Test: Inference


20 Questions MCQ Test Verbal for GMAT | Test: Inference


Description
This mock test of Test: Inference for GMAT helps you for every GMAT entrance exam. This contains 20 Multiple Choice Questions for GMAT Test: Inference (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this Test: Inference quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. GMAT students definitely take this Test: Inference exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other Test: Inference extra questions, long questions & short questions for GMAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Two different concepts, copyright infringement and plagiarism, are often confused for each other. Copyright infringement deals with the unauthorized use of copyright material and hence the violation of the rights of the copyright holder. Plagiarism, on the other hand, is concerned with false claims of authorship of ideas, works etc. that may not necessarily be protected under copyright. Moreover, even if a person gets the permission to use copyright material, it may still account for plagiarism if the person tries to falsely claim the authorship of the material.

 Which of the following must be true on the basis of the information given in the above argument?

Solution:

Two different concepts, copyright infringement and plagiarism, are often confused for each other. Copyright infringement deals with the unauthorized use of copyright material and hence the violation of the rights of the copyright holder. Plagiarism, on the other hand, is concerned with false claims of authorship of ideas, works etc. that may not necessarily be protected under copyright. Moreover, even if a person gets the permission to use copyright material, it may still account for plagiarism if the person tries to falsely claim the authorship of the material. 

Which of the following must be true on the basis of the information given in the above argument?

 

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

The question stem says that “Which of the following must be true on the basis of the information given in the above argument?” The question requires us to draw a conclusion based on statements in the passage. Please note that the conclusion must be based only on the information provided in the passage.

Pre-Thinking Approach

In order to see what can be concluded from the argument, we would need to observe all the facts given in the argument and see what must also be true if the information in the passage is true.

Let us combine a couple of pieces of information presented in the passage:

Plagiarism is concerned with false claims of authorship of ideas, works:

  1. protected under copyright
  2. not protected under copyright
  3. Even if a person gets the permission to use copyright material, it still accounts for plagiarism if the person tries to falsely claim the authorship of the material.

Conclusion: If a person tries to falsely claim the authorship of a non-copyrighted material, it still accounts for plagiarism.

With this understanding in mind, let’s take a look at the option statements.

Answer Choices

A

Plagiarism may not always amount to copyright infringement but copyright infringement always amounts to plagiarism.

Incorrect - No information given

While the passage tells us that plagiarism does not always amount to copyright infringement, it doesn’t tell us that copyright infringement always amounts to plagiarism.

B

Any unauthorized use of material that has been protected under copyright will be considered plagiarism. 

Incorrect - No information given

According to the passage, any unauthorized use of material that has been protected under copyright will be considered copyright infringement. It does not amount to plagiarism unless false authorship is claimed. 

C

Under certain conditions, use of copyright free material can still be considered plagiarism.

Correct

This matches our pre-thinking analysis and is the correct answer choice.

D

Even authorized use of copyright material amounts to plagiarism.

Incorrect - No information given

This can only happen in certain cases – when people falsely claim authorship.

E

In a court of law, it is easier to prove a case of copyright infringement than a case of plagiarism.

Incorrect - No information given

Comparison between ease of proving copyright infringement and plagiarism cannot be inferred since the passage does not even mention it.

QUESTION: 2

Researchers have discovered that a quick study of the hands — more specifically, the lengths of the index and ring fingers — can reveal a lot about a person’s personality and risk of disease. Of course, your fingers don’t actually control these issues; it’s closer to the other way around. 

Which of the following statements is best supported by the above information?

Solution:

Researchers have discovered that a quick study of the hands — more specifically, the lengths of the index and ring fingers — can reveal a lot about a person’s personality and risk of disease. Of course, your fingers don’t actually control these issues; it’s closer to the other way around. 

Which of the following statements is best supported by the above information?

Argument Analysis

 

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

N/ A

Pre-Thinking Approach

In order to see which statement can be best supported by the passage, we would need to observe all the facts given in the argument and see if the information in the passage is true, what must also be true.

Inferences: – From the above given information in the passage we can conclude the following:

  • Linkage #1 – (ref.  statement 1& 2 in the logical structure)
  • Conclusion – Different personalities and disease risks will affect the lengths of the index and ring fingers in different ways. 

With this pre-thinking in mind, let's take a look at the option statements.

Answer Choices

A

The larger the difference in the length of the index fingers and ring fingers, the clearer the understanding of the person’s personality that can be achieved through the study of hands.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage only mentions the lengths of the I&R fingers but we are not given any information to conclude on the difference in the length of the index and ring fingers. It could be the case that each finger refers to some personality traits or risks and individual length of a finger is studied to draw the information about the person. In this case, the difference in the length of fingers is of no relevance.

B

The lengths of the ring and index fingers are expected to be different for people with different personalities.

Correct

This option is written along the lines of our pre-thinking combination of linkage 1. Passage supports that for different personalities, these lengths are also expected to be different.

C

It is difficult to ascertain through the study of hands the personality and disposition to disease of a person with almost no difference in the length in the length of index and ring fingers.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage only mentions the lengths of the index and ring fingers, not the difference in lengths and the role played by it.

D

Other fingers, except the ring and index fingers, do not provide much information about a person’s personality and risk of disease.

Incorrect - No information given

We only know that the lengths of index and ring fingers can give us information about a person’s personality and risk of disease. We don’t know what role other fingers can play.

E

A person’s personality and risk of disease is generally controlled by the length of the index and ring fingers.

Incorrect - No information given

As we observed in logical structure, a person’s personality and risk of disease controls the lengths of the index and ring fingers and not the other way round.

QUESTION: 3

IQ or intelligence quotient that deals with understanding information and EQ or emotional quotient that deals with understanding emotions are both key in assuring a person's happiness and ability to succeed. Although people with a high IQ are exceptionally brilliant at understanding information, when it comes to social interaction they usually have to work hard to understand others and to make themselves understood. Thus, a person with a high EQ is more likely to be happy and successful than a person with a high IQ. Which of the following must be true based on the information given above?

