Test: Physical Sciences


18 Questions MCQ Test Verbal for GMAT | Test: Physical Sciences


Description
This mock test of Test: Physical Sciences for GMAT helps you for every GMAT entrance exam. This contains 18 Multiple Choice Questions for GMAT Test: Physical Sciences (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this Test: Physical Sciences quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. GMAT students definitely take this Test: Physical Sciences exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other Test: Physical Sciences extra questions, long questions & short questions for GMAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

The prevailing theory of our Moon's origin is that it was created by a giant impact between a large planet-like object and the proto-Earth very early in the evolution of our solar system. The energy of this impact was sufficiently high that the Moon formed from melted material that began with a deep liquid magma ocean. As the Moon cooled, this magma ocean solidified into different mineral components, the lightest of which floated upwards to form the oldest crust. Although samples of this presumed ancient crust were brought back to Earth by the Apollo 16 mission in 1972, it was not until recently that scientists could successfully date them. Recent analysis of one of the samples, a rock called ferroan anorthosite or FAN, which is believed to be the oldest of the Moon's crustal rocks, has given scientists new insights into the formation of the Moon, suggesting that the Moon may be much younger than currently believed.

The sample that had been carefully stored at NASA’s Johnson Space Center had to be extensively pre-cleaned to remove terrestrial contamination. Once the sample was contamination free, the researchers were able to study it. The team analyzed the isotopes of the elements lead and neodymium to place the age of the sample at 4.36 billion years. This figure is significantly younger than earlier estimates of the Moon's age that range to nearly as old as the age of the solar system itself at 4.567 billion years. The new, younger age obtained for the oldest lunar crust is similar to ages obtained for the oldest terrestrial minerals -- zircons from Western Australia -- suggesting that the oldest crust on both Earth and the Moon formed at approximately the same time.

This study is the first in which a single sample of FAN yielded consistent ages from multiple isotope dating techniques. This result strongly suggests that these ages pinpoint the time at which this sample crystallized. The extraordinarily young age of this lunar sample either means that the Moon solidified significantly later than previous estimates -- and therefore the moon itself is much younger than previously believed -- or that this sample does not represent a crystallization product of the original magma ocean. Either scenario requires major revision to existing models for the formation of the Moon.

Which of the following captures the primary purpose of the passage?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Summary and Main Point

Prethinking

This is a Main Idea question. As seen in the summary and main point section, the first paragraph explains the existing theory regarding Moon formation and mentions a key analysis that alters the existing estimates of Moon’s age. You will notice that the explanation of the existing theory serves as a basis to talk about the recent scientific analysis. The second paragraph then details out the steps involved in the analysis and its findings. Finally, the author analyzes the implications of these findings in the last paragraph. Hence, we can conclude that the main purpose behind writing this passage is to explain a recent scientific analysis while analysing some important implications of its findings.

With this understanding in mind, let’s take a look at the answer choices.

Answer Choices

A

To explain a recent scientific analysis while analyzing some important implications of its findings

Correct

This choice matches our pre-thinking analysis.

B

To establish how a prevailing scientific theory is no longer valid

Incorrect: Inconsistent

This choice is too extreme. The author never discards the prevailing theory. He/She instead recommends that in the light of the new findings, major revisions need to be made to the existing models of Moon formation.

C

To discuss two competing theories regarding a scientific phenomenon

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There are no two competing theories about Moon formation. As stated in the explanation for choice B, the analysis mentioned in the passage has implications for the existing theory.

D

To present the details of a recent scientific analysis and its findings

Incorrect: Partial Scope

Yes, the author indeed does so but in the final paragraph, the author even analyzes the implications of the analysis. Hence, this choice fails to capture the essence of the entire passage.

E

To question the outcome of a recent finding 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author never doubts the findings of the analysis. The impact of the findings is explored in the passage.

QUESTION: 2

The prevailing theory of our Moon's origin is that it was created by a giant impact between a large planet-like object and the proto-Earth very early in the evolution of our solar system. The energy of this impact was sufficiently high that the Moon formed from melted material that began with a deep liquid magma ocean. As the Moon cooled, this magma ocean solidified into different mineral components, the lightest of which floated upwards to form the oldest crust. Although samples of this presumed ancient crust were brought back to Earth by the Apollo 16 mission in 1972, it was not until recently that scientists could successfully date them. Recent analysis of one of the samples, a rock called ferroan anorthosite or FAN, which is believed to be the oldest of the Moon's crustal rocks, has given scientists new insights into the formation of the Moon, suggesting that the Moon may be much younger than currently believed.

The sample that had been carefully stored at NASA’s Johnson Space Center had to be extensively pre-cleaned to remove terrestrial contamination. Once the sample was contamination free, the researchers were able to study it. The team analyzed the isotopes of the elements lead and neodymium to place the age of the sample at 4.36 billion years. This figure is significantly younger than earlier estimates of the Moon's age that range to nearly as old as the age of the solar system itself at 4.567 billion years. The new, younger age obtained for the oldest lunar crust is similar to ages obtained for the oldest terrestrial minerals -- zircons from Western Australia -- suggesting that the oldest crust on both Earth and the Moon formed at approximately the same time.

This study is the first in which a single sample of FAN yielded consistent ages from multiple isotope dating techniques. This result strongly suggests that these ages pinpoint the time at which this sample crystallized. The extraordinarily young age of this lunar sample either means that the Moon solidified significantly later than previous estimates -- and therefore the moon itself is much younger than previously believed -- or that this sample does not represent a crystallization product of the original magma ocean. Either scenario requires major revision to existing models for the formation of the Moon.

The passage states which of the following?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Summary and Main Point

Prethinking

This is a Detail question. Keep crossing out choices that do not state information explicitly mentioned in the passage. Choose the one for which you can directly refer to a portion of the passage.

 

Answer Choices

A

The oldest terrestrial minerals can be said to be at least 4.36 billion years old.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The passage says that the age of the FAN sample is similar to that of the oldest terrestrial minerals. This means that these minerals can be said to be around (accounting for a few years younger or older than this number) 4.36 billion years old. However, this choice says that they are at least these many years old, implying that they could be older but not younger than 4.36 billion years.

B

In the recent analysis, more than one dating mechanism was applied to the FAN sample.

Correct

This information is explicitly given to us in the following section of the passage (last para- 1st sentence):

This study is the first in which a single sample of FAN yielded consistent ages from multiple isotope dating techniques.

