligan and criticized by many, holds that men and women have genuine differences that need not all be considered equal.  What’s most enraging, aptly so, to the critics of Gilligan is the idea proposed by her in her book In a Different Voice that women have their own special version of morality rooted in relationships and caring rather than the supposedly abstract notions of justice and equity.

But however regressive her ideas were, Gilligan’s views garnered popularity and admiration in the writings of many others; lesser known imitations of her book include Nell Noddings’ Caring, Sara Ruddick’s Maternal Thinking, and Belenky, Clunchy, Golberger and Tarule’s Women’s way of Knowing. In fact Women’s way of Knowing, a book based on the responses gathered from 135 women interviewees, goes so far as to claim that women are not comfortable with argumentation and disagreement and that they have a distinct approach to knowledge, one that underlines collaboration, consensus, and mutual understanding.

The findings of the book have rightly been challenged by critics who point out that the responses elicited from the interviewees were not fully uncontaminated as these women were told the topic of the study in advance. However, irrespective of the authenticity of the findings of studies that confirm the ideas propagated in books such as In a Different Voice and Women’s way of Knowing, the conclusions drawn by the authors of these books are unwarranted. If the idea that women prefer to avoid disagreement and to promote understanding and acceptance over judgment and assessment had been true, there would have been clear and loud demands from women to change the basic nature of education provided to them as clearly the whole point of critical thinking, which forms an integral part of the education system, is to know what to accept and what to reject by assessment and judgment.

The author is primarily concerned with

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

 

Pre-Thinking

This is a Main Idea question. The correct answer must be broad enough to encompass all the content of the passage without veering outside the scope.

Answer Choices

A

To discuss the various merits and demerits of a particular view on women in general.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author is very critical in his/her take on the views expressed by the various authors discussed in the passage. There is no mention of any merits of such views.

B

To evaluate the relevance of a proposed theory in the modern world.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no mention of a single proposed theory. The author does discuss, however, how the views expressed don't reflect the mindset of the women, but there is no way to determine whether these women are set in the modern world.

C

To objectively describe a commonality among the works of certain authors.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author has sided with the critics of the views expressed by different authors/in different books mentioned in the passage. Also the word "described" does not encapsulate the discussion the author holds on these views. Hence, we cannot say that the author has objectively described anything.

D

To advocate a line of reasoning that is counter to a proposed old-fashioned idea. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

Even when the author discusses how the ideas expressed in the two books (mentioned in the third paragraph) are baseless, he/she does not propose any line of reasoning that is opposite to any idea mentioned in the passage. All the author does is question the basis of such views.

E

To criticize a line of thought deemed evidence-less.

Correct

This is indeed consistent with the overall tone and nature of comments made by the author in the entire passage. The author criticizes the views expressed by Gilligan and those expressed in a book considered by the author inspired by Gilligan's views.

QUESTION: 16

The concept of difference feminism, proposed by psychologist Carol Gilligan and criticized by many, holds that men and women have genuine differences that need not all be considered equal.  What’s most enraging, aptly so, to the critics of Gilligan is the idea proposed by her in her book In a Different Voice that women have their own special version of morality rooted in relationships and caring rather than the supposedly abstract notions of justice and equity.

But however regressive her ideas were, Gilligan’s views garnered popularity and admiration in the writings of many others; lesser known imitations of her book include Nell Noddings’ Caring, Sara Ruddick’s Maternal Thinking, and Belenky, Clunchy, Golberger and Tarule’s Women’s way of Knowing. In fact Women’s way of Knowing, a book based on the responses gathered from 135 women interviewees, goes so far as to claim that women are not comfortable with argumentation and disagreement and that they have a distinct approach to knowledge, one that underlines collaboration, consensus, and mutual understanding.

The findings of the book have rightly been challenged by critics who point out that the responses elicited from the interviewees were not fully uncontaminated as these women were told the topic of the study in advance. However, irrespective of the authenticity of the findings of studies that confirm the ideas propagated in books such as In a Different Voice and Women’s way of Knowing, the conclusions drawn by the authors of these books are unwarranted. If the idea that women prefer to avoid disagreement and to promote understanding and acceptance over judgment and assessment had been true, there would have been clear and loud demands from women to change the basic nature of education provided to them as clearly the whole point of critical thinking, which forms an integral part of the education system, is to know what to accept and what to reject by assessment and judgment.

Which of the following statements can be derived from the passage?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

 

Pre-Thinking

This is an Inference question. The word “derived” indicates the correct answer will follow closely from what is directly stated in the passage, but it may not itself be explicitly stated in the passage. Select the answer choice that is most strongly bolstered by specific facts mentioned in the passage.

