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# Test: Modifiers- 1

## 20 Questions MCQ Test Verbal for GMAT | Test: Modifiers- 1

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This mock test of Test: Modifiers- 1 for GMAT helps you for every GMAT entrance exam. This contains 20 Multiple Choice Questions for GMAT Test: Modifiers- 1 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this Test: Modifiers- 1 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. GMAT students definitely take this Test: Modifiers- 1 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other Test: Modifiers- 1 extra questions, long questions & short questions for GMAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

### Shakespeare wrote several ‘problem plays’, psychological dramas treading the line between tragedy and comedy, and embodied the socio-political norms of his time.

Solution:

Shakespeare wrote several ‘problem plays’, psychological dramas treading the line between tragedy and comedy, and embodied the socio-political norms of his time.

Meaning Analysis

• Shakespeare
• wrote several ‘problem plays’,
• psychological dramas treading the line between tragedy and comedy,
• and embodied the sociopolitical norms of his time.

The sentence says that Shakespeare wrote many plays known as “problem plays”. These “problem plays” are psychological dramas that are something between tragedy and comedy.

Then the sentence says that he embodied the sociopolitical norms of his time. This meaning is clearly illogical.   It is his plays that embody the norms, not Shakespeare himself.

Error Analysis

This sentence has the meaning error pointed out in the meaning analysis.

A

wrote several ‘problem plays’, psychological dramas treading the line between tragedy and comedy, and embodied

Incorrect: This choice has the error pointed out in the meaning/error analysis.

B

wrote several ‘problem plays’, psychological dramas that tread the line between tragedy and comedy, embodying

Correct:

This is indeed the correct choice as the verb-ing modifier ”embodying” correctly modifies “problem plays”.

Note that in this choice, the verb-ing modifier is not associated with the comma that precedes it. This comma is the second of two commas that bracket the ‘FYI’ modifier “psychological… comedy.” The function of these two commas is to separate this modifier from the rest of the sentence. If we remove this modifier, we get:

Shakespeare wrote several ‘problem plays’ embodying the sociopolitical norms of his time.

So, the verb-ing modifier “embodying” correctly refers to the preceding noun, “‘problem plays’”.

C

wrote several ‘problem plays’, psychological dramas treading the line between tragedy and comedy, they embody

Incorrect:

The two independent clauses “Shakespeare wrote…” and “they embody” are incorrectly connected using just a comma.

D

in his several ‘problem plays’, psychological dramas that tread the line between tragedy and comedy, embodied

Incorrect:

This choice repeats the illogical meaning of the original sentence by saying that Shakespeare embodied the sociopolitical norms of his time.

E

in his several ‘problem plays’, psychological dramas that tread the line between tragedy and comedy, embodying

Incorrect:

There is no verb for the subject “Shakespeare”.

QUESTION: 2

### In Russia, resulting from the explosion of the Chelyabinsk meteor, the second largest airburst recorded on Earth, hundreds of people sought medical attention for injuries caused by glass cuts from imploding windows.

Solution:

In Russia, resulting from the explosion of the Chelyabinsk meteor, the second largest airburst recorded on Earth, hundreds of people sought medical attention for injuries caused by glass cuts from imploding windows.

Meaning Analysis

• In Russia,
• resulting from the explosion of the Chelyabinsk meteor, the second largest airburst recorded on Earth,
• hundreds of people sought medical attention for injuries caused by glass cuts from imploding windows.

This sentence talks about something that resulted from the explosion of the Chelyabinsk meteor.  This explosion was the second largest airburst recorded on Earth. It states that as a result of this explosion hundreds of people had to look for medical attention for the injuries that were caused by glass cuts from imploding windows.

Note that the way the sentence is written, “resulting” refers to “hundreds of people”. However, this meaning does not make sense. The people did not result from the explosion. The result was that the people sought medical help. The correct answer should correct this meaning error.

Error Analysis

As noted in the meaning analysis, the verb-ing modifier “resulting” illogically refers to the subject “hundreds of people.”

A

resulting from the explosion of the Chelyabinsk meteor, the second largest airburst recorded on Earth,

Incorrect:

This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.

B

the explosion of the Chelyabinsk meteor, the second largest airburst recorded on Earth, resulted and

Incorrect:

This choice says that the explosion itself resulted from something. This meaning does not match the intended meaning.

C

resulting from the second largest airburst recorded on Earth, the explosion of Chelyabinsk meteor,

Incorrect:

The verb-ing modifier “resulting” incorrectly modifies “the explosion”. The explosion was not the result of the second largest airburst. It itself was the second largest airburst.

D

the Chelyabinsk meteor, the second largest airburst recorded on Earth, exploded, and the result was that

Incorrect:

The modifier “the second largest…” incorrectly modifies “the Chelyabinsk meteor”. The meteor was not the second largest airburst: the explosion caused by the meteor was.

E

as a result of the explosion of the Chelyabinsk meteor, the second largest airburst recorded on Earth,

Correct:

This choice correctly uses the phrase “as a result of” to refer to the following clause, correcting the meaning error of the original sentence.

QUESTION: 3

### In September 1985, more than seven decades after the Titanic was wrecked in the North Atlantic Ocean during its maiden voyage, a Franco-American expedition, one of the numerous expeditions launched to find the ship, found it lying at the bottom of the sea and split in two parts, disproving the theory that the ship would be found intact.

Solution:

In September 1985, more than seven decades after the Titanic was wrecked in the North Atlantic Ocean during its maiden voyage, a Franco-American expedition, one of the numerous expeditions launched to find the ship, found it lying at the bottom of the sea and split in two parts, disproving the theory that the ship would be found intact.