C

A significant amount of more research is required before anything certain can be concluded regarding the age of the FAN samples.

Incorrect: Opposite

The statement made in this choice goes against the following contents of the passage:

This study is the first in which a single sample of FAN yielded consistent ages from multiple isotope dating techniques. This result strongly suggests that these ages pinpoint the time at which this sample crystallized.  

D

Zircons from Western Australia corroborated the age of the FAN sample.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The similarity between the age of the zircons and FAN sample points towards the conclusion that the oldest crust on both Earth and Moon formed at approximately the same time and not that the zircons helped establish the age of the FAN samples in the first place.

E

Terrestrial contamination often occurs in samples brought from space.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

We know that there was terrestrial contamination in the sample studies but there is no given information regarding how often such contamination occurs.

QUESTION: 3

The prevailing theory of our Moon's origin is that it was created by a giant impact between a large planet-like object and the proto-Earth very early in the evolution of our solar system. The energy of this impact was sufficiently high that the Moon formed from melted material that began with a deep liquid magma ocean. As the Moon cooled, this magma ocean solidified into different mineral components, the lightest of which floated upwards to form the oldest crust. Although samples of this presumed ancient crust were brought back to Earth by the Apollo 16 mission in 1972, it was not until recently that scientists could successfully date them. Recent analysis of one of the samples, a rock called ferroan anorthosite or FAN, which is believed to be the oldest of the Moon's crustal rocks, has given scientists new insights into the formation of the Moon, suggesting that the Moon may be much younger than currently believed.

The sample that had been carefully stored at NASA’s Johnson Space Center had to be extensively pre-cleaned to remove terrestrial contamination. Once the sample was contamination free, the researchers were able to study it. The team analyzed the isotopes of the elements lead and neodymium to place the age of the sample at 4.36 billion years. This figure is significantly younger than earlier estimates of the Moon's age that range to nearly as old as the age of the solar system itself at 4.567 billion years. The new, younger age obtained for the oldest lunar crust is similar to ages obtained for the oldest terrestrial minerals -- zircons from Western Australia -- suggesting that the oldest crust on both Earth and the Moon formed at approximately the same time.

This study is the first in which a single sample of FAN yielded consistent ages from multiple isotope dating techniques. This result strongly suggests that these ages pinpoint the time at which this sample crystallized. The extraordinarily young age of this lunar sample either means that the Moon solidified significantly later than previous estimates -- and therefore the moon itself is much younger than previously believed -- or that this sample does not represent a crystallization product of the original magma ocean. Either scenario requires major revision to existing models for the formation of the Moon.

The passage supports which of the following statements?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Summary and Main Point

Prethinking

Since this is a Global Inference question, we cannot pre-think on specific lines. However, we must keep in mind that four out of the five given answer choices will not follow from what is stated in the passage; these answer choices are INCORRECT. Select the answer choice that is bolstered by specific facts/ideas mentioned in the passage. 

Answer Choices

A

In the light of the analysis done on the FAN sample, it is possible that ferroan anorthosite is not a light mineral.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

We are told that it is possible that the FAN sample does not belong to the original magma that cooled down to form the Moon, meaning that it is not a part of the ancient crust of the Moon as it was thought to be. This ancient crust was formed of the lightest minerals in the magma. However, if the sample itself does not represent the magma, no conclusion can be drawn regarding its weight properties. Also, this choice says “light” mineral, which is an absolute judgment; the passage makes a comparison between the minerals on the crust and other minerals in the magma.

B

If the Moon was indeed formed 4.36 billion years ago, then the age of the solar system itself needs to be reconsidered.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The passage says that if the Moon was formed at a stage later than 4.567 billion years ago, the age of the solar system, then existing models of Moon formation need to be revised. However, the finding has no stated implication for the age of the solar system itself.

C

The fact that the moon was not formed at a much later stage than generally believed does not affect the requirement for significant changes in the existing theory of Moon formation.

Correct

This statement can be inferred from the author’s analysis of the implications of the findings. Please refer to the relevant section below:

The extraordinarily young age of this lunar sample either means that the Moon solidified significantly later than previous estimates -- and therefore the moon itself is much younger than previously believed -- or that this sample does not represent a crystallization product of the original magma ocean. Either scenario requires major revision to existing models for the formation of the Moon.

D

A consistent result from multiple isotope dating techniques had never been achieved in any field before the mentioned study on the FAN sample.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no information given to conclude anything about the application of these dating techniques in other fields.

E

Since the Apollo 16 mission in 1972, scientists have not been able to obtain more samples from the Moon’s crust.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no information given in the passage to support any inference about other scientific missions.

QUESTION: 4

The progress of astronomy has always been closely associated with the development and application of mechanical processes and skill. Before the seventeenth century, the size of the planets could not be measured, the satellites of the planets except the Earth’s moon were unknown, the phases of Mercury and Venus were merely conjectured, and accurate positions of the sun, moon, and planets among the stars, and of the stars among themselves, were impossible all because there were no telescopes. More than a half century elapsed after the invention of the telescope before Picard combined it with a graduated circle in such a way that the measurement of angles was greatly improved. Then arose the necessity for accurate time. Although Galileo had learned the principles governing the pendulum, astronomy had to wait for the mechanical genius of Huygens before a satisfactory clock was invented around 1657.

Nearly all the large reflecting telescopes ever built were constructed by astronomers who possessed great facility in practical mechanics. The rapid and significant advances in nearly all departments of astronomy in the past century would not have been possible except through the skill and patience of glassmakers, opticians, and engineers. The principles of spectrum analysis as formulated by Kirchho allowed for the discovery of the elements composing every heavenly body. The deftness of Wollaston showed that light could not be analyzed unless it first passed through a very narrow slit. Even in our modern day the power of the telescope and spectroscope has been vastly extended by the optical skill and mechanical dexterity of individuals such as Rowland, Hastings and Brashear, all Americans.

An observatory site should have a fairly unobstructed horizon, as much freedom from cloud as possible, good foundations for the instruments, and a very steady atmosphere. To understand the necessity of a steady atmosphere, look at some distant outdoor object through a window on a hot summer day. The object appears blurry and wavering. Similarly, currents of warm air continually rise from the earth to upper regions of the atmosphere, and colder air  comes down and rushes underneath. Although these atmospheric movements are often invisible to the eye, their effect is plainly visible in the telescope as a blurry distortion. In order for an ideally-designed telescope to perform perfectly, it must be located in a perfect atmosphere. Otherwise its full power cannot be employed. All hindrances of atmosphere are most advantageously avoided in arid or desert regions of the globe, at elevations of 3000 to 10,000 feet above sea level. Higher mountains have as yet been only partially investigated, and it is not known whether difficulties of occupying them permanently would more than counterbalance the gain which greater elevation would afford.