Answer Choices

A

Women have a way of acquiring knowledge that is unique to them.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

Although the authors of Women's Way of knowing hold the view expressed in this choice, the author does not. Since this is an inference question, the correct answer has to be a view expressed by the author. If another party's view is to be expressed, it has to be qualified appropriately. Accordingly, had the answer choice been "Some people think that women have a way of acquiring knowledge that is unique to them", it would have been correct.

B

In order to obtain unbiased responses, the participants of a study should not have prior awareness of the subject of the study. 

Correct

The author agrees with the critics of Women's way of Knowing who challenge that the findings are not fully uncontaminated, i.e. they are contaminated to some extent since the interviewees were told the topic of the study in advance. Hence, one can infer that the author would agree with the statement given in this choice.

C

Critical thinking is the most central aspect of the education system.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author does mention in the last sentence of the passage that critical thinking is an integral part of the education; however, on the basis of the same, we cannot infer that it is the most integral part.

D

Books such as Nodding's Caring are regressive because they are unoriginal in nature. 

Incorrect: Inconsistent

Even though the author does imply that these books are regressive, it is not because these books are copies in general; it's because these books are imitations of ideas that the author considers regressive.

E

It has been easy for women to voice their demands and opinions when they have felt the need to do so. 

Incorrect: Out of Context

The topic of women voicing their demands is mentioned in the final paragraph; however, the author does not comment on the feasibility of the same.

QUESTION: 17

The concept of difference feminism, proposed by psychologist Carol Gilligan and criticized by many, holds that men and women have genuine differences that need not all be considered equal.  What’s most enraging, aptly so, to the critics of Gilligan is the idea proposed by her in her book In a Different Voice that women have their own special version of morality rooted in relationships and caring rather than the supposedly abstract notions of justice and equity.

But however regressive her ideas were, Gilligan’s views garnered popularity and admiration in the writings of many others; lesser known imitations of her book include Nell Noddings’ Caring, Sara Ruddick’s Maternal Thinking, and Belenky, Clunchy, Golberger and Tarule’s Women’s way of Knowing. In fact Women’s way of Knowing, a book based on the responses gathered from 135 women interviewees, goes so far as to claim that women are not comfortable with argumentation and disagreement and that they have a distinct approach to knowledge, one that underlines collaboration, consensus, and mutual understanding.

The findings of the book have rightly been challenged by critics who point out that the responses elicited from the interviewees were not fully uncontaminated as these women were told the topic of the study in advance. However, irrespective of the authenticity of the findings of studies that confirm the ideas propagated in books such as In a Different Voice and Women’s way of Knowing, the conclusions drawn by the authors of these books are unwarranted. If the idea that women prefer to avoid disagreement and to promote understanding and acceptance over judgment and assessment had been true, there would have been clear and loud demands from women to change the basic nature of education provided to them as clearly the whole point of critical thinking, which forms an integral part of the education system, is to know what to accept and what to reject by assessment and judgment.

Which of the following is the function of the second paragraph in the passage?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

 

Pre-Thinking

This is a Function question. Ask yourself: how does this paragraph function within the larger context of the passage? Often the answer choices for this type of question are presented as verbs, so try to come up with your own answer in verb-form.

Answer Choices

A

To raise a consideration that is in the opposite direction to the information given in the preceding paragraph.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author does raise a consideration that even though Gilligan's views were regressive, they were quite popular; however, this consideration is not in the opposite direction to the thoughts/discussion in the preceding paragraph.

B

To criticize the regressive thinking expressed by Gilligan and her followers.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

Although the author’s overall purpose in writing the passage is to do so, in the second paragraph, the author doesn’t criticize the views at all. Hence, it is out of scope for the second paragraph.

C

To suggest that regressive ideas about women's individuality become popular despite any merits in them.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

This is a generalized statement that is not supported by the passage. The passage contents are really specific and do not make an effort to discuss any trend in general.

D

To mention the influence a particular author's views had on various other writers while using one book as an example.

Correct

The author mentions how Gilligan's views inspired a spate of authors and uses the example of Women's way of Knowing to illustrate the same. Hence, this indeed is the correct choice.

E

To discuss the writings of various authors inspired by a particular writer's views.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

Even though this part of the answer choice is correct "inspired by a particular writer's view", the author never discusses (instead mentions) the writings of various authors.

QUESTION: 18

The concept of difference feminism, proposed by psychologist Carol Gilligan and criticized by many, holds that men and women have genuine differences that need not all be considered equal.  What’s most enraging, aptly so, to the critics of Gilligan is the idea proposed by her in her book In a Different Voice that women have their own special version of morality rooted in relationships and caring rather than the supposedly abstract notions of justice and equity.