Meaning Analysis

• In September 1985,
• more than seven decades after the Titanic was wrecked in the North Atlantic Ocean during its maiden voyage,
• a Franco-American expedition,
• one of the numerous expeditions launched to find the ship,
• found it
• lying at the bottom of the sea
• and split in two parts,
• disproving
• that the ship would be found intact.

This sentence talks about an event that took place more than seven decades after the Titanic sank in the North Atlantic Ocean during its first voyage. It states that in September 1985, the ship was found by a Franco-American expedition, which was one of many expeditions launched to find the ship. The ship was lying at the bottom of the sea and was split in two parts. This discovery invalidated the theory that the ship would be found intact.

Error Analysis

1)     The comma + verb-ing modifier “disproving” correctly refers to the preceding clause, conveying the meaning that the theory was disproved by the discovery made by the expedition.

2)     There are no errors in the sentence.

Note that in the non-underlined part of the sentence, the verb-ing modifier “lying” and the verb-ed modifier “split” modify the same entity “it” and are parallel to each other.

A

parts, disproving

Correct:

This choice has no errors as shown in the error analysis.

B

parts, and disproving

Incorrect:

The use of “and” before “disproving” is incorrect since there is no other modifier that “disproving” is parallel to.

C

parts, which disproved

Incorrect:

The relative pronoun modifier “which” incorrectly modifies the preceding noun “two parts”. The two parts did not disprove the theory; the discovery of the wreckage did.

D

parts; they disproved

Incorrect:

The plural pronoun “they” does not agree in number with the singular noun antecedent “the Franco-American expedition.”

E

parts, and this disproved

Incorrect:

The demonstrative pronoun “this” cannot be used on its own; it must be followed by the noun that it refers to.

QUESTION: 4

After the Second World War, the city of Cologne started the repair of the historical Cathedral, a project, taking almost a decade to finish; the Bild, the largest daily, described as the most expensive repair undertaken ever.

Solution:

A project modifies cathedral
That has taken almost a decade to finish modifies the project(modifier 1)
That the bild.... ( modifier 2)
The 'and' correctly connects two parallel modifiers.

QUESTION: 5

The Ashoka Pillars inscribed with edicts by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka, relics of the remorse he had felt after observing the destruction of Kalinga during one of his quests, a series of columns spread out in the north Indian region.

Solution:

The Ashoka Pillars inscribed with edicts by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka, relics of the remorse he had felt after observing the destruction of Kalinga during one of his quests, a series of columns spread out in the north Indian region.

Meaning Analysis

• The Ashoka Pillars
• inscribed with edicts by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka,
• relics of the remorse
• he had felt after observing the destruction of Kalinga during one of his quests,
• a series of columns spread out in the north Indian region.

The sentence presents some information about the Ashoka Pillars. These pillars:

1. are inscribed with orders by the Mauryan king Ashoka.
2. are the relics of the sadness that Ashoka felt after witnessing the destruction of Kalinga during one of his quests.
3. are a series of columns spread out in the north Indian region.

Error Analysis

1)     There is no verb for the subject “The Ashoka Pillars”.

2)     Use of the past perfect tense verb “had felt” is incorrect because the sentence does not contain two past events.

3)     The noun + noun modifier “a series of columns spread out…” illogically seems to refer to “quests”. It should modify “the Ashoka Pillars.”

A

Ashoka, relics of the remorse he had felt after observing the destruction of Kalinga during one of his quests,

Incorrect: This choice has the errors pointed out in the error analysis.

B

Ashoka are relics of the remorse he felt after observing the destruction of Kalinga during one of his quests,

Incorrect:   This choice retains the modifier error of Choice A.

C

Ashoka, relics of the remorse he felt after observing the destruction of Kalinga during one of his quests, are

Correct: This corrects the errors in option A.

1)     The subject “the Ashoka Pillars” now has the verb “are”. The inclusion of this verb also resolves the modifier error. “A series of columns…” is now the object of the verb “are”, and it is now clear that “the Ashoka Pillars… are a series of columns…”

2)     The verb “felt” is correctly written in the simple past tense.

D

Ashoka are relics of the remorse he felt after observing the destruction of Kalinga during one of his quests, which are

Incorrect: The relative pronoun modifier “which” incorrectly refers to the noun “quests”. As explained in the POE for option A, it should refer to the Ashoka Pillars.

E

Ashoka that are relics of the remorse he felt after observing the destruction of Kalinga during one of his quests and are

Incorrect:

There is no verb for the subject “The Ashoka Pillars”.

QUESTION: 6

Formalized three hundred years after Mughal emperor Akbar first introduced the concept of land ownership in the last decade, the law abolishing landownership by the aristocracy had led to the real estate boom and correspondingly increased the wealth of an average Indian by twenty percent, giving the overall economy a shot in the arm.

Solution:

QUESTION: 7

Allowing workers to pick up and maneuver objects weighing 65 pounds with ease and thus in increasing demand, the successful debut of robotic exoskeletons took place last summer, three years after researchers started testing the prototypes.

Solution:

Allowing workers to pick up and maneuver objects weighing 65 pounds with ease and thus in increasing demand, the successful debut of robotic exoskeletons took place last summer, three years after researchers started testing the prototypes.

Meaning Analysis

• Allowing workers to pick up and maneuver objects weighing 65 pounds with ease and thus in increasing demand,
• the successful debut of robotic exoskeletons took place last summer,
• three years after researchers started testing the prototypes.

This sentence is not grammatically correct and hence we will need to infer the logical meaning from the sentence.  The sentence tells us some facts about the robotic exoskeletons.

1. Last summer, the robotic exoskeletons made a successful debut.
2. The debut happened 3 years after researchers started examining prototypes.
3. These exoskeletons enable workers to pick up and maneuver heavy objects with ease.
4. Because of this feature, the demand of these exoskeletons is increasing.