According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true about the telescope?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

This is a Detail based Inference question. The correct answer in this  question will be the one that does NOT closely follow from the passage, because of the word “NOT.” Eliminate answer choices that are restatements from the passage. Look for a choice that is directly contradicted by the passage. 

Answer Choices

A

Knowledge about the satellites of the planets was limited to a large extent because of the lack of the knowledge gained from the use of telescopes.  

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This IS something that is supported by the passage. The second sentence states that Before the seventeenth …the satellites of the planets except the Earth’s moon were unknown…because there were no telescopes.

B

A telescope at 10,000 feet in the mountains could work better than a telescope at 5,000 feet in the desert. 

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This IS something supported by the passage. The last sentence states it is not known whether difficulties of occupying them permanently would more than counterbalance the gain which greater elevation would afford.

C

A climate with frequent variations in the weather would make a telescope potentially less accurate than a climate with monotonous weather.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This IS something supported by the passage. The passage describes the importance of “steady atmosphere” in the third paragraph. Remember that for this question you are looking for the answer choice that does NOT follow from the passage.

 

D

Picard incorporated the graduated circle into the telescope around 1640.

Correct: Opposite

The development of the telescope is the focus of the first and second paragraphs. In the first paragraph, the author states, “Earlier than the seventeenth century…there were no telescopes.” This means that pre-1600’s, there were no telescopes. So it is logical that the telescope was invented sometime in the 1600’s.  In the next sentence, the passage says, “More than a half century elapsed after the invention of the telescope before Picard combined it with a graduated circle.” If MORE than 50+ years went by before Picard combined the telescope with the graduated circle, then it is not possible Picard invented around 1640.

E

A desert such as the Sahara would be an ideal location for a telescope due to its lack of extreme atmospheric movement. 

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This IS supported by the discussion in the final paragraph. The passage states, “All hindrances of atmosphere are most advantageously avoided in arid or desert regions of the globe.

QUESTION: 5

The progress of astronomy has always been closely associated with the development and application of mechanical processes and skill. Before the seventeenth century, the size of the planets could not be measured, the satellites of the planets except the Earth’s moon were unknown, the phases of Mercury and Venus were merely conjectured, and accurate positions of the sun, moon, and planets among the stars, and of the stars among themselves, were impossible all because there were no telescopes. More than a half century elapsed after the invention of the telescope before Picard combined it with a graduated circle in such a way that the measurement of angles was greatly improved. Then arose the necessity for accurate time. Although Galileo had learned the principles governing the pendulum, astronomy had to wait for the mechanical genius of Huygens before a satisfactory clock was invented around 1657.

Nearly all the large reflecting telescopes ever built were constructed by astronomers who possessed great facility in practical mechanics. The rapid and significant advances in nearly all departments of astronomy in the past century would not have been possible except through the skill and patience of glassmakers, opticians, and engineers. The principles of spectrum analysis as formulated by Kirchho allowed for the discovery of the elements composing every heavenly body. The deftness of Wollaston showed that light could not be analyzed unless it first passed through a very narrow slit. Even in our modern day the power of the telescope and spectroscope has been vastly extended by the optical skill and mechanical dexterity of individuals such as Rowland, Hastings and Brashear, all Americans.

An observatory site should have a fairly unobstructed horizon, as much freedom from cloud as possible, good foundations for the instruments, and a very steady atmosphere. To understand the necessity of a steady atmosphere, look at some distant outdoor object through a window on a hot summer day. The object appears blurry and wavering. Similarly, currents of warm air continually rise from the earth to upper regions of the atmosphere, and colder air  comes down and rushes underneath. Although these atmospheric movements are often invisible to the eye, their effect is plainly visible in the telescope as a blurry distortion. In order for an ideally-designed telescope to perform perfectly, it must be located in a perfect atmosphere. Otherwise its full power cannot be employed. All hindrances of atmosphere are most advantageously avoided in arid or desert regions of the globe, at elevations of 3000 to 10,000 feet above sea level. Higher mountains have as yet been only partially investigated, and it is not known whether difficulties of occupying them permanently would more than counterbalance the gain which greater elevation would afford.

The primary purpose of this passage is to 

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

This is a Main Idea question. The correct answer must be broad enough to encompass all three of the paragraphs of the passage without veering outside the scope. Lets’ take a quick look at the individual paragraph summaries. The first paragraph describes that advancement of astronomy is closely related to mechanical inventions. The second paragraph presents many such examples of mechanical inventions that led to the advancement in astronomy. The ;last paragraph details out how a telescope can be used to its full potential. So overall, the primary purpose of the passage is to establish that mechanical inventions are greatly responsible for advancement in astronomy and to detail how to use to use a telescope to its complete capacity. 

Answer Choices

A

detail the advancement of a specific scientific field 

Incorrect: Inconsistent

Although the passage deals with astronomy as a whole but the scope of the passage is concerned with telescopes- their invention and conditions required for their best usage; the advancement of astronomy as a whole is not he focus.

B

recontextualize the reader’s understanding of what it takes to develop a successful telescope

Incorrect: Out of Scope

This choice is too vague. It implies the passage describes a commonly held belief regarding what it takes to develop a telescope and takes steps to correct that misinterpretation. However, no such misconception is described or explored. 

C

explore the early contributions made in the field of astronomy, and some of the mechanical processes that contributed to that development

Incorrect: Partial scope

This choice only focuses on the first two paragraphs. Remember that the correct answer to a “Main Idea” question must include ALL of the paragraphs. This answer choice entirely leaves out the third and final paragraph. 

D

advocate for more research into telescope placement and development

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The tone of this passage is informational/descriptive. The author does not have a strong enough point of view of the topic to “advocate” for any specific result. 

E

describe inventions that helped astronomy and the ideal use of the telescope. 

Correct

The passage is really focusing on two things: the mechanical processed that led to the telescope (paragraphs 1 and 2), and the perfect placement of a telescope (paragraph 3). This choice perfectly encapsulates the passage’s dual goals. 