But however regressive her ideas were, Gilligan’s views garnered popularity and admiration in the writings of many others; lesser known imitations of her book include Nell Noddings’ Caring, Sara Ruddick’s Maternal Thinking, and Belenky, Clunchy, Golberger and Tarule’s Women’s way of Knowing. In fact Women’s way of Knowing, a book based on the responses gathered from 135 women interviewees, goes so far as to claim that women are not comfortable with argumentation and disagreement and that they have a distinct approach to knowledge, one that underlines collaboration, consensus, and mutual understanding.

The findings of the book have rightly been challenged by critics who point out that the responses elicited from the interviewees were not fully uncontaminated as these women were told the topic of the study in advance. However, irrespective of the authenticity of the findings of studies that confirm the ideas propagated in books such as In a Different Voice and Women’s way of Knowing, the conclusions drawn by the authors of these books are unwarranted. If the idea that women prefer to avoid disagreement and to promote understanding and acceptance over judgment and assessment had been true, there would have been clear and loud demands from women to change the basic nature of education provided to them as clearly the whole point of critical thinking, which forms an integral part of the education system, is to know what to accept and what to reject by assessment and judgment.

Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

 

 

Pre-Thinking

This is a Detail question. Your job in this question is to find out one statement that directly flows from the given passage. In order to select the correct answer, make sure to refer to the passage and do not rely solely on your memory.

Answer Choices

A

Many people who criticize Gilligan's concept of difference feminism are more enraged by her take on women's idea of morality than by any idea in Women's Way of Knowing.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

Although the author does mention that what most infuriates the critics of Gilligan is her view that women have their own special version of morality rooted in relationships and caring rather than the supposedly abstract notions of justice and equity, there is no such comparison given for critics' take on the views expressed in the two books.

B

The findings of Women's Way of Knowing were deliberately contaminated by the writers of the book.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

In the final paragraph, the author does agree with the critics that the findings were not contamination-free but nowhere does he/she make the allegation that it was a deliberate effort to do so.

C

The process of evaluating and forming an opinion forms the basis for thinking critically. 

Correct

This information is explicitly stated in the final sentence of the passage: ... the whole point of critical thinking...is to know what to accept and what to reject by assessment and judgment.

D

Both In a Different Voice and Women's way of Knowing are based on studies that are somewhat contaminated.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author definitely agrees that the findings of Women’s way of Knowing are contaminated but doesn’t hold the same opinion about In a Different Voice. What the author says in the final paragraph is that even if we don’t take the authenticity of the findings in to account, the conclusions drawn by the authors are not justified.

E

The 135 women interviewees who contributed to Women's Way of Knowing were aware of how their opinions could be construed as regressive.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The only information we get to know about these women is that they knew the topic of the study prior to be interviewed. Nowhere does the author mention that they were aware of how their views were going to be perceived.

QUESTION: 19

In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into imperialism. For the first time, the nation secured overseas lands, dominions too thickly populated to be adapted for the purposes of colonization. By earlier conquests and purchases such as those of Louisiana, Florida, Texas, California, and New Mexico, the United States had secured relatively empty territories, which a flow of emigrants from the Eastern States of the US could rapidly Americanize. But in Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Hawaii, there was never a serious attempt to colonize on the part of the American citizens. The reasons behind these conquests were similar to the ones that led to the European partition of Africa in the 19th century. The year 1898 indeed represented a strong shift in the foreign policy.

Even though in the years after the Civil War (1861-1865), Denmark offered to sell St. Thomas and St. Johns cheaply, the United States refused to purchase them, and declined to annex San Domingo or to entertain Sweden's proposal to purchase its West Indian territory. In 1893, instead of annexing Hawaii, the US attempted to bolster up the sovereignty of the native Queen. Then suddenly Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam were annexed; Hawaii was incorporated and Samoa was divided with Germany. America finally abandoned isolationism for good. 

In part, this change in foreign policy was due to military considerations. The possession of Hawaii, Panama and Guantanamo in Cuba was obviously necessary for the defense of America’s coasts. Just as the Monroe Doctrine was intended to protect the country from the approach of great military powers, so these new acquisitions were desired to pre-empt close-lying bases, from which fleets in enemy possession could  assail the country’s trade or cut off its communication. Such strategic considerations, however, do not explain the whole of the new imperialistic policy. Economic motives played a greater part. As a result of the Industrial Revolution, merchants had begun to think in terms of foreign markets and the US financiers in terms of foreign investments. The growing population had made increasing demands upon food products, leaving less to be exported, and at the same time exports of manufactures had increased. Many citizens believed that the United States could not afford to adhere to a policy of isolation while other nations were reaching out for the command of new markets.

Which of the following statements best explains America’s sudden shift from isolationism to imperialism?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is an Inference question. The phrase “best explains” indicates the correct answer will follow closely from what is directly stated in the passage, but it may not itself be explicitly stated in the passage. Select the answer choice that is most strongly bolstered by specific facts mentioned in the passage.