Note that the way the sentence is written it appears as if the successful debut of these exoskeletons enable workers.  This is illogical.

Error Analysis

As explained in the meaning analysis, the sentence is not written correctly.  The opening verb-ing modifier “allowing” incorrectly modifies “the successful debut”. The debut does not allow anything: the robotic exoskeletons do.

A

Allowing workers to pick up and maneuver objects weighing 65 pounds with ease and thus in increasing demand, the successful debut of robotic exoskeletons took place last summer, three years after researchers started testing the prototypes.

Incorrect:

This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.

B

Allowing workers to pick up and maneuver objects weighing 65 pounds with ease and thus in increasing demand three years after researchers started testing the prototypes last summer, the successful debut of robotic exoskeletons took place.

Incorrect:

1)     This choice has the same modifier error as in choice A.

2)     The placement of the phrase “last summer” not only leads to deviation from the intended meaning but also lends illogical meaning to the sentence.  The sequence of events per this choice is as shown.

1. Prototypes were tested last summer.
2. 3 years after last summer the debut of exoskeletons happened.

This is an impossible sequence since the point in time for the occurrence of the debut is in the future - 3 years after last summer.

Here is the intended sequence of events.

1. Testing of prototypes began 3 years before the debut happened.
2. Last summer, the robotic exoskeletons made a successful debut.

C

Making a successful debut three years after researchers started testing the prototypes last summer, robotic exoskeletons allow workers to pick up and maneuver objects weighing 65 pounds with ease and thus are in increasing demand.

Incorrect:

This choice repeats the second modifier error found in Choice B.

D

Making a successful debut last summer, three years after researchers started testing the prototypes, robotic exoskeletons allow workers to pick up and maneuver objects weighing 65 pounds with ease and thus are in increasing demand.

Correct:

The opening verb-ing modifier “making” correctly refers to “robotic exoskeletons.”

E

Making a successful debut last summer, three years after researchers started testing the prototypes, objects weighing 65 pounds are picked up and maneuvered with ease by robotic exoskeletons that are thus in increasing demand.

Incorrect:

The opening verb-ing modifier “making” incorrectly refers to “objects”. It should refer to “robotic exoskeletons”.

QUESTION: 8

Robert H. Goddard, recognized as one of the founding fathers of rocketry, holds the patents for the discovery of liquid-fueled and multi-stage rockets, but rarely acknowledged until the dawn of the space

Solution:

Robert H. Goddard, recognized as one of the founding fathers of rocketry, holds the patents for the discovery of liquid-fueled and multi-stage rockets, but rarely acknowledged until the dawn of the space age.

Meaning Analysis

• Robert H. Goddard,
• recognized as one of the founding fathers of rocketry,
• holds the patents for the discovery of the liquid-fueled and the multi-stage rockets,
• but rarely acknowledged until the dawn of the space age.

This sentence talks about Robert H. Goddard, who is known as one of the founding fathers of rocketry. It says that he holds the patents for the discovery of the two types of rockets, but he was seldom acknowledged before the dawn of the space age.

Error Analysis

1) The parallelism marker “but” joins the verb “hold” and the verb-ed modifier “acknowledged”. Note that it is clear from the context that Goddard did not acknowledge anything; he himself was rarely acknowledged. So, “acknowledged” is not a verb here.

2) In this sentence “comma + but” is not followed by an independent clause. As we know, “comma + FANBOYS” are used to connect two independent clauses.

A

but rarely

Incorrect:

This choice has the errors pointed out in the error analysis.

B

was rarely

Incorrect:

1)     The intended contrast is missing in this choice.

2)     The two verbs “holds” and “was acknowledged” should be connected using a parallelism marker.

3)     This choice has the same sentence structure error as in choice A.

C

Incorrect:

1)     This choice has the same sentence structure error as in choice A.

2)     The past perfect tense is incorrectly used in this choice since there is no other related event that happened in the past.

D

Incorrect:

1)     The intended contrast is missing in this choice.

2)     The modifier “which” illogically refers to “liquid-fueled and multi-stage rockets”.

3)     This choice has the same verb tense error as in choice C.

E

but he was rarely

Correct:

This choice correctly presents the contrast and rectifies both the errors in the original sentence. Now, “comma + but” is correctly followed by an independent clause. The two clauses “Robert H. Goddard holds…” and “he was rarely acknowledged…” are also correctly parallel and joined by the marker “but”.

QUESTION: 9

This summer, emerging from the ground-breaking technological advancements and the need for protecting the environment through cleaner automobiles, several auto manufacturers have introduced vehicles equipped with zero-emissions electric motors, high-speed internet connections that allow passengers to make video conference calls, and 3D picture navigation systems.

Solution:

This summer, emerging from the ground-breaking technological advancements and the need for protecting the environment through cleaner automobiles, several auto manufacturers have introduced vehicles equipped with zero-emissions electric motors, high-speed internet connections that allow passengers to make video conference calls, and 3D picture navigation systems.

Meaning Analysis

• This summer, emerging from
• the ground-breaking technological advancements and
• the need for protecting the environment through cleaner automobiles,
• several auto manufacturers have introduced vehicles equipped with
• zero-emissions electric motors,
• high-speed internet connections
• that allow passengers to make video conference calls,
• and 3D picture navigation systems.

This sentence tells us that something has emerged from pioneering technological advancements and the need for cleaner vehicles in order to protect the environment.

Now, “emerging” should refer to the subject after the comma. In this context, the subject is “several auto manufacturers”. This structure does not make any sense since the auto manufacturers did not emerge from anything. So, we need to infer the correct meaning from the context. Logically, what the sentence probably intends to say is that because of these advancements and the need to protect the environment, auto makers have done something. This meaning makes sense.