QUESTION: 6

The progress of astronomy has always been closely associated with the development and application of mechanical processes and skill. Before the seventeenth century, the size of the planets could not be measured, the satellites of the planets except the Earth’s moon were unknown, the phases of Mercury and Venus were merely conjectured, and accurate positions of the sun, moon, and planets among the stars, and of the stars among themselves, were impossible all because there were no telescopes. More than a half century elapsed after the invention of the telescope before Picard combined it with a graduated circle in such a way that the measurement of angles was greatly improved. Then arose the necessity for accurate time. Although Galileo had learned the principles governing the pendulum, astronomy had to wait for the mechanical genius of Huygens before a satisfactory clock was invented around 1657.

Nearly all the large reflecting telescopes ever built were constructed by astronomers who possessed great facility in practical mechanics. The rapid and significant advances in nearly all departments of astronomy in the past century would not have been possible except through the skill and patience of glassmakers, opticians, and engineers. The principles of spectrum analysis as formulated by Kirchho allowed for the discovery of the elements composing every heavenly body. The deftness of Wollaston showed that light could not be analyzed unless it first passed through a very narrow slit. Even in our modern day the power of the telescope and spectroscope has been vastly extended by the optical skill and mechanical dexterity of individuals such as Rowland, Hastings and Brashear, all Americans.

An observatory site should have a fairly unobstructed horizon, as much freedom from cloud as possible, good foundations for the instruments, and a very steady atmosphere. To understand the necessity of a steady atmosphere, look at some distant outdoor object through a window on a hot summer day. The object appears blurry and wavering. Similarly, currents of warm air continually rise from the earth to upper regions of the atmosphere, and colder air  comes down and rushes underneath. Although these atmospheric movements are often invisible to the eye, their effect is plainly visible in the telescope as a blurry distortion. In order for an ideally-designed telescope to perform perfectly, it must be located in a perfect atmosphere. Otherwise its full power cannot be employed. All hindrances of atmosphere are most advantageously avoided in arid or desert regions of the globe, at elevations of 3000 to 10,000 feet above sea level. Higher mountains have as yet been only partially investigated, and it is not known whether difficulties of occupying them permanently would more than counterbalance the gain which greater elevation would afford.

Which of the following is the function of the first paragraph?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Pre-Thinking

This is a Function question. Ask yourself: how does this paragraph function within the larger context of the passage?

Reviewing the individual paragraph summary, we see that the first paragraph says that mechanical inventions are necessary for astronomical advancements. This is the function of the first paragraph.

Answer Choices

A

To describe the most progressive phase in the history of astronomy. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The paragraph does state that in the seventeenth century there were some significant advancements in the field of astronomy but gives us no information regarding whether this was the “most” progressive phase ever.  

B

To overview how astronomy has developed in the past 400 years. 

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The 17th century is mentioned in this paragraph, which certainly focuses on the past and the inventions of the past, but the focus here is a little narrower than this. “How astronomy has developed” is too broad. As the first sentence mentions, it’s really the development of the “mechanical” devices and how they contributed to astronomy that is the true focus of this paragraph. 

C

To emphasize the value of specific inventions in the advancement of a certain scientific field.

Correct

The first paragraph’s sentence brings up the topic: “mechanical processes,” and each subsequent sentence builds on their importance in advancing astronomy by discussing telescopes, pendulums, and clocks. These are three examples of mechanical devices that helped move astronomy forward. Overall, the author’s attitude towards these devices is positive. 

D

To discuss some early contributors to the field of astronomy.  

Incorrect: Partial scope

Though some earlier scientists and inventors are mentioned, they themselves are not the true focus of this paragraph. The author is interested in WHAT they invented, not the men themselves. Notice we do not even learn their first names, nor are they described in anything but a cursory manner. 

E

To explain how far astronomy has come in a relatively short period of time. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is nothing in the passage to indicate the author believes that the time from the 17th century to modern day is “relatively short.” 

QUESTION: 7

The progress of astronomy has always been closely associated with the development and application of mechanical processes and skill. Before the seventeenth century, the size of the planets could not be measured, the satellites of the planets except the Earth’s moon were unknown, the phases of Mercury and Venus were merely conjectured, and accurate positions of the sun, moon, and planets among the stars, and of the stars among themselves, were impossible all because there were no telescopes. More than a half century elapsed after the invention of the telescope before Picard combined it with a graduated circle in such a way that the measurement of angles was greatly improved. Then arose the necessity for accurate time. Although Galileo had learned the principles governing the pendulum, astronomy had to wait for the mechanical genius of Huygens before a satisfactory clock was invented around 1657.

Nearly all the large reflecting telescopes ever built were constructed by astronomers who possessed great facility in practical mechanics. The rapid and significant advances in nearly all departments of astronomy in the past century would not have been possible except through the skill and patience of glassmakers, opticians, and engineers. The principles of spectrum analysis as formulated by Kirchho allowed for the discovery of the elements composing every heavenly body. The deftness of Wollaston showed that light could not be analyzed unless it first passed through a very narrow slit. Even in our modern day the power of the telescope and spectroscope has been vastly extended by the optical skill and mechanical dexterity of individuals such as Rowland, Hastings and Brashear, all Americans.

An observatory site should have a fairly unobstructed horizon, as much freedom from cloud as possible, good foundations for the instruments, and a very steady atmosphere. To understand the necessity of a steady atmosphere, look at some distant outdoor object through a window on a hot summer day. The object appears blurry and wavering. Similarly, currents of warm air continually rise from the earth to upper regions of the atmosphere, and colder air  comes down and rushes underneath. Although these atmospheric movements are often invisible to the eye, their effect is plainly visible in the telescope as a blurry distortion. In order for an ideally-designed telescope to perform perfectly, it must be located in a perfect atmosphere. Otherwise its full power cannot be employed. All hindrances of atmosphere are most advantageously avoided in arid or desert regions of the globe, at elevations of 3000 to 10,000 feet above sea level. Higher mountains have as yet been only partially investigated, and it is not known whether difficulties of occupying them permanently would more than counterbalance the gain which greater elevation would afford.

It can be inferred from the passage that

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Pre-Thinking

This is an Inference question. This is an open-ended inference question, and it is difficult to come up with your own pre-phrased answer before examining the answer choices. The correct inference will follow closely from what is implied in the passage, and will not be contradicted by any explicit details. 