Answer Choices

A

America was becoming a manufacturing nation, requiring markets for the disposal of surplus products. 

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The passage states that, "at the same time exports of manufactures had increased" but it's too far to suggest that American had not been a manufacturing nation prior to this policy shift.

B

The United States had an over-exaggerated opinion on the progress made towards industrialization. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

This is entirely outside the scope of the passage. We do not know anything about the United States' own opinion on its progress.

C

Markets and investment fields of the world were being divided up among the United States' rivals in Europe. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

Outside forces are only discussed as a threat in militaristic terms. There is nothing in the passage to indicate that the US was competing for markets and investment with rivals in Europe.

D

America required overseas territorial possessions in order to encroach on the lands of its enemies.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

While we are told that the possession of Hawaii, Panama and Guantanamo were done to protect certain aspects from enemy attack, we are given no information about America’s plan to encroach or intrude in to the land of its enemies.

E

The United States changed its foreign policy because the country was undergoing a commercial and industrial revolution. 

Correct

The third paragraph focuses on the reasons why America became more imperialistic after the Civil War. It begins to attribute the shift to military and strategy reasons, before stating, "economic motives played a greater part." The author is largely placing the explanation for the shift as mostly due to economic changes in the wake of the Industrial Revolution.

 

QUESTION: 20

In the year 1898, the United States made its earliest plunge into imperialism. For the first time, the nation secured overseas lands, dominions too thickly populated to be adapted for the purposes of colonization. By earlier conquests and purchases such as those of Louisiana, Florida, Texas, California, and New Mexico, the United States had secured relatively empty territories, which a flow of emigrants from the Eastern States of the US could rapidly Americanize. But in Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Hawaii, there was never a serious attempt to colonize on the part of the American citizens. The reasons behind these conquests were similar to the ones that led to the European partition of Africa in the 19th century. The year 1898 indeed represented a strong shift in the foreign policy.

Even though in the years after the Civil War (1861-1865), Denmark offered to sell St. Thomas and St. Johns cheaply, the United States refused to purchase them, and declined to annex San Domingo or to entertain Sweden's proposal to purchase its West Indian territory. In 1893, instead of annexing Hawaii, the US attempted to bolster up the sovereignty of the native Queen. Then suddenly Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam were annexed; Hawaii was incorporated and Samoa was divided with Germany. America finally abandoned isolationism for good. 

In part, this change in foreign policy was due to military considerations. The possession of Hawaii, Panama and Guantanamo in Cuba was obviously necessary for the defense of America’s coasts. Just as the Monroe Doctrine was intended to protect the country from the approach of great military powers, so these new acquisitions were desired to pre-empt close-lying bases, from which fleets in enemy possession could  assail the country’s trade or cut off its communication. Such strategic considerations, however, do not explain the whole of the new imperialistic policy. Economic motives played a greater part. As a result of the Industrial Revolution, merchants had begun to think in terms of foreign markets and the US financiers in terms of foreign investments. The growing population had made increasing demands upon food products, leaving less to be exported, and at the same time exports of manufactures had increased. Many citizens believed that the United States could not afford to adhere to a policy of isolation while other nations were reaching out for the command of new markets.

Which of the following best describes the purpose of the third paragraph of the passage?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

 

Pre-Thinking

This is a Function question.The correct answer’s scope will be confined to the author’s intentions in the third paragraph with respect to how it features in the structure of the whole passage. Reviewing the individual paragraph summary, we know that the third paragraph presents the major and the minor reason for the US’ shift from isolationism to imperialism. That’s the function of the third paragraph. 

Answer Choices

A

to explain how military considerations were responsible for the rise of imperialism.

Incorrect: Partial scope

While the military is mentioned as one cause, so are economic considerations, and it is the latter that is emphasized. In addition, the scope of the passage isn't really "the rise" of imperialism. It is concerned with America's shift from isolationism to imperialism in the post-Civil War years. The shift itself is the focus, not the policy.

B

to describe the foundations of the Industrial Revolution and its effect on America. 

Incorrect: Partial scope

This detail is mentioned in this paragraph, but it is not elaborated upon enough to make it the total focus of the paragraph. This paragraph is building upon the topic: America's move towards imperialism.

C

to outline the territories affected by America's foreign policy decisions in the post-Civil War years. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

This is much closer to the purpose of the second paragraph. The third paragraph only mentions territories by name in the first sentence.

D

to use the Monroe Doctrine as a metaphor for America's growing imperialism. 

Incorrect: Partial scope

The paragraph does do this, but this is not the purpose of the ENTIRE paragraph.

E

to provide the major and minor reasons behind the United States' policy shift in 1898.

Correct

The paragraph attempts to provide an explanation. The major reason is the economic concerns. The minor reason is the military concerns. The recent policy shift is the adjustment from isolationism to imperialism.

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