Solution:

IQ or intelligence quotient that deals with understanding information and EQ or emotional quotient that deals with understanding emotions are both key in assuring a person's happiness and ability to succeed. Although people with a high IQ are exceptionally brilliant at understanding information, when it comes to social interaction they usually have to work hard to understand others and to make themselves understood. Thus, a person with a high EQ is more likely to be happy and successful than a person with a high IQ. 

Which of the following must be true based on the information given above?

Argument Analysis

 

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

N/A

Pre-Thinking Approach

The question stem says: “Which of the following must be true based on the information given above?” Therefore, the question requires us to draw an inference based on the statements in the passage. In order to see what can be inferred from the argument, we would need to observe all the facts given in the argument and see what must also be true if the information in the passage is true. Please note that the inference must be based only on the information provided in the passage.

Let us combine few pieces of information presented in the passage:

  1. People with a high IQ are exceptionally brilliant at understanding information.
  2. When it comes to social interaction they (people with a high IQ) usually have to work hard to understand others and to make themselves understood.
  3. A person with a high EQ is more likely to be happy and successful than a person with a high IQ.

Inference 1 (combining 1, 2 & 3): Ease of handling social interactions plays a more significant role than understanding information in the happiness and success of a person.

Inference 2 (combining 1 & 2): Ease of understanding information does not play a major role in social interactions.

With this understanding in mind, let's evaluate the option choices.

Answer Choices

A

People with a high IQ are not aware of the importance of social interactions in determining their happiness and success.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage says that people with high IQ find it difficult to handle social interactions. This does not in any way mean that people with a high IQ are not aware of the importance of social interactions.

B

People with a high IQ generally have a very low EQ.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage only compares a person with high IQ and a person with high EQ. This does not necessarily mean that if the IQ is high then the EQ would generally be very low.

C

A significant part of understanding people in social interaction does not deal with understanding information.

Correct

This statement is on the same lines as our pre-thinking inference no. 2.

D

A person with a low EQ but a high IQ is less likely to be successful than a person with a low IQ and low EQ.

Incorrect - No information given

In the comparison presented in the option, both scenarios talk about people with low EQ. Therefore, the option in effect compares a person with high IQ and a person with low IQ and says that the one with high IQ is less likely to be successful than the one with low IQ. This cannot be inferred.

E

IQ and EQ are the only two important factors in determining a person’s happiness and ability to succeed.

Incorrect - No information given

We know that IQ & EQ are important factors for determining happiness and ability to succeed. However, we do not know if they are the ONLY 2 important factors.

QUESTION: 4

In a cooking competition, various family-owned restaurants cooked dishes made from recipes that have been in their families for generations.  The cake that won the competition was made from a recipe that head-chef Pierre Limore claims has been in his family for three generations since the 1940s. Although the sous-chef who actually baked the winning dish used an ingredient that has only recently become popular in the baking industry, around the late 1920s the same ingredient had been commonly used by chefs before it was temporarily declared unfit for human consumption. Which of the following can be concluded on the basis of the information given above?

Solution:

In a cooking competition, various family-owned restaurants cooked dishes made from recipes that have been in their families for generations.  The cake that won the competition was made from a recipe that head-chef Pierre Limore claims has been in his family for three generations since the 1940s. Although the sous-chef who actually baked the winning dish used an ingredient that has only recently become popular in the baking industry, around the late 1920s the same ingredient had been commonly used by chefs before it was temporarily declared unfit for human consumption. 

Which of the following can be concluded on the basis of the information given above?

Argument Analysis

 

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

The passage doesn’t state a conclusion. The question stem requires us to draw a conclusion based on the given information. Please note that the conclusion must be based only on the information provided in the passage.

Pre-Thinking Approach

In order to see what can be concluded from the argument, we  need to observe all the facts given in the argument and see if the information in the passage is true, what else must also be true.

Fact#1The head-chef claims that the recipe of the winning cake has been in his family for three generations since the 1940s.

Fact#2 Although the sous-chef who actually baked the winning dish used an ingredient that has only recently become popular in the baking industry, around the late 1920s the same ingredient had been commonly used by chefs before it was temporarily declared unfit for human consumption.

Conclusion:

Since the ingredient was only temporarily declared unfit in the 1920s, it is possible that the ingredient used in the recipe could have been a part of the recipe that was initiated in to the head-chef’s family in the 1940s. Accordingly, one could deduce that:

The fact that the ingredient was temporary declared unfit for HC in the 1920s does not go against the claim made by the head chef.

 With this pre-thinking in mind, let’s evaluate the answer choices.

Answer Choices

A

The sous-chef who baked the cake was aware of the fact that the use of the specific ingredient would not violate the rules of the competition.

Incorrect - No information given

Awareness of the sous-chef cannot be determined from the information in the passage.

B

Had the head-chef Pierre Limore notified the authorities holding the competition of the list of ingredients, it is highly unlikely that his dish would have won the competition.

Incorrect - No information given

This option presents a hypothetical scenario that cannot be concluded from the information given in the passage.

C

The use of the recipe used to bake the winning dish does not belie the claim made by the head-chef.

Correct

This option is written along the lines of our pre-thinking.

D

The authorities holding the competition had a mechanism to verify whether the recipes used in baking the dishes in the competition matched the original recipes first used to make the dishes.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage gives us no information regarding any sort of mechanism employed by the authorities holding the competition.

E

To ensure that such competitions are fairly conducted, only chefs who can exactly replicate the original dish should be allowed to participate.

Incorrect - No information given

The author gives us no opinion to conclude the recommendation given in this choice.

QUESTION: 5

Organizations with growing data needs can create more space by either compressing their existing data (called Deduping) or adding additional storage tape disks. In most instances, the cost of deduping is 10% lower than the cost of installing additional tape drives for taking backups.  It is true that one must take more frequent backups with deduping.  This incurs some extra bandwidth charges. Even after bandwidth charges, it is still cheaper for an organization to Dedupe than to add tape drives to increase storage.The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?

Solution:

Organizations with growing data needs can create more space by either compressing their existing data (called Deduping) or adding additional storage tape disks. In most instances, the cost of deduping is 10% lower than the cost of installing additional tape drives for taking backups.  It is true that one must take more frequent backups with deduping.  This incurs some extra bandwidth charges. Even after bandwidth charges, it is still cheaper for an organization to Dedupe than to add tape drives to increase storage.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?