Answer Choices

A

without telescopes, accurate readings of the positions of celestial bodies are currently impossible. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

Although the passage does state that accurate positions of the sun, moon, and planets among the stars, and of the stars among themselves, were impossible all because there were no telescopes, it gives us no information to state that presently there are no other devices that are capable of the same. 

B

even the most superlatively designed telescope possibly  functions below its fully ability at 2000 feet above sea level.

Correct

This statement can be derived from the following two statements in the passage:

(1)  In order for an ideally-designed telescope to perform perfectly, it must be located in a perfect atmosphere.

(2)  All hindrances of atmosphere are most advantageously avoided in arid or desert regions of the globe, at elevations of 3000 to 10,000 feet above sea level.

C

almost all the great telescopes were built by astronomers who possessed excellent knowledge of practical mechanics. 

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The passage mentions that nearly all the large reflecting telescopes ever built were constructed by astronomers who possessed great facility in practical mechanics.  By no means does “large” translate into “great.”

D

the atmospheric movements that cause blurry distortion in a telescope can never be detected by the naked eye.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

While the passage does say that these atmospheric movements are often invisible to the eye, their effect is plainly visible in the telescope as a blurry distortion, the word “never” here is not justified.

E

a telescope requires an observatory site in order to function. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

While the final paragraph does impress upon the reader the importance of an observatory site to a telescope’s accuracy, it does not go so far as to imply that a telescope is non-functional without one. Its accuracy may be diminished, but presumably it could still “function.” 

QUESTION: 8

Researchers bet their bottom dollar on a combination of polar ice cores, tree-rings, geochemistry, and a medieval chronicle little-known in the West to solve one of vulcanology’s most enduring mysteries: which peak blew its top in the mid-13th century, causing a catastrophic eruption that ranks as one of the biggest in the recorded history? As with any investigation, the team had to rule out other suspects as it followed a trail of clues - and even read palms, or at least palm leaves, ultimately finding the culprit of the massive 1257 AD eruption, which the researchers say is Samalas volcano on Lombok Island in Indonesia.

For decades, scientists have been searching for the volcano responsible for the largest spike in sulfate deposits in the last 7,000 years, which were revealed in the ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. The spike indicated a massive eruption around 1257 that may have sent up to eight times more sulfate into the stratosphere than the 1883 eruption of Karaktau, often held up as an archetype of volcanoes behaving badly. Researchers say the 1257 mystery spew is comparable in scope to a second-century AD eruption in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand, known as the most intense historic volcanic event. Multitude of futile attempts for a few decades compelled the researchers to write the project off as “unsolved”. Some thirty years later, one of the researchers’ tips came from Babad Lombok, a 13th century historical record in Old Javanese, written on palm leaves, the chronicle referencing a massive eruption of Samalas that created an enormous caldera.The current research zeroed in on Samalas, part of the Mount Rinjani volcanic complex.

The team was able to accumulate a sizable amount of incriminating evidence, including pyroclastic deposits from the eruption more than 100 feet thick found more than 15 miles from the ruins of the volcano. The range of deposits and the volume suggest that the Samalas eruption exceeded that of the Tambora event in 1815. The team sampled carbonized tree trunks and branches in the Samalas deposit zone and used radiocarbon dating to confirm a mid 13th-century eruption. Reviewing wind patterns, researchers were even able to narrow the timeframe for the eruption. The distribution, to the west, of volcanic ash and other ejecta from Samalas suggest that the dry season’s easterly trade winds were prevalent, putting the eruption window between May and October of 1257.

The author is primarily concerned with: 

Solution:
QUESTION: 9

Researchers bet their bottom dollar on a combination of polar ice cores, tree-rings, geochemistry, and a medieval chronicle little-known in the West to solve one of vulcanology’s most enduring mysteries: which peak blew its top in the mid-13th century, causing a catastrophic eruption that ranks as one of the biggest in the recorded history? As with any investigation, the team had to rule out other suspects as it followed a trail of clues - and even read palms, or at least palm leaves, ultimately finding the culprit of the massive 1257 AD eruption, which the researchers say is Samalas volcano on Lombok Island in Indonesia.

For decades, scientists have been searching for the volcano responsible for the largest spike in sulfate deposits in the last 7,000 years, which were revealed in the ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. The spike indicated a massive eruption around 1257 that may have sent up to eight times more sulfate into the stratosphere than the 1883 eruption of Karaktau, often held up as an archetype of volcanoes behaving badly. Researchers say the 1257 mystery spew is comparable in scope to a second-century AD eruption in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand, known as the most intense historic volcanic event. Multitude of futile attempts for a few decades compelled the researchers to write the project off as “unsolved”. Some thirty years later, one of the researchers’ tips came from Babad Lombok, a 13th century historical record in Old Javanese, written on palm leaves, the chronicle referencing a massive eruption of Samalas that created an enormous caldera.The current research zeroed in on Samalas, part of the Mount Rinjani volcanic complex.

The team was able to accumulate a sizable amount of incriminating evidence, including pyroclastic deposits from the eruption more than 100 feet thick found more than 15 miles from the ruins of the volcano. The range of deposits and the volume suggest that the Samalas eruption exceeded that of the Tambora event in 1815. The team sampled carbonized tree trunks and branches in the Samalas deposit zone and used radiocarbon dating to confirm a mid 13th-century eruption. Reviewing wind patterns, researchers were even able to narrow the timeframe for the eruption. The distribution, to the west, of volcanic ash and other ejecta from Samalas suggest that the dry season’s easterly trade winds were prevalent, putting the eruption window between May and October of 1257.

The author of the passage alludes to the discovery made in Greenland and Antarctica in order to

Solution:
QUESTION: 10

Researchers bet their bottom dollar on a combination of polar ice cores, tree-rings, geochemistry, and a medieval chronicle little-known in the West to solve one of vulcanology’s most enduring mysteries: which peak blew its top in the mid-13th century, causing a catastrophic eruption that ranks as one of the biggest in the recorded history? As with any investigation, the team had to rule out other suspects as it followed a trail of clues - and even read palms, or at least palm leaves, ultimately finding the culprit of the massive 1257 AD eruption, which the researchers say is Samalas volcano on Lombok Island in Indonesia.