So let’s read on. The two stated items (technological advancements and the need to protect) have led auto manufacturers to introduce new vehicles with certain features. These vehicles have zero-emissions electric motors, high-speed internet connections allowing passengers to make video conference calls, and 3D picture navigations systems.

Error Analysis

1)     As found in the meaning analysis, the modifier “emerging…” incorrectly modifies “auto manufacturers”. The auto manufacturers did not emerge from the ground breaking technological advancements.

2)     Also, “for protecting the environment” is incorrect since here the intended meaning is “in order to protect the environment”, so we need to use “to + verb”. To learn more about the usage of “to + verb” and “for + verb-ing”, please refer to this article.

A

emerging from the ground-breaking technological advancements and the need for protecting the environment through cleaner automobiles,

Incorrect:

This choice has the errors pointed out in the error analysis.

B

because of the emergence of ground-breaking technological advancements and the need for cleaner vehicles to protect the environment,

Correct:

This choice corrects both the errors of the original choice. The phrase “because of” presents the reason that the auto manufacturers have introduced new vehicles.

Note that the usage “need for + noun” is correct. The verb form “to protect” is also correctly used in this choice to show the meaning “in order to protect”.

C

the emergence of ground-breaking technological advancements and the need for cleaner vehicles for protecting the environment have occurred, and

Incorrect:

The cause and effect relationship is lost in this choice. Now, the whole information is presented in the form of two ICs that are not related to each other.

D

due to emerging of ground-breaking technological advancements and the need for protecting the environment through cleaner vehicles,

Incorrect:

1)     Here, “due to” incorrectly presents the reason for the action “have introduced”. It should only be used to modify nouns.

2)     The expression “emerging of…” is unidiomatic in the context of the given sentence. “Emerging” should not be followed by “of”.

3)     This choice repeats the “need for protecting” error in the original sentence.

E

due to the emergence of ground-breaking technological advancements and the need for cleaner vehicles to protect the environment,

Incorrect:

Use of “due to” is incorrect as explained in the POE for option D.

QUESTION: 10

Russia’s uranium disarmament deal with the US made Russia turn the uranium from its decommissioned warheads into nuclear fuel and sell this fuel to the commercial nuclear plants of the US, ending in early 2014 with the last shipment arriving at the port of Baltimore.

Solution:

Russia’s uranium disarmament deal with the US made Russia turn the uranium from its decommissioned warheads into nuclear fuel and sell this fuel to the commercial nuclear plants of the US, ending in early 2014 with the last shipment arriving at the port of Baltimore.

Meaning Analysis

• Russia’s uranium disarmament deal with the US made Russia
• turn the uranium from its decommissioned warheads into nuclear fuel
• and sell this fuel to the commercial nuclear plants of the US, ­
• ending in early 2014 with the last shipment arriving at the port of Baltimore.

This sentence talks about Russia’s uranium disarmament deal with the US.   The first half of the sentence says that this deal made Russia do two things:

1. turn the uranium from the warheads into nuclear fuel
2. sell this fuel to the nuclear plants of the US.

The second half of this sentence – ending in early 2014… - does not communicate logical meaning.  This part is a comma + verb-ing modifier and hence grammatically it modifies the preceding clause.  However, logically it does not make sense to say either of the following:

1. Deal made Russia do something by ending in early 2014 (presenting “how”)
2. Deal made Russia do something and as a result it ended in early 2014. (presenting “result”)

However, if we were to infer the intended meaning of this part, we can confidently say that the author intended to present a fact about the deal – the deal ended in the beginning of 2014.  Lastly, the author provides further detail the last shipment arrived at the port of Baltimore.

Error Analysis

As discussed in the meaning analysis, this sentence has an error pertaining to the use of “comma + verb-ing” modifier.  Appropriate correction should be made so that the logical intended meaning as shown in the meaning analysis is communicated.

A

US made Russia turn the uranium from its decommissioned warheads into nuclear fuel and sell this fuel to the commercial nuclear plants of the US, ending

Incorrect:

This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.

B

US made Russia turn the uranium from its decommissioned warheads into nuclear fuel, selling this fuel to the commercial nuclear plants of the US, ended

Incorrect:

1)     The comma + verb-ing modifier “selling” is incorrectly used in this choice. The fact that the deal made Russia turn something cannot logically be modified by the action of selling the uranium to the commercial plants of the US. Also, “selling…” does not make sense with the subject of the preceding clause since the deal can’t sell the uranium.

2)     The verbs “made” and “ended” are not properly connected. There is no conjunction between the two verbs.

C

US, making Russia turn the uranium from its decommissioned warheads into nuclear fuel, sold this fuel to the commercial nuclear plants of the US, ending

Incorrect:

1)     The noun “deal” cannot logically be the subject of the verb “sold”. It was Russia that sold the fuel, not the deal.

2)     As in choice A, the verb-ing modifier “ending” cannot logically modify the preceding clause. In this option, the clause is “deal… sold.”

D

US, which made Russia turn the uranium from its decommissioned warheads into nuclear fuel, selling this fuel to the US commercial nuclear plants and ending

Incorrect:

1)               This choice repeats the errors in the modifiers “selling” and “ending”.

2)               There is no verb for the subject “…deal…”.

E

US, which made Russia turn the uranium from its decommissioned warheads into nuclear fuel and sell this fuel to the commercial nuclear plants of the US, ended

Correct:

This choice changes the modifier “ending” into verb “ended”, correcting the only error of the original sentence.

QUESTION: 11

A new study suggests that different species of mice have different burrow designs: a lab-raised mouse too can build a species-specific burrow due to its genes, carrying various DNA combinations of burrow creation in genome.

Solution:

A new study suggests that different species of mice have different burrow designs: a lab-raised mouse too can build a species-specific burrow due to its genes, carrying various DNA combinations of burrow creation in genome.