 

Pre-Thinking

  1. Bandwidth charges for taking back-ups is less than 10% of the cost of installation of tape drives

Answer Choices

A

Installation time of dedupe disk system is 10% less than the installation time of tape drives.

The passage only talks about installation costs and not about installation time.

B

Switching from tape drives to dedupe disk system will eliminate 10% of tape-drives that are currently used in computers today.

This choice is an ISWAT.  It uses the term 10% as used in the passage but changes the context of the term.

C

The bandwidth charges required for replication after deduping is less than 10% of the cost of installing tape drives.

Based on following two data points of the costs, this choice can be inferred.

  1. Installation Cost of DeDupe = Installation Cost of Tape Drives – 10% (installation cost of tape drives)
  2. Cost of DeDupe + Bandwidth Charges < Cost of Tape DrivesClearly the bandwidth charges are less than 10% of the installation cost of tape drives.

D

The cost of replicating backups after deduping is more than 10% of the cost of installing dedupes.

This is opposite to what can be inferred from the passage.

E

It takes 10% less time to compress the files using Dedupe than it does to backup files using tape drives.

The passage only compares the cost of using the two systems.  It does not compare the time that it takes to compress the files.

QUESTION: 6

A party cannot be compelled to submit to general arbitration unless there is a contractual basis for concluding that the party agreed to do so. However, class arbitration is a specific kind of arbitration that changes the nature of general arbitration to such a degree that it cannot be presumed that parties consented to class arbitration simply by agreeing to submit their disputes to an arbitrator.Which of the following statements is best supported by the passage above?

Solution:

A party cannot be compelled to submit to general arbitration unless there is a contractual basis for concluding that the party agreed to do so. However, class arbitration is a specific kind of arbitration that changes the nature of general arbitration to such a degree that it cannot be presumed that parties consented to class arbitration simply by agreeing to submit their disputes to an arbitrator.

Which of the following statements is best supported by the passage above?

Argument Analysis

 

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

N/A

Pre-Thinking Approach

The question requires us to find a statement which can be inferred from the passage. For that, we need to look at the given facts closely and come up with an inference that is either a combination of the two facts or a restatement of the given information in different words. Accordingly, from A party can’t be compelled for GA (reference: logical structure diagram above), we can infer that:

  1. A prior CB for GA is a must if one of the parties wishes to enforce GA.

Combining A party can’t be compelled for GA and CA changes the nature of GA(reference: logical structure diagram above), we can also infer that:

  1. A contract for GA could be used to enforce GA but not necessarily CA.

With this understanding in mind, let’s take a look at the option statements.

Answer Choices

A

Generally, class arbitration and general arbitration are used for different kinds of disputes.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage doesn’t provide any information regarding the kind of disputes where CA or GA is used.

B

A company cannot sign a contract with another company that allows it to pursue class arbitration even before opting for general arbitration.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage doesn’t provide any information regarding the order in which these contracts can be signed.

C

In some scenarios, general arbitration can be pursued even if one of the parties is unwilling to get into the arbitration.

Correct

This choice is written along the lines of our pre-thinking per Statement 1. Even if one of the parties is unwilling to get into arbitration but had signed a contract for the same, GA can be pursued.

D

If the arbitrator decides so, then a company can be subjected to class arbitration because it agreed to settling the disputes through general arbitration.

Incorrect - Against the given information

This option goes against CA changes the nature of GA (ref.: logical structure diagram) that states that agreement to GA can’t be taken as a basis for CA.

E

Even if there is a contractual basis for class arbitration, a party cannot be compelled to enter in to it if it prefers to opt for general arbitration instead.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage doesn’t provide any information regarding how preference of a party changes the situation.

QUESTION: 7

In Hill Dale High School, the percentage of students with grades above 80 percent is higher in the junior class than in the senior class, but the percentage of students with grades above 90 percent is higher in the senior class.Which of the following must be true on the basis of the statements above?

Solution:

In Hill Dale High School, the percentage of students with grades above 80 percent is higher in the junior class than in the senior class, but the percentage of students with grades above 90 percent is higher in the senior class.

Which of the following must be true on the basis of the statements above?

Argument Analysis

 

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

N/A

Pre-Thinking Approach

The question asks us to find a statement which must be true if the information given in the passage is true.

Let’s take a small example with numbers in order to draw inferences.

Suppose the number of students in Junior and Senior classes is 50 and 100 respectively. Let’s further divide this number so that the condition given in the passage is true:

 

 

As you can see the 3rd column satisfies the condition that % of students with grades > 80% is higher in JC whereas the last column satisfies the condition that % of students with grades > 90% is higher in SC. Now let’s divide the proportion of students scoring above 80% in two categories:

  1. Those between 80 and 90%
  2. Those above 90%

 Doing so would help us visualize the information clearly.

Table A

Now if the proportion of students in JC scoring above 80% is higher than that in SC but the proportion is lower in case of students scoring above 90%, then there must be students in JC who are scoring between 80 and 90%. The table above illustrates this. If this weren’t so, i.e. if there were no students in JC scoring between 80 and 90%, then the table would look like this:

 

Now the last column doesn’t satisfy the information given in the passage that proportion of students scoring >90% grades is higher in SC.  Therefore, our earlier understanding is correct that there must be some students in JC who have grades between 80 and 90%.

Please note that the example quoted here is only to explain the passage more clearly and we should focus only on the proportions mentioned in the table and not on the absolute numbers as they can be quite different from the ones given in the table and any inference regarding a comparison of absolute numbers might not hold. The table given below illustrates this point by reversing the number of students in JC and SC.

With this understanding in mind, let's take a look at the option statements.

Answer Choices

A

The average class grade of the senior class is higher than that of the junior class.

Incorrect - No information given

The information regarding average class grade cannot be inferred as the passage only talks about students scoring above 80%.

B

The number of students with grades above 80 percent is greater in the junior class than in the senior class.

Incorrect - No information given

We can’t infer any comparative information regarding absolute numbers as the passage only talks about proportions.

C

The number of students with grades lower than 80 percent is greater in the senior class than in the junior class.

Incorrect - No information given

We can’t infer any comparative information regarding absolute numbers as the passage only talks about proportions.