For decades, scientists have been searching for the volcano responsible for the largest spike in sulfate deposits in the last 7,000 years, which were revealed in the ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. The spike indicated a massive eruption around 1257 that may have sent up to eight times more sulfate into the stratosphere than the 1883 eruption of Karaktau, often held up as an archetype of volcanoes behaving badly. Researchers say the 1257 mystery spew is comparable in scope to a second-century AD eruption in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand, known as the most intense historic volcanic event. Multitude of futile attempts for a few decades compelled the researchers to write the project off as “unsolved”. Some thirty years later, one of the researchers’ tips came from Babad Lombok, a 13th century historical record in Old Javanese, written on palm leaves, the chronicle referencing a massive eruption of Samalas that created an enormous caldera.The current research zeroed in on Samalas, part of the Mount Rinjani volcanic complex.

The team was able to accumulate a sizable amount of incriminating evidence, including pyroclastic deposits from the eruption more than 100 feet thick found more than 15 miles from the ruins of the volcano. The range of deposits and the volume suggest that the Samalas eruption exceeded that of the Tambora event in 1815. The team sampled carbonized tree trunks and branches in the Samalas deposit zone and used radiocarbon dating to confirm a mid 13th-century eruption. Reviewing wind patterns, researchers were even able to narrow the timeframe for the eruption. The distribution, to the west, of volcanic ash and other ejecta from Samalas suggest that the dry season’s easterly trade winds were prevalent, putting the eruption window between May and October of 1257.

Which of the following statements about “the most intense historic volcanic event” is supported by information in the passage?

Solution:
QUESTION: 11

Origami is capable of turning a simple sheet of paper into a pretty paper crane, but the principles behind the paper-folding art can also be applied to making a microfluidic device for a blood test, or for storing a satellite's solar panel in a rocket's cargo bay. A team of researchers is turning kirigami, a related art form that allows the paper to be cut, into a technique that can be applied equally to structures on those vastly divergent length scales. The researchers lay out the rules for folding and cutting a hexagonal lattice, a structure made from strips of material that cross over each other with spaces between, into a wide variety of useful three-dimensional shapes. 

A hexagonal lattice may seem like an odd choice for a starting point, but the researchers think that the pattern has advantages over a seemingly simpler tessellation, such as one made from squares; for instance, it is easier to fill a space with a hexagonal lattice and move from 2-D to 3-D. Starting from a flat hexagonal grid on a sheet of paper, the researchers outlined the fundamental cuts and folds that allow the resulting shape to keep the same proportions of the initial lattice, even if some of the material is removed. This is a critical quality for making the transition from paper to materials that might be used in real-world applications.

Having a set of rules that draws on fundamental mathematical principles means that the kirigami approach can be applied equally across length scales, and with almost any material that can be selected on the basis of its relevance to the ultimate application, whether it is in nanotechnology, architecture, or aerospace.The rules also guarantee that "modules," basic shapes such as channels that can direct the flow of fluids, can be combined into more complex ones. Kirigami is particularly attractive for nanoscale applications, where the simplest, most space-efficient shapes are necessary, and self-folding materials would circumvent some of the fabrication challenges inherent in working with other materials at such small scales.

Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the second paragraph?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Pre-Thinking

This is a Function question. Let’s refer to the summary and main point section to understand how the second paragraph features as part of the entire passage. In the first paragraph, the author introduces the concept of kirigami and describes how its underlying principles are being used to come up with a technique that can be useful for making various structures. In the second paragraph, the author takes the discussion a bit further by evaluating two key aspects of the technique. This indeed is the function of the second paragraph.

Answer Choices

A

To introduce a discussion on the most critical aspect of the technique that dictates the transformation of origami from paper to potentially real structures

Incorrect: Irrelevant

Firstly, the critical aspect being referred to is that of kirigami and not origami. Secondly, this feature is stated as an important aspect but not the “most” important aspect. Lastly, the author does not introduce a new discussion but instead carries on from the previous paragraph’s discussion of the features of kirigami.

B

To highlight the scope of kirigami across various applications

Incorrect: Irrelevant

There is no discussion in this paragraph on the scope of kirigami on various applications. In fact, it is the third paragraph in which the author briefly analyses the scope of the technique with respect to one application- nanotechnology.

C

To suggest how maintaining a quality of the technique of kirigami is key to its application to various materials

Incorrect: Partial scope

The author does talk about this quality but this mention forms part of a bigger discussion of the features of the technique; for instance, the author also talks about the benefit of the hexagonal lattice vi-a-vis some other shapes.

D

To evaluate some key features of the  technique of kirigami 

Correct

This choice rightly captures the essence of the second paragraph and matches our pre-thinking.

E

To analyze what makes kirigami a successful technique for fabricating materials

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The talk about fabrication happens in the final paragraph. In the second paragraph, the author mostly talks about maintaining proportions.

QUESTION: 12

Origami is capable of turning a simple sheet of paper into a pretty paper crane, but the principles behind the paper-folding art can also be applied to making a microfluidic device for a blood test, or for storing a satellite's solar panel in a rocket's cargo bay. A team of researchers is turning kirigami, a related art form that allows the paper to be cut, into a technique that can be applied equally to structures on those vastly divergent length scales. The researchers lay out the rules for folding and cutting a hexagonal lattice, a structure made from strips of material that cross over each other with spaces between, into a wide variety of useful three-dimensional shapes. 

A hexagonal lattice may seem like an odd choice for a starting point, but the researchers think that the pattern has advantages over a seemingly simpler tessellation, such as one made from squares; for instance, it is easier to fill a space with a hexagonal lattice and move from 2-D to 3-D. Starting from a flat hexagonal grid on a sheet of paper, the researchers outlined the fundamental cuts and folds that allow the resulting shape to keep the same proportions of the initial lattice, even if some of the material is removed. This is a critical quality for making the transition from paper to materials that might be used in real-world applications.

Having a set of rules that draws on fundamental mathematical principles means that the kirigami approach can be applied equally across length scales, and with almost any material that can be selected on the basis of its relevance to the ultimate application, whether it is in nanotechnology, architecture, or aerospace.The rules also guarantee that "modules," basic shapes such as channels that can direct the flow of fluids, can be combined into more complex ones. Kirigami is particularly attractive for nanoscale applications, where the simplest, most space-efficient shapes are necessary, and self-folding materials would circumvent some of the fabrication challenges inherent in working with other materials at such small scales.

Which of the following statements would the author most likely agree with?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

This is an Inference question. Since this a general-inference question, we cannot pre-think for specific ideas. However, we must keep in mind that four out of the five given answer choices will not follow from what is stated in the passage; these answer choices are INCORRECT. Select the answer choice that is bolstered by specific facts mentioned in the passage.