Meaning Analysis

• This sentence presents facts.
• Different species of mice build burrows of different designs.
• Even a mouse raised in a lab can make a burrow specific to its species.
• Burrow making is genetic as genes carry DNA combinations of burrow making in every species.

Error Analysis

• Clause 1: A new study suggests
• Clause 2: that different species of mice have different burrow design:
• Clause 3: a lab-raised mouse too can build species-specific burrow due to its genes, carrying various DNA combinations of burrow creation in genome.

1. Use of “due to” is incorrect in this sentence because it has  been used to modify the verb in this sentence, more specifically to present the reason for the verb – how can a lab-raised mouse build species-specific burrow.  “Due to” can only be used to modify a noun and not a verb.

2. The comma + verb-ing modifier “carrying” modifies the preceding clause. This modification does not make much sense as it seems to suggest that mice carry various DNA combinations. Logically, it is the genes in the mice that carry DNA combinations. Hence, we need a modifier that refers to “genes”.

A

lab-raised mouse too can build a species-specific burrow due to its genes, carrying

Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

B

lab-raised mouse too can build a species-specific burrow because of  its genes that carry

Correct Answer. It corrects both errors of choice A and does not introduce any other error.

C

mouse raised in the lab builds a species-specific burrow so that its genes carry

Error 1 – Use of simple present tense verb “builds” is incorrect because the original sentence presents the ability of the lab raised mouse to build species-specific burrow by saying “can build”. This choice suggests that it is a general fact that lab-raised mice make species-specific burrow.

Error 2 – Use of “so that” is incorrect. This phrase is used to present the result of the preceding clause.  This usage distorts the intended meaning.

D

mouse in the lab can build a species-specific burrow as its genes can carry

Error 1 – “A mouse in the lab” does not mean the same as “a lab-raised mouse”. A mouse in the lab can be just any mouse there and not necessarily the mouse that has been raised there.

Error 2 – Per the original sentence, it is a general fact that “genes” carry various DNA combinations. Per this choice, “can carry” suggests the ability of genes to carry various DNA combinations. This is not the intended meaning.

E

lab-raised mouse too can build a species-specific burrows because of their genes carrying

Error 1 –Pronoun “their” should logically refer to “mouse”. But grammatically, plural pronoun “their” does not agree in number with the singular noun “mouse”.

QUESTION: 12

The National Geographic Society’s electronic database, available free of cost to researchers affiliated with government think-tanks or university study centers, originally stored in microfiche sheets that were manually accessed through the Society’s free access facilities, but is now accessible through remote data access services.

Solution:

The National Geographic Society’s electronic database, available free of cost to researchers affiliated with government think-tanks or university study centers, originally stored in microfiche sheets that were manually accessed through the Society’s free access facilities, but is now accessible through remote data access services.

Meaning Analysis

• The National Geographic Society’s electronic database,
• available free of cost to researchers

ü  affiliated with government think-tanks or university study centers,

• originally stored in microfiche sheets
• that were manually accessed through the Society’s free access facilities,
• but is now accessible through remote data access services.

The sentence presents a contrast about the National Geographic Society’s electronic database. This database was originally stored in microfiche sheets that were accessed manually through specific physical locations.  But now this database is accessible through remote data access services.

The non-underlined portion of the sentence also presents some additional descriptive information about the database. It says that this database is available for free to those researchers who are connected to government think-tanks or university study centers.

Error Analysis

The presence of “but” suggests that there should be a parallel list in the sentence. But there is nothing before “but” that can be parallel to “is”. This is so because “stored” is used as a verb-ed modifier in the sentence. If this is turned into the simple past tense verb “was stored”, then “is” will be grammatically as well as logically to “was stored”.  This is the only error in the sentence.

A

centers, originally stored in microfiche sheets that were manually accessed through the Society’s free access facilities, but is

Incorrect: This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.

B

centers, while it had originally been stored in microfiche sheets that were manually accessed through the Society’s free access facilities,

Incorrect:

1)    While this choice corrects the missing verb error of choice A by changing the verb-ed modifier into the verb “had been stored,” the use of “it” leaves “database” without any verb since “it” is now the subject of the verb.

2)    Use of the past perfect tense “had been stored” is incorrect because this action has no bearing on any other action that took place in the past.

3)    Omission of “but is” after “facilities” not only leads to distortion in the intended meaning by removing the contrast but also brings in a modifier error. The phrase “now accessible through…” in the non-underlined portion now illogically modifies the closest noun “facilities”. Logically, it should refer to the database.

C

centers stored originally in microfiche sheets that were manually accessed through the Society’s free access facilities is

Incorrect:

1)    The verb-ed modifier “stored” illogically modifies the preceding noun “centers”.

2)    Removal of “but” does away with the intended contrast. The sentence now says that the database is accessible through the specific services.

D

centers, was originally stored in microfiche sheets manually accessed through the Society’s free access facilities but is

Correct:

This choice is the correct answer as it turns “stored” into “was stored” that is now parallel to “is”. The contrast is also clearly communicated in the sentence.

E

centers stored originally in microfiche sheets that were manually accessed through the Society’s free access facilities but is

Incorrect:

This choice repeats the verb-ed modifier error of Choice C.   This choice also repeats the missing verb error of Choice A since the verb after but “is” does not have anything that it can be parallel to.

QUESTION: 13

Resulting from the passage of the Obama health reform, people with Medicare will no longer have to pay co-insurance, co-payments, or deductibles for one of the most debatable legislations in the history of health care and preventive services given a grade A or B by the United States Preventive Services Task Force.

Solution:

QUESTION: 14

The new system implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of tenure-track faculty returned ambiguous results, which suggests that its process of data collection may be defective, its methodologies require revision.

Solution:

The new system implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of tenure-track faculty returned ambiguous results, which suggests that its process of data collection may be defective, its methodologies require revision.

Meaning Analysis

• The new system implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of tenure-track faculty returned ambiguous results,
• which suggests
• that its process of data collection may be defective,
• its methodologies require revision.

This sentence talks about the ambiguous results delivered by the new system that was implemented to measure the effectiveness of tenure-track faculty. It states that by delivering these ambiguous results the system indicates two things:

1. there may be a defect in its process of data collection.
2. the methodologies that the system uses require revision.

Error Analysis

1)     The relative pronoun modifier “which” incorrectly refers to the preceding clause.

2)     Since the clause “its methodologies…” is part of the list as shown in the meaning analysis, it should be parallel to the clause “its process of…. ”. In the given structure, the two ICs “The new system… defective” and “its methodologies… ”are joined using just a comma.

A

The new system implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of tenure-track faculty returned ambiguous results, which suggests that its process of data collection may be defective,

Incorrect:

This choice has the errors pointed out in the error analysis.

B

The new system implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of tenure-track faculty returned ambiguous results, suggesting that its process of data collection may be defective and that

Correct:

1)     The comma + verb-ing modifier “suggesting” correctly shows the result of the action (the system returning ambiguous results) presented in the preceding clause.

2)     This choice makes the clause “its methodologies…” parallel to the preceding clause by using “and that”.  It also takes care of the structural issue pointed out in the error analysis.

C

Implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of tenure-track faculty, the new system that returned ambiguous results suggests that its process of data collection may be defective and that

Incorrect:

This choice changes the intended meaning of the sentence. According to this choice, the system itself makes the two suggestions. However, these suggestions are the result of the fact that the system returned the ambiguous results.

D

Implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of tenure-track faculty, the ambiguous results returned by the new system suggest that its process of data collection may be defective and that

Incorrect:

The opening verb-ed modifier “implemented…” incorrectly refers to the subject of the following clause, “the ambiguous results”. This is incorrect since the results were not implemented; the system was.

E

The new system implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of tenure-track faculty returned ambiguous results; this suggests that its process of data collection may be defective and that

Incorrect:

It’s not clear what “this” refers to. Since “this” is a demonstrative pronoun, it should always be followed by the noun that it refers to.

QUESTION: 15

The fastest processor from Intel, Itanium's multi-core architecture handles data compression on a PC as efficiently as the Porsche's perfectly balanced engine handles curves on the road.

Solution:

QUESTION: 16

When their eggs rejected by the host birds, certain cuckoos and cowbirds, in the name of parenting, resorting to bullying and destruction of host parents’ eggs, forcing many birds to adopt the unwelcome alien eggs in their nest.

Solution:

When their eggs rejected by the host birds, certain cuckoos and cowbirds, in the name of parenting, resorting to bullying and destruction of host parents’ eggs, forcing many birds to adopt the unwelcome alien eggs in their nest.

Meaning Analysis

• When their eggs rejected by the host birds,
• certain cuckoos and cowbirds, in the name of parenting, resorting to bullying and destruction of host parents’ eggs,
• forcing many birds to adopt the unwelcome alien eggs in their nest.

This sentence tells us what some cuckoos and cowbirds do when host birds reject their eggs. These cuckoos and cowbirds, in the name of parenting, go to the extent of bullying and destroying host parents’ eggs. This behavior of the cuckoos and cowbirds forces many birds to adopt the unknown eggs in their nest.

Error Analysis

1. There is no verb for the subject “their eggs”. Note that “rejected” is a verb-ed modifier in this context.
2. There is no verb for the subject “certain cuckoos and cowbirds”.

A

When their eggs rejected by the host birds, certain cuckoos and cowbirds, in the name of parenting, resorting to bullying and destruction of host parents’ eggs, forcing many birds

Incorrect:

This choice has the errors pointed out in the error analysis.

B

When their eggs are rejected by the host birds, certain cuckoos and cowbirds, in the name of parenting, resort to bullying and destruction of host parents’ eggs, forcing many birds

Correct:

This choice corrects both the errors in the original sentence.

C

When their eggs are rejected by the host birds, certain cuckoos and cowbirds resort to bullying and destruction of host parents’ eggs, forcing many birds, in the name of parenting,

Incorrect:

The modifier “in the name of parenting” is placed incorrectly. It is not “many birds” that do something in the name of parenting but “certain cuckoos and cowbirds.”

D

In the name of parenting, certain cuckoos and cowbirds resort to bullying and destruction of host parents’ eggs, forcing many birds, when their eggs are rejected by the host birds,

Incorrect:

1. The modifier “when their eggs are rejected by the host birds” incorrectly presents the timing of action of “many birds”.  It should modify the action done by “certain cuckoos and cowbirds”.
2. The modifier “that” illogically modifies “parenting”. Parenting does not force the birds to adopt the unwelcome alien eggs.

E

In the name of parenting when host birds rejected their eggs, certain cuckoos and cowbirds resort to bullying and destruction of host parents’ eggs, forcing many birds

Incorrect:

1. The placement of the opening modifier is such that it seems that host birds reject eggs in the name of parenting. As per the original sentence, certain cuckoos and cowbirds resort to bullying and destroying hosts’ eggs in the name of parenting.
2. The simple past tense verb “rejected” is incorrect in this context. Since the sentence refers to general facts that are true in the present time frame, the simple present tense must be used.
QUESTION: 17

Literature contains evidence of many middle-class English writers of the Victorian period, which was twice as long as the Romantic period, aspiring to join the ranks of the nobles, giving rise to the general perception that they were hypocritical and had a great yearning for social advancement evident in such works as Great Expectations and Jane Eyre

Solution:

Literature contains evidence of many middle-class English writers of the Victorian period, which was twice as long as the Romantic period, aspiring to join the ranks of the nobles, giving rise to the general perception that they were hypocritical and had a great yearning for social advancement evident in such works as Great Expectations and Jane Eyre

Meaning Analysis

• Literature contains evidence of many middle-class English writers of the Victorian period, which was twice as long as the Romantic period, aspiring to join the ranks of the nobles,
• giving rise to the general perception
• that they were hypocritical and had a great yearning for social advancement evident in such works as Great Expectations and Jane Eyre.

The sentence presents some information about the writers of the Victorian period, which was twice as long as the Romantic period. It says that literature carries some evidence. The evidence shows that many Victorian English writers who belonged to the middle class aspired to join the ranks of the nobles. This aspiration gave rise to the general perception that these writers were hypocritical and possessed a great longing to advance socially. This longing is again evident in literary works such as Great Expectations and Jane Eyre.

Error Analysis

The comma + verb-ing modifier “giving rise…” modifies the preceding action “contains”. The modification suggests that literature contains evidence of many middle-class English writers of the Victorian period and hence gives rise to the general perception. This modification is absolutely illogical.  Notice that the fact that literature contains evidence does not give rise to the stated perception. The perception is the result of the aspiration of the middle class writers as stated in the meaning analysis.

A

of many middle-class English writers of the Victorian period, which was twice as long as the Romantic period, aspiring to join the ranks of the nobles, giving rise to the general perception that they were hypocritical and had

Incorrect:

This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.

B

of many middle-class English writers of the Victorian period, which was twice as long as the Romantic period, that aspired to join the ranks of the nobles and that gave rise to the general perception that they were hypocritical and did have

Incorrect:

1)     This choice changes the intended meaning by stating that the writers gave rise to the perception. It was the fact that the writers aspired to reach a higher social status that gave rise to this perception.

2)     Both the “that”s have been incorrectly used to modify “English writers”. The correct relative pronoun to refer to people is “who”.

3)     Use of “did have” makes the choice wordy. “Had” is more concise.

C

that many middle-class English writers of the Victorian period, which was twice as long as the Romantic period, aspired to join the ranks of the nobles, giving rise to the general perception that they were hypocritical and had

Correct:

This choice presents the evidence using a “that clause” per the following sentence skeleton:   “Literature contains evidence that many writers aspired…, giving rise to…”.  In this sentence, the verb-ing modifier “giving…” modifies the preceding clause “many writers aspired”, communicating the logical intended meaning.

D

that many middle-class English writers of the Victorian period, which was twice as long as the Romantic Period, aspiring to join the ranks of the nobles and that it gave rise to the general perception that they were hypocritical and did have

Incorrect:

1)     The subject “many middle-class English writers of the Victorian Period” does not have a verb.

2)     The pronoun “it” does not have a logical antecedent.

3)     This choice changes the intended meaning as explained below

• Notice the sentence structure with this choice
• Literature contains evidence that writers aspired and that it gave rise to the perception.
• This choice implies that literature contains evidence showing two things
• Instead of 1 thing per the original sentence.
• Writers aspired
• Something gave rise to the perception

E

that many middle-class English writers of the Victorian period, which was twice as long as the Romantic period, aspiring to join the ranks of the nobles, giving rise to the general perception that they were hypocritical and had

Incorrect:

1)     This choice retains the missing verb error of Choice D.

2)     The missing verb leads to a meaning error in the modifier “comma + giving”. It’s not clear what this modifier modifies.

QUESTION: 18

Sociologists who focus on social recognition report that many people from minority groups join the workforce with enthusiasm and hope to participate in the capitalist culture for potential success for everyone, only to find themselves alienated from their colleagues and subjected to prejudice.

Solution:

Sociologists who focus on social recognition report that many people from minority groups join the workforce with enthusiasm and hope to participate in the capitalist culture for potential success for everyone, only to find themselves alienated from their colleagues and subjected to prejudice.

Meaning Analysis

• Sociologists
• who focus on social recognition
• report
• that many people from minority groups
• join the workforce with enthusiasm
• and hope to participate in the capitalist culture for potential success for everyone,
• only to find themselves
• alienated from their colleagues
• and subjected to prejudice.

This sentence talks about something reported by sociologists whose work is concentrated on social recognition. According to them, many people from minority groups join the workforce with willingness and desire to take part in the capitalist culture for possible success for everyone. However, they find that they are separated from their colleagues and subjected to prejudice.

Error Analysis

1)     The modifier “only to” correctly presents the contrast between the expectation of minority groups and the reality that they face.

2)     The verb-ed modifiers “alienated” and “subjected” logically refer to the pronoun “themselves” and are parallel to each other.

3)     This sentence has no errors.

A

only to find themselves alienated from their colleagues and subjected

Correct:

This choice has no errors as pointed out in the error analysis.

B

finding themselves alienated from their colleagues and subjected

Incorrect:

1)     The intended contrast is missing from this choice.

2)     The comma + verb-ing modifier “finding” cannot logically modify the previous clause “many people… join the workforce… and hope…” The fact that minority groups find themselves alienated and subjected to prejudice is not a description for the actions that they join the workforce and hope to be successful. As per the intended meaning, the reality is opposite to the expectations.

C

and they find themselves alienated from their colleagues and subjected

Incorrect:

Like choice B, this choice fails to present the contrast.

D

finding themselves alienated from their colleagues, and subjected them

Incorrect:

1)     This choice has the same “finding” modifier and meaning error as in choice B.

2)     Also, here “subjected” is used as a verb, but it’s not clear who the doer of “subjected” is. This word should be parallel to the verb-ed modifier “alienated” since according to the intended meaning both words describe “themselves”, which refers to “people from minority groups”.

E

where they find themselves alienated from their colleagues and subjected

Incorrect:

1)     The relative pronoun modifier “where” is incorrectly used here since it should be used to refer to places.

2)     This choice fails to present the intended contrast.

QUESTION: 19

Surrounded by smaller spiral-shaped ‘satellite’ galaxies such as the Triangulum galaxy, astronomers who observe it speculate that the Andromeda galaxy will collide with the Milky Way in a few billion years.

Solution:

Surrounded by smaller spiral-shaped ‘satellite’ galaxies such as the Triangulum galaxy, astronomers who observe it speculate that the Andromeda galaxy will collide with the Milky Way in a few billion years.

Meaning Analysis

• Surrounded by smaller spiral-shaped ‘satellite’ galaxies such as the Triangulum galaxy,
• astronomers
• who observe it
• speculate
• that the Andromeda galaxy will collide with the Milky Way in a few billion years.

Few parts of this sentence do not communicate logical meaning.  So we will need to infer the logical meaning from those parts.  But first let’s look at the meaning that is communicated well by this sentence.  The sentence clearly indicates that some astronomers speculate that the Andromeda galaxy will collide with the Milky Way in a few billion years.

Now let’s focus on the other parts of this sentence.  The opening modifier “surrounded by smaller…” illogically modifies “astronomers”.  We need to find the logical modified entity for this modifier.  There are two entities in the sentence that can be modified by this modifier – Andromeda Galaxy and Milky Way.  Since we can change only the underlined portion, we can infer this modifier to modify “Andromeda Galaxy”.  So this part of the sentence should communicate the meaning that Andromeda galaxy is surrounded by smaller galaxies such as Triangulum galaxy.

Error Analysis

As discussed in the meaning analysis section, this sentence has modifier error.  The opening verb-ed modifier “surrounded…” should logically modify “the Andromeda galaxy”. But this modifier illogically modifies “astronomers” since “the astronomers” is the subject of the main clause. According to the context of the sentence, “the astronomers” are not surrounded by the galaxies. This is the only error in the sentence.

A

Surrounded by smaller spiral-shaped ‘satellite’ galaxies such as the Triangulum galaxy, astronomers who observe it speculate that the Andromeda galaxy

Incorrect:

This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.

B

Astronomers observe the Andromeda galaxy, speculating that it is surrounded by smaller spiral-shaped ‘satellite’ galaxies and that it

Incorrect:

This choice changes the intended meaning of the sentence. According to this choice, the astronomers speculate two things instead of one.

C

Astronomers observing the Andromeda galaxy, which is surrounded by smaller spiral-shaped ‘satellite’ galaxies such as the Triangulum galaxy, speculate that it

Correct:

1)     The modifier “which” correctly modifies the Andromeda galaxy.

2)     The verb-ing modifier “observing” correctly modifies the preceding noun “astronomers”.

D

Astronomers who observe it speculate that the Andromeda galaxy, which is surrounded by smaller spiral-shaped satellite galaxies such as the Triangulum galaxy and which

Incorrect:

1)     There is no verb for the subject “the Andromeda galaxy”.

2)     The missing verb leads to the removal of what the astronomers speculate. The event that is speculated per the original sentence – collision of the two given galaxies - is stated as an event that is for sure going to take place in the future.

Observing the Andromeda galaxy and surrounded by smaller spiral-shaped satellite galaxies such as the Triangulum galaxy, astronomers speculate that it

Incorrect:

This choice has the same modifier error as in choice A. The modifier “surrounded by…” cannot logically modify “astronomers”.

QUESTION: 20

Recently, some astronomers spotted a gap in the extended outer atmosphere of the Sun, a discovery suggesting that a gigantic number of particles escaped into space as geomagnetic storms that at times cause damage to the Earth’s satellites and power grids.

Solution:

Recently, some astronomers spotted a gap in the extended outer atmosphere of the Sun, a discovery suggesting that a gigantic number of particles escaped into space as geomagnetic storms that at times cause damage to the Earth’s satellites and power grids.

Meaning Analysis

• Recently, some astronomers spotted a gap in the extended outer atmosphere of the Sun,
• a discovery suggesting that a gigantic number of particles escaped into space as geomagnetic storms
• that at times cause damage to the Earth’s satellites and power grids.

This sentence says that astronomers have seen a gap in the extended outer atmosphere of the Sun. The discovery of this gap indicates that a very large number of particles escaped into space in the form of geomagnetic storms. These storms sometimes damage the Earth’s satellites and power grids.

Error Analysis

The noun + noun modifier “a discovery suggesting” is used correctly. “A discovery” logically modifies the preceding clause. The verb-ing modifier “suggesting” correctly refers to “a discovery.” There is no error in the sentence.

A

Sun, a discovery suggesting that a gigantic number of particles escaped

Correct:

As pointed out in the error analysis, this choice is correct.

B

Sun, a discovery that suggested the escape of a gigantic amount of particles

Incorrect:

“Amount” can refer only to uncountable nouns. “Number” should be used in this context since “particles” is a countable noun.

C

Sun suggesting that a gigantic number of particles escaped

Incorrect:

The modifier “suggesting” illogically refers to the Sun. The Sun does not suggest anything; the discovery does.

D

Sun that suggests a gigantic number of particles that escaped

Incorrect:

1. The relative pronoun modifier “that” refers to the Sun, leading to the illogical meaning that the Sun suggests something.
2. “Suggests a gigantic number of particles” incorrectly indicates that the particles are suggested. The intended meaning is that something about the particles is suggested.

Sun, a discovery suggesting a gigantic amount of particles escaping

Incorrect:

1. This choice repeats the meaning error of choice D by indicating that the particles were suggested.
2. It also repeats the idiom error in the use of “amount” found in choice B.