D

Some students in the junior class have grades between 80 percent and 90 percent.

Correct

This is same as the understanding we reached during the pre-thinking phase.

E

The number of students with grades above 90 percent is higher in the senior class than in the junior class.

Incorrect - No information given

We can’t infer any comparative information regarding absolute numbers as the passage only talks about proportions.

QUESTION: 8

When patients with clinical depression come to Royal Cornhill Mental Health Institute, they are first treated with psychotherapy and antidepressants. Only 40 percent respond to their first treatment. More than 20 percent of depressed people respond to no treatment at all.If the information given above is true, which of the following statements must be true?

Solution:

When patients with clinical depression come to Royal Cornhill Mental Health Institute, they are first treated with psychotherapy and antidepressants. Only 40 percent respond to their first treatment. More than 20 percent of depressed people respond to no treatment at all.

If the information given above is true, which of the following statements must be true?

Argument Analysis

 

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

N/A

Pre-Thinking Approach

The question requires us to find a statement that must be true as per the information given in the passage. Let’s take a look at this information and see what we can infer from it.

  1. P responding to FT (refer to the logical structure diagram above) tells us that 60% of patients don’t respond to the first treatment.

Combining statement 1 with P not responding to AT, we can derive that

  1. Out of those patients who don’t respond to the first treatment (60% of all patients), more than one third (33.33%) don’t respond to any treatment at all.

Also, P not responding to AT tells us that

  1. <80% respond to some treatment

Combining P responding to FT with statement 3 tells us that

  1. Those who respond to some treatment (but not the first) < 40%

With this understanding in mind, let’s take a look at the option statements.

Answer Choices

A

At least 60% of the patients who do not respond to the first treatment respond to some other treatment.

Incorrect - No information given

We know that 60% do not respond to the first treatment. This statement says that >= 60% of these i.e. >= 36% of all patients respond to some other treatment. As noted in inference no. 4 in the pre-thinking section, all we know is that this number is less than 40%. We can’t say that this is at least 36%. 

B

At least 30% of the patients who do not respond to the first treatment do not respond to the subsequent treatments as well.

Correct

This choice is written along the lines of our pre-thinking stated in inference number 2. It talks about patients who don’t respond to the first treatment. We know that their proportion is 60% of the total.The option says that at least 30% of these, i.e. at least 18% of the total don’t respond to subsequent treatments as well. This is true since we know that >20% don’t respond to any treatment at all.

C

Of the 40% patients who respond to their first treatment, at least 50% also respond to some other treatment.

Incorrect - No information given

This option says that at least 20% of the patients (>=50% of 40% who respond to first treatment) also respond to some other treatment. The passage doesn’t provide any information in this regard.

D

Of the people who respond to some treatment, the proportion that responds to the first medication is the lowest.

Incorrect - Against the given information

This option says that of the people who respond to some treatment (>=40% but <80% of all) the proportion that responds to the first medication is lowest. But we know from inference number 4 that the proportion of those who respond to some treatment (but not the first) <40% whereas the proportion of those who respond to the first treatment is 40%. So among people who respond to some treatment, the proportion of those who respond to the first is highest, whereas this option says the opposite.

E

Of the 20% patients who responded to no treatment at all, at least 10% would have responded to some treatment had it not included the use of antidepressants.

Incorrect - No information given

All the passage states regarding the people who failed to respond to any medication is that they formed more than 20% of the total participants. No further information is given about this segment.

QUESTION: 9

Dr. Atkins revolutionized the dieting world when he introduced the Atkins diet, a low-carb, high-protein, high-fat diet, which promises lifelong weight loss and maintenance.   However the American Heart Association (AHA) does not recommend this extremely low-carb diet.  It argues that Atkins Diet restricts intake of healthy carbs that provide essential nutrients to the body. Epidemiological studies have indicated that people who eat high-carbs diets have normal incidences of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and certain bone diseases, but such incidence of diseases is lower in people eating high-carbs diets than in people eating high-protein diets.

If the statements above are true, which of the following inference can be drawn by them?

Solution:

Dr. Atkins revolutionized the dieting world when he introduced the Atkins diet, a low-carb, high-protein, high-fat diet, which promises lifelong weight loss and maintenance.   However the American Heart Association (AHA) does not recommend this extremely low-carb diet.  It argues that Atkins Diet restricts intake of healthy carbs that provide essential nutrients to the body. Epidemiological studies have indicated that people who eat high-carbs diets have normal incidences of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and certain bone diseases, but such incidence of diseases is lower in people eating high-carbs diets than in people eating high-protein diets.

If the statements above are true, which of the following inference can be drawn by them?

 

Pre-Thinking

  1. People who follow Atkins diet may experience weight loss as promised but may be at a higher risk for chronic diseases.
  2. People who eat healthy carbs experience lower incidence of chronic diseases.

Answer Choices

A

Atkins Diet is high in saturated fats, and as such it adversely affects blood lipid profiles (cholesterol, LDLs, HDLs).

The passage only talks about diet with regards to carb content and protein content.  Thus, this choice about fat content cannot be inferred from the passage.

B

The diet revolution happened because Dr. Atkins pioneered the concept of high-protein, high-fat diet.

The passage states that the Atkins diet revolutionized the dieting world. It does not mean that that the diet revolution happened because of the Atkins diet. For example, Apple revolutionized the cell phone industry does not imply that the cell phone revolution happened because of Apple. 

C

People who eat high-protein diets suffer from chronic diseases.

This passage states that people who eat high protein diet have higher incidence of suffering from chronic diseases.  This does not mean that everyone who eats high protein diet suffers from chronic disease.

D

The more carbs you eat, the more healthy you will be.

This cannot be inferred from the passage since the passage talks about the benefits of eating healthy carbs and not any carbs.

E

The Atkins diet revolution may be beneficial for weight loss but may cause a higher than normal incidence of certain cardio vascular diseases.

This choice echoes the inference # 1 as shown in the logical structure.

QUESTION: 10

The residents of the city of Tibica are supplied water by two local corporations: TMC (Tibica Municipal Corporation) and TWMC (TibicaWater Management Corporation). Under pressure from the government, TMC recently increased its supply of water to the city. Even though TWMC maintained its supply level, the residents complained that their overall supply of water has reduced. Therefore, it seems likely that

Which of the following statements best completes the above passage?

Solution:
QUESTION: 11

Cognitive dissonance, a concept proposed by behavioral analyst Leon Festinger, refers to a psychological condition in which individuals experience anxiety or even neurosis because they hold contradictory beliefs. The reverse situation, known as consonance, results when dissonance reaches a peak that forces the individual to move toward consonance. Therefore, no individual can arrive at cognitive consonance unless he or she first experiences the highest possible level of cognitive dissonance.

If the above statements are true, which of the following must also be true?

Solution:

Cognitive dissonance, a concept proposed by behavioral analyst Leon Festinger, refers to a psychological condition in which individuals experience anxiety or even neurosis because they hold contradictory beliefs. The reverse situation, known as consonance, results when dissonance reaches a peak that forces the individual to move toward consonance. Therefore, no individual can arrive at cognitive consonance unless he or she first experiences the highest possible level of cognitive dissonance.

If the above statements are true, which of the following must also be true?

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

The question stem says that “If the above statements are true, which of the following must also be true?”. The question requires us to draw an inference based on statements in the passage. Please note that the inference must be based only on the information provided in the passage.

Pre-Thinking Approach

In order to see what can be inferred from the argument, we would need to observe all the facts given in the argument and see if the information in the passage is true, what must also be true.

Let us combine a couple of pieces of information presented in the passage:

  1. The reverse situation, known as consonance, results when dissonance reaches a peak that forces the individual to move toward consonance.
  2. No individual can arrive at cognitive consonance unless he or she first experiences the highest possible level of cognitive dissonance

Inference: Every individual who experiences consonance must have experienced highest levels of cognitive dissonance first.

With this understanding in mind, let's take a look at the answer choices.

Answer Choices

A

The higher the level of cognitive dissonance, the higher is the level of cognitive consonance achieved by the individual.

Incorrect - No information given

We only know that to arrive at consonance, one must experience the highest levels of dissonance. The argument does not talk about the levels of consonance that can be achieved.

B

An individual experiencing cognitive consonance does not hold contradictory beliefs.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage says that cognitive consonance is the opposite of dissonance. This means that people would not experience anxiety or neurosis. Therefore, it cannot be inferred whether people experiencing consonance will hold contradictory beliefs.

C

Cognitive consonance cannot be achieved unless cognitive dissonance is experienced first.

Correct

This matches the pre-thinking analysis and is the correct answer.

D

Cognitive dissonance cannot be treated using prescription medication.

Incorrect - No information given

How CD is treated is not mentioned in the argument.

E

Awareness of cognitive dissonance in itself is not sufficient to lead to cognitive consonance.

Incorrect - No information given

There is no information given regarding the impact of awareness of CD on achieving CC. Therefore, this statement cannot be derived from the passage.

QUESTION: 12

Even though the terms taste aversion and taste avoidance are sometimes used interchangeably, there exists enough evidence to conclude that these two phenomena are likely not always related to each other. Research shows that taste aversion occurs when the consumption of a substance is followed by an unpleasant physical experience, normally nausea, but that no following repulsive or discomforting experience is necessary for the establishment of taste avoidance. Moreover, treatments that alleviate or prevent nausea do not impact the development or expression of taste avoidance, but they interfere with both the establishment and expression of taste aversion.

Which of the following statements can be concluded on the basis of the information given in the above passage?

Solution:

Even though the terms taste aversion and taste avoidance are sometimes used interchangeably, there exists enough evidence to conclude that these two phenomena are likely not always related to each other. Research shows that taste aversion occurs when the consumption of a substance is followed by an unpleasant physical experience, normally nausea, but that no following repulsive or discomforting experience is necessary for the establishment of taste avoidance. Moreover, treatments that alleviate or prevent nausea do not impact the development or expression of taste avoidance, but they interfere with both the establishment and expression of taste aversion.

Which of the following statements can be concluded on the basis of the information given in the above passage?

Argument Analysis

 

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

The author states that that (Even though the terms taste aversion and taste avoidance are sometimes used interchangeably,) there exists enough evidence to conclude that these two phenomena are likely not related to each other always.

Pre-Thinking Approach

In order to see what can be concluded on the basis of the information given in the passage, we need to observe all the given facts and see if the information in the passage is true, what must also be true.

Fact#1Research shows that taste aversion occurs when the consumption of a substance is followed by an unpleasant physical experience, normally nausea, but that no following repulsive or discomforting experience is necessary for the establishment of taste avoidance.

Conclusion 1: Since the above fact talks about the circumstance the two conditions develop, we can conclude that:

  • The circumstances leading up to taste avoidance and taste aversion are not always the same.  

Fact#2   Moreover, treatments that alleviate or prevent nausea do not impact the development or expression of taste avoidance, but they interfere with both the establishment and expression of taste aversion.

Conclusion 2:  The second facts talks about the impact of a kind of treatments on the two conditions. Such treatments fail to have any impact on either the development or expression of taste avoidance but do certainly impact both areas of taster aversion. Accordingly, we can conclude that:

  • Medications for the alleviation of nausea do not have the same impact on taste avoidance as they do on taste aversion.

With this pre-thinking in mind, let’s evaluate the answer choices.

Answer Choices

A

The consumption of the food item is the cause of the following nausea that leads to the development of taste aversion.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage states when the consumption of a food is followed by nausea, taste aversion is developed. This information does not give us any basis to conclude that it is the food that leads to the nausea in such cases; for instance, it is possible that the nausea is due to a viral infection and it is a mere coincidence that the consumption of the food happened before it. 

B

The definitions of taste avoidance and taste aversion need to be revised to facilitate a clearer understanding of the concepts.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage states that these terms are used interchangeably sometimes. This statement does not indicate whether the usage is because of the confusion in the definitions or that the definitions are absolutely perfect but the understanding, and hence the usage, isn’t.

C

The development of taste aversion is faster for new food items that generate an unpleasant reaction on their first-time consumption than for nausea- causing foods that have been previously consumed without any unpleasant physical response.

Incorrect - No information given

Firstly, we do not have any basis to conclude that it is the food item that causes an unpleasant reaction. Secondly, there is no information given to make an estimate about the rate of development of taste aversion in different situations.

D

The establishment or expression of taste aversion cannot be accompanied by the development of expression of taste avoidance. 

Incorrect - No information given

The passage states that these two phenomena are probably not always related and that the conditions present at the time of their development are not necessarily the same but that does not mean that they cannot developed or expressed at the same time.

E

If a nausea-preventing medicine is administered in the time between the consumption of food and the following nausea, chances are that the development of taste aversion will be hindered.

Correct

This choice can be derived on the basis of fact number 2 stated in the pre-thinking analysis. The fact that such medication “interferes” with the establishment of taste aversion gives us a basis to conclude this statement.

QUESTION: 13

A company cannot survive for long without at least one competitive advantage over the rest of the companies in the industry. With the latest technological developments, a company’s competitors can imitate its competitive advantage more easily than before. Besides, in this hyper-competitive world, building more than one competitive advantage is also not always possible.

Which of the following statements is best supported by the passage above?

Solution:

A company cannot survive for long without at least one competitive advantage over the rest of the companies in the industry. With the latest technological developments, a company’s competitors can imitate its competitive advantage more easily than before. Besides, in this hyper-competitive world, building more than one competitive advantage is also not always possible.

Which of the following statements is best supported by the passage above?

Argument Analysis

 

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

N/ A

Pre-Thinking Approach

In order to see which statement can be best supported by the passage, we would need to observe all the facts given in the argument and see if the information in the passage is true, what must also be true.

Inferences: – From the information given in the passage, we can infer the following:

  • Ref. fact 1 and 2 in the logical structure
    • Inference – The competitors’ imitation of the competitive advantage(s) of a company is a threat to the long-term survival of the company.
  • Ref fact 1, 2 and 3 in the logical structure
    • Inference – If a company wants to survive in the long run, then it needs to focus on replacing the lost competitive advantages with new ones.

With this understanding in mind, let’s take a look at the option statements.

 

Answer Choices

A

For a company to survive in the long run, it needs to imitate the competitive advantage of all of its competitors, in addition to maintaining at least one competitive advantage.

Incorrect - No information given

This statement says that for survival, apart from having one or more competitive advantages, a company must imitate competitive advantages of all its competitors. However, the passage does not give us any information for this extra condition.

B

No two companies producing the same products or services can survive in a marketplace in the long run.

Incorrect - No information given

This option ignores the fact that it is possible for 2 companies to produce the same products / services and still survive as long as each company continuously maintains at least one competitive advantage over the other.

C

A company needs to regularly replace existing competitive advantages with new competitive advantages in order to survive in the long run.

Correct

This option is written along the lines of our pre-thinking combination of linkage 1 & 2. It is a combination of the three pieces of information given to us in the passage.

D

If two companies in an industry try to imitate each other’s competitive advantages, then both the companies will not be able to survive in the long run.

Incorrect - No information given

Even if the 2 companies imitate each other’s competitive advantages, as long as they are able to replace their own lost advantages with new competitive advantages, they can survive in the long run.

E

In the future, it is highly unlikely that imitating the competitive advantage of competitors will become difficult.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage just says that it has become easier for companies to imitate competitive advantages. The passage does not attempt to predict anything about the feasibility of imitating the advantages in the future.

QUESTION: 14

The INES scale was created in 1990 as a way of indicating the relative seriousness of incidents in which radioactivity is released at nuclear plants. Before that, various countries relied upon their own classification systems, making it difficult to compare a nuclear mishap that occurred in the U.S. with one in, say, Europe or Japan.

Which of the following statements is best supported by the above passage?

Solution:

The INES scale was created in 1990 as a way of indicating the relative seriousness of incidents in which radioactivity is released at nuclear plants. Before that, various countries relied upon their own classification systems, making it difficult to compare a nuclear mishap that occurred in the U.S. with one in, say, Europe or Japan.

Which of the following statements is best supported by the above passage?

Argument Analysis

 

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

N/A

Pre-Thinking Approach

The question stem requires us to look for a statement that is best supported by the information given in the passage. So let’s look at the same and see what we can derive from it.

We know from Before 1990 and NM in different countries (refer to the logical structure diagram above) that comparison was difficult when countries used their own CS.

Since, INES was created in 1990 to measure RS of incidents across countries, which were using different CS, we can infer that:

  • It’s likely that a common scale can overcome the difficulty faced in measuring the RS of NM across countries where different CS are used.

With this understanding in mind, let’s take a look at the option statements.

Answer Choices

A

After 1990, the implementation of the INES scale is expected to have led to a reduction in the amount of damage caused by nuclear mishaps.

Incorrect - No information given

INES just measures  RS of NM, it has no impact on the damage caused.

B

A common scale of measurement is likely to better facilitate a comparison of the relative seriousness of incidents across nations, incidents in which radio-activity is released at nuclear plants. 

Correct

This choice is written along the lines of our pre-thinking.

C

The ability to compare the relative seriousness of incidents in which radioactivity is released at nuclear plants in different parts of the US is expected to have increased after the creation of INES in 1990.

Incorrect - No information given

First of all, we don’t know whether the US adopted the INES scale. Secondly, and more importantly, the passage says the difficulty was faced in measuring RS across countries, not within the same country.

D

It is very likely that most countries currently use the INES scale to communicate the relative seriousness of incidents in which radioactivity is released at nuclear plants.

Incorrect - No information given

We have no evidence that INES was actually adopted in different countries.

E

In the absence of the INES scale, it would have been currently very difficult to compare nuclear mishaps in the US with those in Europe or Japan.

Incorrect - No information given

From the passage, we don’t know if INES was actually adopted in these countries. Similarly, we can’t say that another scale wouldn't have been created in the absence of INES. So, we cannot conclude anything about the hypothetical situation mentioned in this choice. 

QUESTION: 15

The length of a bee’s tongue is proportional to the size of the bee, but it is also true that this proportion is inherited by each bee. Furthermore, the bee tongue is usually sized to match the depth of the flower it pollinates, making it possible for the bee to drink the nectar from it. Accordingly, there are both short-tongued and long-tongued bees that drink nectar only from flowers suited to their tongue size. Such bees are called specialists and since they depend on just a few flowers, they are quite vulnerable to changes in nature.

Solution:

The length of a bee’s tongue is proportional to the size of the bee, but it is also true that this proportion is inherited by each bee. Furthermore, the bee tongue is usually sized to match the depth of the flower it pollinates, making it possible for the bee to drink the nectar from it. Accordingly, there are both short-tongued and long-tongued bees that drink nectar only from flowers suited to their tongue size. Such bees are called specialists and since they depend on just a few flowers, they are quite vulnerable to changes in nature.

If the information given above is true, then which of the following can be concluded from it?

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

N/ A

Pre-Thinking Approach

In order to see which statement can be best supported by the passage, we would need to observe all the facts given in the argument and see what must also be true if the information in the passage is true. Please note that the inference/conclusion must be based only on the given information.

Inferences:

  • From fact 2 (ref.: logical structure)
    • Inference1: The size of the bee’s tongue and the depth of the flower it pollinates are mostly linked to each other.
  • Combining facts 3 & 4(ref.: logical structure)
    • Inference 2: Genetic changes such as those made to the size, colour, and shape of certain flower species could affect the species of bee dependent on it.

With this understanding in mind, let’s take a look at the option statements.

 

Answer Choices

A

It is by studying the species of flower a bee pollinates that entomologists determine the exact body size of the bee and the species it belongs to.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage states only general facts about bees. It doesn’t give us any information on the methodology followed by entomologists.

B

It is likely that a short tongued bee may have a problem drinking nectar from a flower that has a longer than average depth but a long tongued bee can easily sap the nectar of any kind of flower.

Incorrect - No information given

C

The passage clearly states that both short-tongued and long-tongued bees drink nectar only from flowers suited to their tongue size. Thus we can’t conclude that long tongued bees can sap the nectar of any kind of flower.

Drastic changes in the flora of a land could affect the existence of certain bee species.

Correct

This option is written along the lines of our pre-thinking Inference 2. Since these bees are dependent on only certain flowers, significant changes in the plant species of an area could affect their survival.

D

The type of honey produced by the bees depends heavily on the flowers they pollinate.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage doesn’t give us any information to conclude on the type of honey produced by the bees.

E

Across various bee species, the kind of flower a particular type of bee pollinates is exclusive from that pollinated by another type of bee.

Incorrect - No information given

The passages make no distinction between the pollination of flowers by one bee species and that by another type of bee. Thus the given information can’t be concluded from the passage.

QUESTION: 16

E-cigarettes, battery-operated nicotine inhalers, are becoming increasingly popular, with a Wells Fargo financial analyst predicting that U.S. sales will double this year, going up to $

The author of the above argument is likely to most agree to which of the following statements?

Solution:
QUESTION: 17

The playwright Bertolt Brecht staged his plays using a technique known as Verfremdungseffekt or the ‘alienation effect’ to prevent his audience from becoming too involved with the action taking place on the stage, thereby enabling viewers to reflect intellectually on the themes presented to them. While this technique was probably usable in a pre-World War II era, as then it was still possible to expect art to present objective perspectives on reality, it is clearly invalid in the twenty-first century.

Which of the following can most properly be concluded from the statements above?

Solution:

The playwright Bertolt Brecht staged his plays using a technique known as Verfremdungseffekt or the ‘alienation effect’ to prevent his audience from becoming too involved with the action taking place on the stage, thereby enabling viewers to reflect intellectually on the themes presented to them. While this technique was probably usable in a pre-World War II era, as then it was still possible to expect art to present objective perspectives on reality, it is clearly invalid in the twenty-first century.

Which of the following can most properly be concluded from the statements above?

Argument Analysis

 

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

N/A

Pre-Thinking Approach

In order to see what can be concluded from the argument, we need to observe all the information given in the argument since the correct inference or conclusion would be based purely on this information.

Statement#1The playwright Bertolt Brecht staged his plays using the ‘alienation effect’ to prevent his audience from becoming too involved with the action taking place on the stage, thereby enabling viewers to reflect intellectually on the themes presented to them.

From the stated intention behind the use of alienation effect during Brecht’s time, we can conclude that:

  • Conclusion 1: Becoming overly involved with the action taking place on the stage would interfere with the audience’s intellectual reflection on the themes presented to them.

Statement#2 While this technique was probably usable in a pre-World War II era, as then it was still possible to expect art to present objective perspectives on reality, it is clearly invalid in the twenty-first century.

From the reason cited for the usability of the technique in the pre WWII era, we can conclude that

  • Conclusion 2: Presenting objective perspectives on reality is key for using the technique of alienation effect.

With this pre-thinking in mind, let’s evaluate the answer choices.

Answer Choices

A

Objective perspectives on reality can be presented by art in the twenty-first century provided that it uses techniques other than the alienation effect.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage presents no information about techniques other than the alienation effect.  

B

Most art in the pre-World War II era was expected to present objective perspectives on reality.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage tells us that it was still possible to expect art to present objective perspectives on reality in pre-World War II era; however, it doesn’t say that most art in the pre-World War II era was expected to do the same.

C

The alienation effect is invalid in the twenty-first century since artists no longer want to distance audiences from their work.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage doesn’t give any information regarding the intention of the current artists.

D

Presenting unprejudiced views on reality is instrumental to using the technique of alienation effect.

Correct

This option is written along the lines of conclusion no. 2 in our pre-thinking.

E

Implementation of the alienation technique led to the loss of objective perspectives in art.

Incorrect - No information given

There is no such cause and effect relationship given/hinted at in the passage.

QUESTION: 18

Clearly, while comparing two companies, higher sales do not necessarily indicate higher profits. A recently published article in a prominent business magazine shows that the top ten names on the list of companies with the highest sales and the corresponding names on the list of companies with the highest profits are mutually exclusive.

Which of the following can properly be inferred based on the above statements?

Solution:

Clearly, while comparing two companies, higher sales do not necessarily indicate higher profits. A recently published article in a prominent business magazine shows that the top ten names on the list of companies with the highest sales and the corresponding names on the list of companies with the highest profits are mutually exclusive.

Which of the following can properly be inferred based on the above statements?

Argument Analysis

 

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

N/ A

Pre-Thinking Approach

In order to see which statement can be inferred by the passage, we need to observe all the facts given in the argument and see what must also be true if the information in the passage is true.

Linkage # 1

Since the given information shows that just by looking at the sales figures we cannot estimate the comparative profitability of two companies, we can infer that:

Inference1: The relative profitability of a company vis-a-vis another’s cannot be judged solely by looking at the companies’ sales figures.

Inference2:It is possible that even though a company has relatively lower sales, it is more profitable than the other company.

With this understanding in mind, let's take a look at the passage analysis.

Answer Choices

A

While comparing two companies, the company with higher sales is more likely to have lower profits.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage does not state any inverse correlation with sales and profits. It just says that higher sales do not always translate into higher profits.

B

It is highly likely that two companies with different sales have the same profit margins.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage makes no statement about similarity in profit margins.

C

Sales and profits have no correlation.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage states that higher sales do not always mean higher profits. This statement does not mean that for a company higher sales will not translate in to higher profits.

D

While comparing two companies, lower sales do not by themselves indicate lower profits.

Correct

This option is written along the lines of our pre-thinking per Inference # 2.

E

In order to compete in the market, it is better for a company to have higher profits than higher sales.

Incorrect - No information given

First of all, the author doesn’t say that a company cannot have both higher sales and profits. Second of all, the author never comments on what is better for competing in the market.

QUESTION: 19

During their first few months, newborns grow 0.25 inch or more per week.  Vitamin D is a key ingredient that helps them grow faster. Only Enfamil baby food has Krimprotein, which enables newborns grow faster and achieve their full growth potential.

If the information in the passage is true, then what else must be true from the statements below?

Solution:

During their first few months, newborns grow 0.25 inch or more per week.  Vitamin D is a key ingredient that helps them grow faster. Only Enfamil baby food has Krimprotein, which enables newborns grow faster and achieve their full growth potential.

If the information in the passage is true, then what else must be true from the statements below?

Argument Analysis

During their first few months, newborns grow 0.25 inch or more per week.  Vitamin D is a key ingredient that helps them grow faster. Only Enfamil baby food has Krimprotein, which enables newborns grow faster and achieve their full growth potential.

 

Pre-Thinking

  1. If newborn takes Enfamil baby food in first few months, then he will most likely grow > 0.25 inch/week.
  2. If newborn takes Vitamin D  in first few months, then he will most likely grow > 0.25 inch/week.

Answer Choices

A

Newborns need external sources of Vitamin D to reach their full grown potential.

The passage states that Vitamin D is required for New borns to reach their full growth potential. It by no means implies that that Vitamin D must be acquired through external sources.

B

Only Enfamil can provide Vitamin D that newborns need to reach their full growth potential.

The passage states that “only Enfamil contains Krimprotein “. This does not mean that only Enfamil contains Vitamin D as there could be a lot of sources of Vitamin D. 

C

None of Enfamil competitors have Krimprotein in their baby food offerings.

This statement is the re-statement of the premise in the passage.  The passage states that Only Enfamil has Krimprotein.  This implies that no one else has Krimprotein.   Hence this is the correct inference.

D

Newborns who do not take enough Vitamin D fail to grow 0.25 inch per week.

The passage states that Vitamin D is required for New borns to reach their full growth potential. It by no means implies that that Vitamin D must be acquired through external sources.

E

Newborns cannot get Vitamin D from any other source other than Krimprotein.

This statement uses the terms used in the passage but presents it in twisted and incorrect manner.

 

QUESTION: 20

The gun lobby’s attempt to stop doctors from warning about the severe risks posed by guns in  homes is outrageous and unconstitutional. Children aged 5 to 14 years in the United States are 11 times more likely to be killed accidentally with a gun than similarly aged children in other developed countries are. Moreover, more than 40 percent of gun-owning households with children store their guns unlocked, and one quarter of these homes store them loaded. 

Solution:

The gun lobby’s attempt to stop doctors from warning about the severe risks posed by guns in  homes is outrageous and unconstitutional. Children aged 5 to 14 years in the United States are 11 times more likely to be killed accidentally with a gun than similarly aged children in other developed countries are. Moreover, more than 40 percent of gun-owning households with children store their guns unlocked, and one quarter of these homes store them loaded. 

The considerations given best serve as part of the argument that

Argument Analysis

 

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

Although the author does provide us with an opinion, the question stem asks us to look for a concluding statement in the answer choices.

Pre-Thinking Approach

In order to see which statement can be best supported by the passage, we would need to observe all the facts given in the argument and see if the information in the passage is true, what must also be true.

Inferences:

The conclusion of the argument will be a culmination of the opinion expressed by the author and the facts cited to support the same. We can see that the author thinks that:

  • GB’s mentioned attempts are outrageous and unconstitutional.

All the reasons cited by the author to support the above opinion are related with the risks guns kept at home pose to the children in such homes and in general. Therefore, one can conclude that the author is arguing that:

  • The doctors should have the right to educate patients about the risks guns kept at home pose to people, especially children.

With this understanding in mind, let's take a look at the option statements.

Answer Choices

A

children must be provided proper counseling in schools on the dangers associated with the use of guns.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage doesn’t talk about the overall dangers of guns, only about the risks of guns at homes. The role of schools or counselling is never brought up. The information given in the passage is about the doctors warning about the risks posed by the guns.

B

the United States must learn from other developed countries on reducing the murder rate.

Incorrect - No information given

The passage clearly states ‘killed accidentally,’ not ‘murdered.’ So this can’t be concluded from the passage.

c

doctors must be allowed to give patients frank advice about the risks posed by guns in the home.

Correct

This option is written along the lines of our pre-thinking. It is a combination of all the information given to us in the passage and hence can be safely concluded.

D

the gun lobby should be allowed to express its views.

Incorrect - No information given

This can’t be concluded from the passage. On the contrary, the author terms their attempts to stop doctors from advising their patients as outrageous and unconstitutional.

E

children aged 5 to 14 years must be provided special protection to protect them from gun related crimes.

Incorrect - No information given

The option is veering away from the topic of accidental deaths and bringing up gun related crimes. This can’t be inferred from the passage.

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