Answer Choices

A

Origami as an art form is less flexible than kirigami, making it less relevant for building nanostructures.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

Nowhere in the passage does the author compare kirigami and origami.

B

In nanoscale projects, certain building materials can be tricky to work with as they are relatively rigid for the purpose of shaping.

Correct

This statement can be derived from the final sentence of the passage. The author says that:

Kirigami is particularly attractive for nanoscale applications, where the simplest, most space-efficient shapes are necessary, and self-folding materials would circumvent some of the fabrication challenges inherent in working with other materials at such small scales.

 Since the self-folding materials would avoid the fabrication/shaping problems that can occur when working with other materials at such small scales, it can be deduced that these other materials are more rigid compared to the self-folding ones.

C

It is very difficult to fill in spaces in structures formed of patterns other than the hexagonal lattice.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

The passage states that it is easier to fill spaces with a hexagonal lattice, presenting a comparison between this shape and others. It makes a relative/comparative statement; however, the choice makes an absolute statement.

An important quality for transforming paper designs to materials that could be used in real-world structures is that the shape of the hexagonal grid should not change.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

The author states that the important quality of the technique is that the resulting proportions of the shape, and the not the shape itself, are kept intact.

E

The type of material to be used changes drastically with the change in the ultimate application.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

The author states that the relevant material can be selected keeping in mind the ultimate application. The extent of the change in material is neither stated nor suggested.

QUESTION: 13

Origami is capable of turning a simple sheet of paper into a pretty paper crane, but the principles behind the paper-folding art can also be applied to making a microfluidic device for a blood test, or for storing a satellite's solar panel in a rocket's cargo bay. A team of researchers is turning kirigami, a related art form that allows the paper to be cut, into a technique that can be applied equally to structures on those vastly divergent length scales. The researchers lay out the rules for folding and cutting a hexagonal lattice, a structure made from strips of material that cross over each other with spaces between, into a wide variety of useful three-dimensional shapes. 

A hexagonal lattice may seem like an odd choice for a starting point, but the researchers think that the pattern has advantages over a seemingly simpler tessellation, such as one made from squares; for instance, it is easier to fill a space with a hexagonal lattice and move from 2-D to 3-D. Starting from a flat hexagonal grid on a sheet of paper, the researchers outlined the fundamental cuts and folds that allow the resulting shape to keep the same proportions of the initial lattice, even if some of the material is removed. This is a critical quality for making the transition from paper to materials that might be used in real-world applications.

Having a set of rules that draws on fundamental mathematical principles means that the kirigami approach can be applied equally across length scales, and with almost any material that can be selected on the basis of its relevance to the ultimate application, whether it is in nanotechnology, architecture, or aerospace.The rules also guarantee that "modules," basic shapes such as channels that can direct the flow of fluids, can be combined into more complex ones. Kirigami is particularly attractive for nanoscale applications, where the simplest, most space-efficient shapes are necessary, and self-folding materials would circumvent some of the fabrication challenges inherent in working with other materials at such small scales.

The author is primarily concerned with

Solution:

Passage Analysis

This is a Main Idea question. Let’s revisit the individual summary of the paragraphs to understand the overall purpose of the author. In the first paragraph, the author introduces the concept of kirigami and describes how its underlying principles are being used to come up with a technique that can be useful for making various structures. In the second paragraph, the author takes the discussion a bit further by evaluating two key aspects of the technique. And in the final paragraph, the author discusses the positives of kirigami with respect to building structures of various sizes, shapes and materials.  In all, the whole passage revolves around kirigami and its potential for building various physical structures.

Answer Choices

A

discussing the advantages and disadvantages of a technique

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The passage never delves in to discussing the disadvantages of the technique created from kirigami. 

B

explaining how a technique is more than just a superficial art form

Incorrect: Inconsistent

There is no basis to conclude that kirigami, without its further application in the field of developing structure, is a “superficial” art form. Also, the entire passage is written from the point of view of appreciating the rules and features of kirigami and how these rules can be applied to building structures with almost any material. So, if anything, the rules underlying kirigami are actually appreciated.

C

highlighting the relevance of a particular pattern in the application of a technique to building structures

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The author does highlight the relevance of the hexagonal lattice but that is only a part of the entire passage. The whole passage does not concentrate on hexagonal lattice.

D

discussing revolutionary techniques for building 3-D structures

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The whole passage revolves only around one technique- the one developed from kirigami.

E

discussing the potential of a technique for building varied physical structures

Correct

This answer choice is on the same lines as the one we came up with in our pre-thinking, and summary and main point section.

QUESTION: 14

In liquids, molecules move about freely yet tend to cling together. This tendency to cling together, which is not noticeable in gases, is characteristic of liquids and especially of solids. It is the cause of viscosity and is readily detected in a variety of ways. For instance, not only do liquid molecules cling together to form drops and streams, but they cling to the molecules of solids as well, as is shown by the wet surface of an object that has been dipped in water. The attraction of like molecules for one another is called “cohesion,” while the attraction of unlike molecules is called “adhesion,” although the force is the same whether the molecules are alike or unlike. It is the former that causes drops of water to form and that holds iron, copper, and other solids so rigidly together.

The adhesion of glue to other objects is well known. Paint also "sticks" well. Sometimes the "joint" where two boards are glued together is stronger than the board itself. The force of attraction between molecules has been studied carefully. The attraction acts only through very short distances. The attraction even in liquids is considerable and may be measured. The cohesion of liquids is also indicated by the tendency of films to assume the smallest possible surface. Soap bubble films show this readily. A soap bubble takes its spherical shape because this form holds the confined air within the smallest possible surface. A drop of liquid is spherical for the same reason. The surface of water acts as if covered by a film that coheres more strongly than the water beneath it. This is shown by the fact that a steel needle or a thin strip of metal may be floated upon the surface of water. It is supported by the surface film. If the film breaks the needle sinks. This film also supports the little water bugs seen running over the surface of a quiet pond in summer. The surface film is stronger in some liquids than in others. This may be shown by taking water, colored so that it can be seen, placing a thin layer of it on a white surface and dropping alcohol upon it. Wherever the alcohol drops, the water is seen to pull away from it, leaving a bare space over which the alcohol has been spread. This indicates that the alcohol has the weaker film.

Which of the following is the function of the first paragraph?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

This is a Function question. The correct answer’s scope will be confined to the author’s intentions in the first paragraph only. Let’s review the summary of the first paragraph. It says that the first paragraph talks about cohesion and adhesion. This is why the author has written this paragraph.

Answer Choices

A

To emphasize cohesion’s importance over adhesion.

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author does spend more time discussing cohesion, but the tone of the passage is neutral. He does not emphasize that cohesion is more valuable than adhesion.

B

To review the causes of viscosity.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

This is a minor detail from the first paragraph, not the overall function of the entire paragraph.

C

To explain how cohesion holds both liquids and solids together.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The first paragraph discusses adhesion as well as cohesion. This is too narrow to be the function of the entire first paragraph.

D

To define cohesion and adhesion and explain how solids/liquids interact

Correct

This, in broad terms, is the major function of the first paragraph. It describes how these molecules interact, labeling these interactions adhesion and cohesion.

E

To show how liquid films are an example of cohesion.

Incorrect: Partial Scope

This is partly the function of the second paragraph, not the first paragraph.

QUESTION: 15

Information is the essence of universe and means distinction between things. It is the very basic principle of physics that distinctions never disappear even though they might get scrambled or mixed away even after a seemingly irreversible change – say a magazine gets dissolved into pulp at a recycling plan, the information on the pages of the magazines will be re-organized and not eliminated and in theory the decay can be reversed; the pulp reconstructed into words and photographs. The only exception to this principle in physics is if the magazine were thrown into a black hole, a singular object in this regard, since nothing can emerge out of it after all. Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole – a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists all over the world who argue that the entire structure of theoretical physics will disintegrate once you accept the notion that information can be lost, even if in a black hole.

Even though Hawking was not easily convinced, the physicists adopted a new theory called the holograph principle that states that when an object falls inside a black hole the stuff inside it may be lost but the objects information may be imprinted on the surface of black hole and with the right tools you may reconstruct the magazine from the black hole just as you would have reconstructed it from the pulp. This principle which may sound like an accounting trick has some serious implications if true. It implies that all information about 3 dimensional objects is stored in 2 dimensions and that there is a limit to how much information can be stored on a given surface area.  While this theory plugs a key gap in Hawkins assertion its corollaries spring some interesting implications that may have a tough time standing up to the scrutiny.

According to the passage, prior to 1975 it was believed that black holes were unique because:

Solution:
QUESTION: 16

Information is the essence of universe and means distinction between things. It is the very basic principle of physics that distinctions never disappear even though they might get scrambled or mixed away even after a seemingly irreversible change – say a magazine gets dissolved into pulp at a recycling plan, the information on the pages of the magazines will be re-organized and not eliminated and in theory the decay can be reversed; the pulp reconstructed into words and photographs. The only exception to this principle in physics is if the magazine were thrown into a black hole, a singular object in this regard, since nothing can emerge out of it after all. Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole – a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists all over the world who argue that the entire structure of theoretical physics will disintegrate once you accept the notion that information can be lost, even if in a black hole.

Even though Hawking was not easily convinced, the physicists adopted a new theory called the holograph principle that states that when an object falls inside a black hole the stuff inside it may be lost but the objects information may be imprinted on the surface of black hole and with the right tools you may reconstruct the magazine from the black hole just as you would have reconstructed it from the pulp. This principle which may sound like an accounting trick has some serious implications if true. It implies that all information about 3 dimensional objects is stored in 2 dimensions and that there is a limit to how much information can be stored on a given surface area.  While this theory plugs a key gap in Hawkins assertion its corollaries spring some interesting implications that may have a tough time standing up to the scrutiny.

Why does the author imply that the holographic principle “may sound like an accounting trick”?

Solution:
QUESTION: 17

Information is the essence of universe and means distinction between things. It is the very basic principle of physics that distinctions never disappear even though they might get scrambled or mixed away even after a seemingly irreversible change – say a magazine gets dissolved into pulp at a recycling plan, the information on the pages of the magazines will be re-organized and not eliminated and in theory the decay can be reversed; the pulp reconstructed into words and photographs. The only exception to this principle in physics is if the magazine were thrown into a black hole, a singular object in this regard, since nothing can emerge out of it after all. Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole – a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists all over the world who argue that the entire structure of theoretical physics will disintegrate once you accept the notion that information can be lost, even if in a black hole.

Even though Hawking was not easily convinced, the physicists adopted a new theory called the holograph principle that states that when an object falls inside a black hole the stuff inside it may be lost but the objects information may be imprinted on the surface of black hole and with the right tools you may reconstruct the magazine from the black hole just as you would have reconstructed it from the pulp. This principle which may sound like an accounting trick has some serious implications if true. It implies that all information about 3 dimensional objects is stored in 2 dimensions and that there is a limit to how much information can be stored on a given surface area.  While this theory plugs a key gap in Hawkins assertion its corollaries spring some interesting implications that may have a tough time standing up to the scrutiny.

Which of the following best describes author’s feelings regarding Holograph principle?

Solution:
QUESTION: 18

Information is the essence of universe and means distinction between things. It is the very basic principle of physics that distinctions never disappear even though they might get scrambled or mixed away even after a seemingly irreversible change – say a magazine gets dissolved into pulp at a recycling plan, the information on the pages of the magazines will be re-organized and not eliminated and in theory the decay can be reversed; the pulp reconstructed into words and photographs. The only exception to this principle in physics is if the magazine were thrown into a black hole, a singular object in this regard, since nothing can emerge out of it after all. Even after Stephen Hawking showed in 1975 that black holes can radiate away matter and energy, the radiation seemed devoid of any structure, indicating that all information is lost in a black hole – a conclusion that has been hotly contested by physicists all over the world who argue that the entire structure of theoretical physics will disintegrate once you accept the notion that information can be lost, even if in a black hole.

Even though Hawking was not easily convinced, the physicists adopted a new theory called the holograph principle that states that when an object falls inside a black hole the stuff inside it may be lost but the objects information may be imprinted on the surface of black hole and with the right tools you may reconstruct the magazine from the black hole just as you would have reconstructed it from the pulp. This principle which may sound like an accounting trick has some serious implications if true. It implies that all information about 3 dimensional objects is stored in 2 dimensions and that there is a limit to how much information can be stored on a given surface area.  While this theory plugs a key gap in Hawkins assertion its corollaries spring some interesting implications that may have a tough time standing up to the scrutiny.

According to the passage, the hotly contested debate about black holes was:

Solution: