Test: Reading Comprehension- 1


21 Questions MCQ Test Verbal for GMAT | Test: Reading Comprehension- 1


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QUESTION: 1

Often it was believed that super intelligence leads to financial success, but a study by Malcolm Gadwall identified determination as the most important predictor of success. It certainly helps to be smart, but there are plenty of people as smart as Bill Gates who have achieved next to nothing. The study further concluded that there are aspects called components of determination that are more relevant than others, and more importantly, some of these components can be cultivated while others are innate.  One of these components – sheer willfulness, the desire to get something when you want it, no matter what – is most important.  Unfortunately, the study concluded that a good deal of willfulness must be inborn because it is common to see families in which one sibling has much more of it than the other sibling. Circumstances can alter it, but at the high end of the scale, nature seems to be more important than nurture. But a strong willed person needs to be disciplined and not self-indulgent, making discipline the second component of determination. Hence, determination implies your willfulness is balanced by discipline. This is because the stronger your will, the less anyone will be able to argue with you except yourself, and someone should argue with you because everyone has base impulses, but if you have more will than discipline you'll just give into these impulses and as a result end up on a local maximum such as drug addiction. Another important thing that the study concludes is that discipline can be cultivated, and in fact does tend to vary quite a lot in the course of an individual's life, and since determination is the product of will and discipline, you can become more determined by being more disciplined. The last component that the study discovered – another malleable one – is ambition. If willfulness and discipline are what get you to your destination, ambition is how you choose it and the fact that ambition is malleable means there is a lot you can do to increase it.  Hence to summarize, determination consists of willfulness balanced with discipline and aimed by ambition - fortunately at least two of these three qualities can be cultivated.

The author is primarily concerned with:

A

comparing and contrasting the roles played by intelligence and determination as a predictor of financial success.

Solution:
QUESTION: 2

In general, psychology is the study of human thought and consciousness and includes everything from the biological way in which cognitive processes occur to why people behave in certain ways. Sociology, on the other hand, is the study of society and how people interact with each other in different ways. The major differences between psychology and sociology typically concern the focal points of each field and how those foci are studied. In psychology, for example, the focus of research typically involves understanding the human cognitive process and how the brain functions in general. In sociology, however, there is a great deal of importance placed on the role that society has in the formation of human thought and action. Even though sociology does include how people think with relation to each other, human thought is not necessarily the sole focus. Also, since it studies the interactions between people, sociology can lay much more importance on actions than psychology does, stressing the importance of human behavior over cognitive responses or processes.

 

There are some ways in which both psychology and sociology are similar, however, such as the ways in which the fields cross into each other. Social psychology, for example, is quite similar to sociology in that it focuses on how people interact and how society affects the thoughts and mental activities of individual people. Explorations within sociology on how social interactions can be based on various psychological principles can also connect the two disciplines. Ultimately, someone interested in different facets of psychology and sociology is likely to study both fields and find that there are numerous ways in which they can relate and enhance each other.

Which of the following would the author most likely agree with?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Prethinking

Since this is a Global Inference question, we cannot pre-think on specific lines. However, we must keep in mind that four out of the five given answer choices will not follow from what is stated in the passage; these answer choices are INCORRECT. Select the answer choice that is bolstered by specific facts/ideas mentioned in the passage. 

Answer Choices

A

Although varied in the emphasis they lay on various aspects, the two fields intersect at various points. 

Correct

This choice can be concluded by combining the information given in the first and last paragraphs. The first paragraph tells us that the key differences between the two fields are with respect to their focus points and the last tells us that the two fields are similar in ways that they cross in to each other.

B

People studying sociology must study psychology as despite their differences, both have numerous similarities.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

This choice exaggerates the thought presented in the last sentence of the passage. The author does not recommend studying both the fields to a person interested in sociology. Instead, he/she states that someone studying either of the fields is likely to study the other.

C

Social psychology and sociology hardly have any key differences.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author states that social psychology is very similar to sociology in a particular aspect. However, by no means does the author imply that they can’t have any key differences. 

D

In addition to human behavior, psychology ventures in to understanding animal behavior.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

While this information might be true in real world, there is no information given in the passage to deduce it.

E

Human cognition is not of importance to the field of sociology.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author clearly states that human thought (in human interaction) is relevant to sociology, even though it is not the sole focus. Please refer to the relevant section from the first paragraph:

Even though sociology does include how people think with relation to each other, human thought is not necessarily the sole focus.

So, we can conclude that there are other aspects, in addition to human thought, which are important to sociology, but we cannot conclude that it itself is not important.

QUESTION: 3

In general, psychology is the study of human thought and consciousness and includes everything from the biological way in which cognitive processes occur to why people behave in certain ways. Sociology, on the other hand, is the study of society and how people interact with each other in different ways. The major differences between psychology and sociology typically concern the focal points of each field and how those foci are studied. In psychology, for example, the focus of research typically involves understanding the human cognitive process and how the brain functions in general. In sociology, however, there is a great deal of importance placed on the role that society has in the formation of human thought and action. Even though sociology does include how people think with relation to each other, human thought is not necessarily the sole focus. Also, since it studies the interactions between people, sociology can lay much more importance on actions than psychology does, stressing the importance of human behavior over cognitive responses or processes.

 

There are some ways in which both psychology and sociology are similar, however, such as the ways in which the fields cross into each other. Social psychology, for example, is quite similar to sociology in that it focuses on how people interact and how society affects the thoughts and mental activities of individual people. Explorations within sociology on how social interactions can be based on various psychological principles can also connect the two disciplines. Ultimately, someone interested in different facets of psychology and sociology is likely to study both fields and find that there are numerous ways in which they can relate and enhance each other.

Which of the following can be inferred from the cited section?

Also, since it studies the interactions between people, sociology can lay much more importance on actions than psychology does, stressing the importance of human behavior over cognitive responses or processes.

Solution:

Prethinking

This is a Detail based Inference question. Go back to the relevant section in the passage and read the context in which the above statement is made. In the cited section of the passage, the author talks about the differences between psychology and sociology in terms of the stress they lay on various aspects. One such difference is the importance given to actions in both the fields. The author states that because sociology studies interaction between people, it can lay much more stress on actions (interaction is an outward process unlike cognition) than psychology does. The implication of this statement is that sociology stress on the importance of human behavior over thinking processes. This implication of course brings out a crucial difference between the two fields as psychology is more concerned with cognition.

With this understanding in mind, let’s evaluate the answer choices.

Answer Choices

A

Interactions between people are independent of their cognitive responses to various actions.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not state/imply that actions and cognition are not related. Instead the author states that the focus given to actions could be different in both the studies since one studies interactions more and the other cognition more.

B

If an action is studied, sociology is likely to concentrate more on the actual action whereas psychology on the thought process behind the action.

Correct

This choice is very close to our understanding in the pre-thinking section.

C

Since social psychology too focuses on how people interact, it is likely to focus more on actions than other branches of psychology.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

 First of all, this choice talks about social psychology, which is not mentioned in the cited section at all. Second of all, the author does not give us any information to compare social psychology with other branches of psychology.

D

If the interactions between people are determined by the cognitive responses influenced by society, then sociology is likely to lay equal amount of stress on cognition and action.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author gives no information to conclude anything about how the focus of sociology would change with the changes in the causes behind particular actions.   

E

Even though, in their own capacity, both the fields are concerned with human behavior, it is of special importance to psychology.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author suggests that the fact that sociology can give more importance to action than psychology does goes to show that sociology gives more importance to behavior than to cognition. So, it is a comparison between the relative importance given to cognition and behavior by sociology. However, this choice states that human behavior is of special importance to psychology than to sociology. This comparison is irrelevant.

QUESTION: 4

In general, psychology is the study of human thought and consciousness and includes everything from the biological way in which cognitive processes occur to why people behave in certain ways. Sociology, on the other hand, is the study of society and how people interact with each other in different ways. The major differences between psychology and sociology typically concern the focal points of each field and how those foci are studied. In psychology, for example, the focus of research typically involves understanding the human cognitive process and how the brain functions in general. In sociology, however, there is a great deal of importance placed on the role that society has in the formation of human thought and action. Even though sociology does include how people think with relation to each other, human thought is not necessarily the sole focus. Also, since it studies the interactions between people, sociology can lay much more importance on actions than psychology does, stressing the importance of human behavior over cognitive responses or processes.

 

There are some ways in which both psychology and sociology are similar, however, such as the ways in which the fields cross into each other. Social psychology, for example, is quite similar to sociology in that it focuses on how people interact and how society affects the thoughts and mental activities of individual people. Explorations within sociology on how social interactions can be based on various psychological principles can also connect the two disciplines. Ultimately, someone interested in different facets of psychology and sociology is likely to study both fields and find that there are numerous ways in which they can relate and enhance each other.

Which of the following best captures the function of the second paragraph?

Solution:

Summary and Main Point

Prethinking

This is a Function question. As seen in the summary and main point section, the first paragraph talks about the differences between the two fields, while the second brings out their similarities and states that these similarities can aid in enhancing the understanding of both the fields.

With this understanding in mind, let’s evaluate the answer choices.

 

Answer Choices

A

To highlight how different fields related with human behavior can never be studied in isolation 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

First of all, the author talks about only two fields and not the entire width of fields studying human behavior. Secondly and more importantly, the use of the word “never” is unwarranted. All that the author states is that sociology and psychology are interrelated at certain junctions and when studying one, the other is likely to come up.

B

To talk about a specific branch of a field that is similar to another field in its focus

Incorrect: Partial Scope

While the author does talk about social psychology and how it’s similar to sociology, this is not the main focus of the paragraph. The point this example of social psychology illustrates is the main point and function of this paragraph. 

C

To introduce a new aspect that changes the understanding of the information presented previously

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not present a new perspective on the information presented in the previous paragraph, and, therefore, there is no question of a shift in the understanding of the differences presented before.

D

To urge students of certain fields to account for understanding interrelated fields

Incorrect: Out of Scope

While the author does talk about how the study of the two fields is probably inter-related and that someone studying one is likely to study the other as well, but this point is mentioned to highlight the similarities between the two and not urge students to do so.

E

To highlight an aspect that is not in the same direction as the information presented in the previous paragraph

Correct

As stated in the pre-thinking, this paragraph highlights the similarities between the two fields, whereas the first paragraph highlights their differences.

 

QUESTION: 5

Neurodegenerative diseases were once considered disorders of the mind that were deeply rooted in psychology.  Now viruses rank among the environmental factors thought to trigger brain-ravaging diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzeimer’s disease.  Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), in particular, has been linked to MS in past studies.  Neuroscientists have determined that the virus makes its entry to the human brain through the olfactory pathway, right along with the odors wafting into our nose. The researchers tested samples of brain cells from people with MS and healthy control subjects and found evidence of the virus in the olfactory bulb in both groups.  Infection via the nasal passage is probably quite common, as is harboring a dormant reservoir of HHV-6, but in people with MS, the virus is active. The virus appears to invade the brain by infecting a type of glial cell called olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), which nourish smell-sensing neurons and guide the virus from the olfactory bulb to their targets in the nervous system.  These targets include the limbic system, a group of evolutionarily old structures deep in the brain, which is where viruses like to reactivate. The olfactory neurons and their OECs are among the few brain cells known to regenerate throughout our life.  This neurogenesis may keep our sense of smell sharp, but at the cost of providing the virus the opportunity to spread.

According to the passage, which of the following is true?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

 

Pre-Thinking

This is a Detail question. Keep crossing out answer choices that are not explicitly stated in the passage and choose the one for which you can directly refer to a portion in the passage.

 

Answer Choices

A

The limbic system and the olfactory ensheating cells are one of the many target areas where viruses like to reactivate.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The passage clearly states that the OECs guide the virus to their targets and one such target is the limbic system, where viruses like to reactivate. Therefore, the OECs themselves cannot be the targets.

B

The regeneration of the OECs is linked with the spread of the HHV-6 virus.

Correct

This piece of information is given in the last two sentences of the passage. The author states the neurogenesis provides the virus the opportunity to spread.

C

The smell sensing neurons guide the HHV-6 virus to potential targets in the nervous system.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

As stated in the explanation of the first choice, the OECs guide the virus to targets in the nervous system. There is no information given regarding a similar role of the smell sensing neurons.

D

An inactive reservoir of HHV-6 in the body is indicative of the person’s lack of susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author states that in healthy people the virus, though present, is inactive. Nothing is given regarding their likelihood of developing any kind of neurodegenerative disease.

E

Viruses like to flourish in deep, humidity ridden areas.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

This information is completely out of scope and not given in the passage.

QUESTION: 6

Neurodegenerative diseases were once considered disorders of the mind that were deeply rooted in psychology.  Now viruses rank among the environmental factors thought to trigger brain-ravaging diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzeimer’s disease.  Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), in particular, has been linked to MS in past studies.  Neuroscientists have determined that the virus makes its entry to the human brain through the olfactory pathway, right along with the odors wafting into our nose. The researchers tested samples of brain cells from people with MS and healthy control subjects and found evidence of the virus in the olfactory bulb in both groups.  Infection via the nasal passage is probably quite common, as is harboring a dormant reservoir of HHV-6, but in people with MS, the virus is active. The virus appears to invade the brain by infecting a type of glial cell called olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), which nourish smell-sensing neurons and guide the virus from the olfactory bulb to their targets in the nervous system.  These targets include the limbic system, a group of evolutionarily old structures deep in the brain, which is where viruses like to reactivate. The olfactory neurons and their OECs are among the few brain cells known to regenerate throughout our life.  This neurogenesis may keep our sense of smell sharp, but at the cost of providing the virus the opportunity to spread.

Why does the author say “Infection via the nasal passage is probably quite common…”?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a detail based Function question. Go back to the relevant portion of the passage and read the relevant section alongwith the section right above and below it. Just above this section the author lists the findings of the study, which showed that samples from both healthy and disease afflicted group showed the presence of the virus. In the cited sentence, the author talks about how it is not uncommon to store dormant reservoir of viruses. As explained in the passage analysis, this refers back to the samples of the healthy people that too showed the presence of the virus. This gives us enough clue to establish that the author is making a statement to explain the previously mentioned findings.

Answer Choices

A

To indicate that it is extremely difficult to stop infection through the nasal passage.

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author is not concerned with all kinds of infections through the nasal passage.

B

To prove that there is a greater likelihood of multiple sclerosis in people who have active strains of virus rather than those who do not.

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The comparison regarding the probability of developing the disease is neither discussed nor indicated.

C

To illustrate that HHV-6 infects in the same manner as most other viruses do.

Incorrect: Irrelevant

Again, no such comparison is made between the HHV-6 virus and other viruses.

D

To explain the finding that the samples of both the mentioned groups showed the presence of HHV-6.

Correct

This answer matches our pre-thought answer and as observed then, it correctly encapsulates the reason the author make the cited statement.

E

To indicate that there is a chance that the occurrence of multiple sclerosis may increase in the future if the strains of HHV-6 are activated.

Incorrect: Irrelevant

No such likelihood is discussed anywhere in the passage.

QUESTION: 7

Neurodegenerative diseases were once considered disorders of the mind that were deeply rooted in psychology.  Now viruses rank among the environmental factors thought to trigger brain-ravaging diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzeimer’s disease.  Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), in particular, has been linked to MS in past studies.  Neuroscientists have determined that the virus makes its entry to the human brain through the olfactory pathway, right along with the odors wafting into our nose. The researchers tested samples of brain cells from people with MS and healthy control subjects and found evidence of the virus in the olfactory bulb in both groups.  Infection via the nasal passage is probably quite common, as is harboring a dormant reservoir of HHV-6, but in people with MS, the virus is active. The virus appears to invade the brain by infecting a type of glial cell called olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), which nourish smell-sensing neurons and guide the virus from the olfactory bulb to their targets in the nervous system.  These targets include the limbic system, a group of evolutionarily old structures deep in the brain, which is where viruses like to reactivate. The olfactory neurons and their OECs are among the few brain cells known to regenerate throughout our life.  This neurogenesis may keep our sense of smell sharp, but at the cost of providing the virus the opportunity to spread.

Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is an Inference question. The correct answer will follow closely from the given information in the passage, although it may not be explicitly stated in the passage.

Answer Choices

A

Those who possess higher concentrations of HHV-6 in the olfactory bulb are at a high risk of developing multiple sclerosis.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author gives no information to deduce anything regarding the chances of such people developing the disease.

B

Those who have a sharper sense of smell are at a greater risk of multiple sclerosis.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author neither mentions nor indicates towards any such relationship. The sense of smell is mentioned in the last sentence of the passage in a completely different context.

C

The absence of multiple sclerosis in a person does not necessarily indicate an absence of the disease causing virus in that person

Correct

This information can be deduced on the basis of the findings mentioned in the passage and the author’s statement to explain the findings. As per the author it is not uncommon to have dormant reservoirs of the virus. The author draws this statement to explain the findings of the study that showed that samples from both healthy and diseased tissues showed the presence of the virus.

D

Multiple sclerosis, alongwith other neurodegenerative diseases, can have disease causing viruses lying dormant in the human body without any external symptom of the same.

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The passage gives no specific information about the viruses causing other neurodegenerative diseases for us to be able to deduce the following portion of the answer choice :

alongwith other neurodegenerative diseases

E

In the absence of the limbic system, it would be difficult for the HHV-6 virus to reactivate.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

Although the limbic system is described as a place where viruses like to reactivate but the limbic system is only one of many targets for the virus. So, we do not know where else the virus could/would reactivate.

 

QUESTION: 8

John Maynard Keynes and Friedrich Hayek, two prominent public figures associated with the Great Depression that started with the collapse of the stock market in 1929, both proposed different ways to restore the economy. Keynes, an economist from Cambridge, believed that the government should intervene in the situation, whereas Hayek, a professor from Austria, maintained that government involvement would be futile.

Although Hayek almost singlehandedly established the distinction between microeconomics and macroeconomics, engineering the transfer from classical economics to the more practical and application-oriented methodology of mathematical economics, his solution for emerging from the Great Depression was underestimated in the light of Keynes’ contribution to economic theory. In his 2012 study Keynes Hayek: The Clash that Defined Modern Economics, famous theorist Nicholas Wapshott traces the history of the applications of both men’s theories, giving unprecedented importance to Hayek’s work. Describing how the Keynesian vision dominated Western economic analyses until the 1970s, Wapshott surmises that the primary reason for the dominance of Keynes’ theory during the Depression was that Hayek’s solutions to the issue of economic recession were not politically viable. Hayek prescribed to the belief that, when left to its own devices, the market would eventually recover from its downturn and resume its equilibrium; this position was, not surprisingly, rejected by both the US and European political organizations, each seeking to prove its worth in reestablishing the economy’s prosperity.

According to the passage, which of the following is true?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

 

Pre-Thinking

This is a Detail question. We can tell from the phrase “according to the passage” that the correct answer will closely follow information that is directly stated by the author. 

Answer Choices

A

Hayek’s solution to the economic depression was not guided in the right direction.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

 

The author states that Hayek’s solution was not politically viable. This does not necessarily mean that it was misguided.

B

Before Wapshott’s 2012 study, Hayek’s contribution to the field of economics was unknown.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

 

The author states that Wapshott gave “unprecedented” /unmatched importance to Hayek’s work. This does not give us any basis to understand that Hayek’s work was unknown before Wapshott’s analysis.

C

Hayek’s contribution to economics began in the 1970s and has continued into the twenty-first century. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

 

The passage states Keynes’ contribution dominated Western economic analyses until the 1970s. We do not know when Hayek’s contribution began. 

D

Macroeconomics was singlehandedly created by Hayek. 

Incorrect: Inconsistent

 

The author states that Hayek established the distinction between microeconomics and macroeconomics, not that he created macroeconomics. 

E

A specific work gave more importance to Hayek’s work than ever before.

Correct

 

This information is explicitly stated in the passage as the author states that Wapshott’s study gave “unprecedented importance” to Hayek’s work.

QUESTION: 9

John Maynard Keynes and Friedrich Hayek, two prominent public figures associated with the Great Depression that started with the collapse of the stock market in 1929, both proposed different ways to restore the economy. Keynes, an economist from Cambridge, believed that the government should intervene in the situation, whereas Hayek, a professor from Austria, maintained that government involvement would be futile.

Although Hayek almost singlehandedly established the distinction between microeconomics and macroeconomics, engineering the transfer from classical economics to the more practical and application-oriented methodology of mathematical economics, his solution for emerging from the Great Depression was underestimated in the light of Keynes’ contribution to economic theory. In his 2012 study Keynes Hayek: The Clash that Defined Modern Economics, famous theorist Nicholas Wapshott traces the history of the applications of both men’s theories, giving unprecedented importance to Hayek’s work. Describing how the Keynesian vision dominated Western economic analyses until the 1970s, Wapshott surmises that the primary reason for the dominance of Keynes’ theory during the Depression was that Hayek’s solutions to the issue of economic recession were not politically viable. Hayek prescribed to the belief that, when left to its own devices, the market would eventually recover from its downturn and resume its equilibrium; this position was, not surprisingly, rejected by both the US and European political organizations, each seeking to prove its worth in reestablishing the economy’s prosperity.

The primary purpose of the passage is to

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Main Idea question. The correct answer must be broad enough to encompass all of the content of the passage without veering outside the scope.

Let’s review the summaries of the two paragraphs to get to the main point of the passage. The first paragraph contrasts the different solutions presented by Keynes and Hayek to deal with the Great Depression. In the second passage, the author makes a statement about how Hayek’s work went underappreciated and presents the reason for the same by citing the analysis of a famous theorist.

Hence, the primary purpose of the passage is to contrast Keynes’ and Hayek’s solutions to the Depression and share why Hayek’s solution went underappreciated.

 

Answer Choices

A

contrast two solutions to the same issue. 

Incorrect: Partial Scope

 

The author contrasts the two views only in the first paragraph of the passage. The second half of the passage is devoted to highlighting why the solution proposed by Hayek was not appreciated as much as it should have been.

B

establish the superiority of one hypothesis over another. 

Incorrect: Out of scope

 

The author does not say that Hayek’s hypothesis was superior to Keynes’.

C

prove that one theorist's contribution to a particular field was more notable than another's. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

 

The author does not say that Hayek’s contribution was more noteworthy than Keynes’. 

D

outline different approaches to a historical problem.

Incorrect: Out of Context

 

First of all, the author doesn’t discuss the Great Depression and the proposed solutions to it in general. Secondly, the author does present Keynes’ and Hayek’s differing views, but this is not the main purpose of the author as discussed in the solution to choice A.

E

contrast two different approaches to a historical problem and share the reason for the limited appreciation for one

Correct

 

This choice matches our understanding of the passage, as detailed in the passage analysis, and our discussion in the pre-thinking analysis.

QUESTION: 10

John Maynard Keynes and Friedrich Hayek, two prominent public figures associated with the Great Depression that started with the collapse of the stock market in 1929, both proposed different ways to restore the economy. Keynes, an economist from Cambridge, believed that the government should intervene in the situation, whereas Hayek, a professor from Austria, maintained that government involvement would be futile.

Although Hayek almost singlehandedly established the distinction between microeconomics and macroeconomics, engineering the transfer from classical economics to the more practical and application-oriented methodology of mathematical economics, his solution for emerging from the Great Depression was underestimated in the light of Keynes’ contribution to economic theory. In his 2012 study Keynes Hayek: The Clash that Defined Modern Economics, famous theorist Nicholas Wapshott traces the history of the applications of both men’s theories, giving unprecedented importance to Hayek’s work. Describing how the Keynesian vision dominated Western economic analyses until the 1970s, Wapshott surmises that the primary reason for the dominance of Keynes’ theory during the Depression was that Hayek’s solutions to the issue of economic recession were not politically viable. Hayek prescribed to the belief that, when left to its own devices, the market would eventually recover from its downturn and resume its equilibrium; this position was, not surprisingly, rejected by both the US and European political organizations, each seeking to prove its worth in reestablishing the economy’s prosperity.

According to the passage, which of the following was true of political parties at the time of the Great Depression?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Detail question. Let’s review the pertinent portion where the author mentions the political parties:

Hayek prescribed to the belief that, when left to its own devices, the market would eventually recover from its downturn and resume its equilibrium; this position was, not surprisingly, rejected by both the US and European political organizations, each seeking to prove its worth in reestablishing the economy’s prosperity.

It is clear from the above section that the reason that Hayek’s suggestion did not get its due appreciation during the time of the Great Depression is that his suggestion would not have given the political parties the chance to prove their relevance/role in stabilizing the economy. 

Answer Choices

A

They wanted to speed up the process of reestablishing the economy’s prosperity.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

 

There is no given information that states or hints that the political organizations felt so. 

B

They believed it was futile for the government to get involved in market mechanisms.

Incorrect: Opposite

 

This was Hayek’s view; not the view of the political parties.

C

They believed they had a responsibility to intervene in the situation.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

 

This was Keynes’ view as he believed that the governments “should” intervene in the situation. From the information given about the political parties, we just know that these organizations wanted to prove that they could be significant in reestablishing the economy’s prosperity; nothing can be said about whether they felt they had the responsibility to do so.

D

They wanted to prove that they were capable of reinstating the economy’s well-being.

Correct

 

This choice matches the author’s statement that each political party was “seeking to prove its worth” in helping the economy to recover.

E

They believed that Hayek's solution would undermine their future in politics. 

Incorrect: Inconsistent

 

Wapshott states that Hayek’s view was unpopular because it was not politically viable at the time. We do not know whether the political parties of the time felt threatened about their futures.

 

QUESTION: 11

John Maynard Keynes and Friedrich Hayek, two prominent public figures associated with the Great Depression that started with the collapse of the stock market in 1929, both proposed different ways to restore the economy. Keynes, an economist from Cambridge, believed that the government should intervene in the situation, whereas Hayek, a professor from Austria, maintained that government involvement would be futile.

Although Hayek almost singlehandedly established the distinction between microeconomics and macroeconomics, engineering the transfer from classical economics to the more practical and application-oriented methodology of mathematical economics, his solution for emerging from the Great Depression was underestimated in the light of Keynes’ contribution to economic theory. In his 2012 study Keynes Hayek: The Clash that Defined Modern Economics, famous theorist Nicholas Wapshott traces the history of the applications of both men’s theories, giving unprecedented importance to Hayek’s work. Describing how the Keynesian vision dominated Western economic analyses until the 1970s, Wapshott surmises that the primary reason for the dominance of Keynes’ theory during the Depression was that Hayek’s solutions to the issue of economic recession were not politically viable. Hayek prescribed to the belief that, when left to its own devices, the market would eventually recover from its downturn and resume its equilibrium; this position was, not surprisingly, rejected by both the US and European political organizations, each seeking to prove its worth in reestablishing the economy’s prosperity.

Which of the following would the author most likely agree with?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is an Inference question. The phrase “most likely agree” indicates the correct answer will follow closely from what is directly stated in the passage, but it may not itself be explicitly stated in the passage. Select the answer choice that is most strongly supported by specific facts mentioned in the passage.

Answer Choices

A

Hayek’s theory was dominated by Keynes’ because Keynes had a better long-term vision than Hayek did.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

 

The author does not state or imply anything about the long-term viability of Keynes’ theory.

B

Even though the reaction of the political organization could be anticipated, the underwhelming response received by Hayek in general was not indicative of the potential of his theory.

Correct

 

This choice is a combination of two opinions expressed by the author. The author states that the rejection of Hayek’s solution by the political organizations was not surprising. Hence, we can understand that their reaction could be anticipated. And we are also told that Hayek’s theory was “underestimated”. This means that the author believes that the merits of the theory weren’t fully appreciated.

C

In addition to being politically viable, Hayek’s ideas were probably ahead of their time.  

Incorrect: Out of Scope

 

The author does not comment on/suggest anything about the relevance of Hayek’s ideas with respect to their being ahead of their time.

D

Had Keynes also argued for limited government intervention, his ideas too would have been vehemently rejected by the political organizations.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

 

We have no basis to conclude whether Keynes would have received a similar response by the then political organizations. Also, the word “vehemently” makes this choice too extreme.

E

In the light of the real reason that Hayek’s theory did not receive much appreciation, Keynes probably did not contribute as much to economics as he is credited for. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

 

Wapshott’s analysis, which the author uses to convey his/her point about Hayek’s theory being underestimated at the time of the Depression, just  tells us that the real reason that Hayek’s theory was overshadowed by Keynes’ was not that it had limited merits but because it was politically not viable. From this specific analysis, we cannot draw any inference about the merits of Keynes’ theory and certainly not about his overall contribution to economics.

QUESTION: 12

Globally, about a third of the food produced for human consumption goes to waste, implying that a third of the water, land use, energy and financial resources that go into producing it are also squandered. Yet people often think of food as environmentally benign because it is biodegradable, while label food packaging as a wasteful use of resources leading to nothing but more pollution, despite the reality that the energy that goes into packaging makes up a mere 10% of the total energy that goes into producing, transporting, storing and preparing food. Needless to say, their view ignores the negative impact of food production, supply, and consumption, and the benefits possible from the right kind of food packaging.

Indeed the dislike for food packaging is not all baseless. There is a lot of bad and wasteful packaging out there. But any assessment of its impact on the environment must take into account the benefits one can derive from packaging in the shape of reduced food waste that can be realized by protecting and dispensing food properly. For instance, two percent of the milk produced in the US goes bad on supermarket shelves before it can be purchased. This dairy waste can be avoided with packaging technology such as Tetra Pak that saves milk from spoiling, even without refrigeration. However, environmentally aware consumers tend to dislike Tetra Pak material because they think it cannot be recycled. The truth, however, is that it can be recycled, but the process is rather complicated. Irrespective of the recycling aspect, Tetra Pak is a good environmental bet because it can extend the shelf life of milk up to nine months, reducing the need for refrigeration — and reducing the amount of milk that goes bad on retail shelves. Clearly, the environmental benefit of the food-protection technology outweighs the negative impact of the packaging itself.

The author is primarily concerned with

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Main Idea question. The correct answer must be broad enough to encompass all the content of the passage without veering outside the scope.

The first paragraph of the passage raises considerations against the popular belief that food packaging leads to more pollution. The second paragraph elaborates on the possible benefits from food packaging with the help of an example. Hence, the main point of the passage is to argue against a popular belief.

Answer Choices

A

presenting a more complete picture of a situation and suggesting a radical solution to the problem

Incorrect: Out of Scope

Although the passage does make an effort to present a more complete picture of the effects of packaging on the environment, the author does not suggest any radical or extreme solution in the passage.

B

citing an example of a belief that is not entirely baseless

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The belief that is considered partly relevant by the author is the one held by the people that packaging is bad; however, the Tetra Pak example is given from the point of view of elucidating that there are certain benefits from food packaging. Also, the passage on the whole is not concerned with citing just this example.

C

summarizing the negative impacts of an industry, effects of which people are not fully aware

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author does not discuss the negative impact any industry. The fact that one third of the food goes to waste is not a negative of the industry. It just is the nature of food.

D

arguing against a popular belief

Correct

This choice matches our pre-thought answer. The popular belief against which the author argues is that packaging is bad. The author dedicates most of the passage to showing how people’s belief is not fully justified and concludes that the negative effects of packaging are outweighed by its positive effects.

E

attacking a mindset that has no empirical basis

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author does intend to attack a mindset but one cannot conclude that this mindset has no empirical basis. The author clearly awards some credibility to the belief of the people and agrees that there is a lot of bad and wasteful packaging out there.

QUESTION: 13

Globally, about a third of the food produced for human consumption goes to waste, implying that a third of the water, land use, energy and financial resources that go into producing it are also squandered. Yet people often think of food as environmentally benign because it is biodegradable, while label food packaging as a wasteful use of resources leading to nothing but more pollution, despite the reality that the energy that goes into packaging makes up a mere 10% of the total energy that goes into producing, transporting, storing and preparing food. Needless to say, their view ignores the negative impact of food production, supply, and consumption, and the benefits possible from the right kind of food packaging.

Indeed the dislike for food packaging is not all baseless. There is a lot of bad and wasteful packaging out there. But any assessment of its impact on the environment must take into account the benefits one can derive from packaging in the shape of reduced food waste that can be realized by protecting and dispensing food properly. For instance, two percent of the milk produced in the US goes bad on supermarket shelves before it can be purchased. This dairy waste can be avoided with packaging technology such as Tetra Pak that saves milk from spoiling, even without refrigeration. However, environmentally aware consumers tend to dislike Tetra Pak material because they think it cannot be recycled. The truth, however, is that it can be recycled, but the process is rather complicated. Irrespective of the recycling aspect, Tetra Pak is a good environmental bet because it can extend the shelf life of milk up to nine months, reducing the need for refrigeration — and reducing the amount of milk that goes bad on retail shelves. Clearly, the environmental benefit of the food-protection technology outweighs the negative impact of the packaging itself.

Which of the following statement can be derived from the passage?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is an Inference question. The word “derived” indicates the correct answer will follow closely from what is directly stated in the passage, but it may not itself be explicitly stated in the passage. Select the answer choice that is most strongly bolstered by specific facts mentioned in the passage.

Answer Choices

A

The popularity of Tetra Pak in the packaging industry would increase manifold if the environmentally aware customers change their opinion about it.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

Although we do know that the environmentally aware customers dislike Tetra Pak, there is no information given to us regarding how their dislike affects the overall popularity of Tetra Pak in the packaging industry.

B

The complexity involved in the process of recycling Tetra Pak is the reason behind the material’s limited popularity with environmentally aware consumers.

Incorrect: Opposite

The author clearly states that the reason that Tetra Pak is not popular with the environmentally aware consumers is that they think it is NOT recyclable.

C

It is likely that developed countries, which use a lot more food packaging material than developing countries, have lower rates of food wastage than developing countries.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no comparison given regarding the overall food wastage done by developed and developing countries. So, this information cannot be concluded from the passage

D

No biodegradable substance can be labelled as completely benign for the environment.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author says that people treat food as benign since it is biodegradable, but they do not consider the negative impact of food wastage. This information does not give us any reason to draw a generalized, extreme statement such as the one drawn in this choice.

E

In some cases, the recyclability of a material is not the overriding factor in determining its impact on the environment.

Correct

This statement can be derived from the following portion of the passage:

Irrespective of the recycling debate around it, Tetra Pak is a good environmental bet because it can extend the shelf life of milk up to nine months, reducing the need for refrigeration — and reducing the amount of milk that goes bad on retail shelves.  

Clearly, the author does not consider the recyclability of Tetra Pak as the most important factor in determining its impact on the environment.

QUESTION: 14

Globally, about a third of the food produced for human consumption goes to waste, implying that a third of the water, land use, energy and financial resources that go into producing it are also squandered. Yet people often think of food as environmentally benign because it is biodegradable, while label food packaging as a wasteful use of resources leading to nothing but more pollution, despite the reality that the energy that goes into packaging makes up a mere 10% of the total energy that goes into producing, transporting, storing and preparing food. Needless to say, their view ignores the negative impact of food production, supply, and consumption, and the benefits possible from the right kind of food packaging.

Indeed the dislike for food packaging is not all baseless. There is a lot of bad and wasteful packaging out there. But any assessment of its impact on the environment must take into account the benefits one can derive from packaging in the shape of reduced food waste that can be realized by protecting and dispensing food properly. For instance, two percent of the milk produced in the US goes bad on supermarket shelves before it can be purchased. This dairy waste can be avoided with packaging technology such as Tetra Pak that saves milk from spoiling, even without refrigeration. However, environmentally aware consumers tend to dislike Tetra Pak material because they think it cannot be recycled. The truth, however, is that it can be recycled, but the process is rather complicated. Irrespective of the recycling aspect, Tetra Pak is a good environmental bet because it can extend the shelf life of milk up to nine months, reducing the need for refrigeration — and reducing the amount of milk that goes bad on retail shelves. Clearly, the environmental benefit of the food-protection technology outweighs the negative impact of the packaging itself.

Which of the following is the function of the first paragraph in the passage?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Function question. Per the paragraph summary, the first paragraph raises considerations against a popular belief. This is the function of this paragraph in the passage. Individual paragraph summary helps us arrive at the correct answer for function questions quickly.

Answer Choices

A

To introduce a view that is responsible for a significant proportion of wastage in an industry

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does mention people’s view regarding food in this paragraph but there is no cause and effect relationship drawn between this view and the mentioned wastage of resources.

B

To raise a few considerations against a popular belief

Correct

This choice matches our pre-thought answer. The reason the author shares facts about the food industry and packaging is to reason against the partial view held by the people.

C

To contrast two views on a highly debated topic

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no information given to conclude that any topic mentioned in the passage is “highly debated”.

D

To state a situation that has severe damaging effects on the environment

Incorrect: Partial scope

The author does state that a lot of resources are being wasted but this information does not form the full scope of the first paragraph. The author provides this information to show how people are not fully aware of the situation regarding the environmental impacts of food wastage and how their belief that packaging is wasteful and bad may not be always relevant.

E

To highlight that a popular belief, although credible sometimes, does not take in to account the full situation

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author awards credibility to the people’s view in the second paragraph and not the first.

QUESTION: 15

Research shows that when people work with a positive mind-set, performance on nearly every level—productivity, creativity, engagement—improves. Yet the correlation between happiness and performance is perhaps not so easily understood by many. For one, most people believe that success precedes happiness, but, because success is a moving target, the happiness that results from success is fleeting.  Instead people who cultivate a positive mind-set perform better in the face of a challenge. In a meta-analysis of 225 academic studies, researchers found strong evidence of directional causality between life satisfaction and successful business outcomes.

What is even more encouraging is that even though our genetics and our environment have an impact on how happy we are, our general sense of well-being is surprisingly malleable. Our habits, our interactions with coworkers, our attitude towards stress—all these aspects can be managed to increase our happiness and our chances of success. Habits such as taking short breaks and constantly having a positive engagement with coworkers not only reduce stress substantially but also enhance our productivity and thus better our prospects of professional success. Accordingly, encouraging employees to accept some level of stress as an inevitability and perceive it as a motivator and a fuel to growth, is vital for boosting the performance of the workforce.

Which of the following statements would the author NOT agree with?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is an Inference question. Four out of the five given answer choices will follow from what is stated in the passage; these answer choices are INCORRECT. Select the answer choice that is NOT supported by the specific facts mentioned in the passage.

Answer Choices

A

Two people with the same genetic make-up and environment can have different happiness quotients.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This statement follows from the first sentence of the second paragraph. The author states that even though our genetics and our environment have an impact on how happy we are, our general sense of well-being is surprisingly malleable.

The author goes on to elaborate on the “malleable” part by describing how we can manage our happiness by things that are in our control. Accordingly, even if the genetic and environmental factors are kept constant for two individuals, their attitude can influence their individual happiness quotients.

B

For happiness to result from success, the latter needs to be a stationary target.

Correct 

In the first paragraph, the author states that the happiness that results from success is fleeting or shortlived as success is a moving target. This clearly suggests that even when success is not a stationary target, happiness is possible- albeit shortlived.

C

Increment in remuneration is not the only important factor responsible for improving the performance of employees.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This statement can be derived from the last sentence of the passage in which the author states that encouraging employees to accept some level of stress as an inevitability and perceive it as motivator and a fuel to growth is vital for boosting the performance of the workforce.

D

Some factors beyond that we have little control over impact how happy we are.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

The author contrasts our genetics and our environment with other factors that are within our control. So, it can be inferred that our genetics alongwith our environment are pitched as those that we have little control over.

E

The order in which success and happiness occur is not necessarily fixed.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

In the first paragraph, the author talks about how people do not really understand the relation between success and happiness and then cites the example of the order of success and happiness that most people believe in to illustrate this point. Clearly, this choice follows from there.

QUESTION: 16

Research shows that when people work with a positive mind-set, performance on nearly every level—productivity, creativity, engagement—improves. Yet the correlation between happiness and performance is perhaps not so easily understood by many. For one, most people believe that success precedes happiness, but, because success is a moving target, the happiness that results from success is fleeting.  Instead people who cultivate a positive mind-set perform better in the face of a challenge. In a meta-analysis of 225 academic studies, researchers found strong evidence of directional causality between life satisfaction and successful business outcomes.

What is even more encouraging is that even though our genetics and our environment have an impact on how happy we are, our general sense of well-being is surprisingly malleable. Our habits, our interactions with coworkers, our attitude towards stress—all these aspects can be managed to increase our happiness and our chances of success. Habits such as taking short breaks and constantly having a positive engagement with coworkers not only reduce stress substantially but also enhance our productivity and thus better our prospects of professional success. Accordingly, encouraging employees to accept some level of stress as an inevitability and perceive it as a motivator and a fuel to growth, is vital for boosting the performance of the workforce.

The author is primarily concerned with

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Main Idea question. The correct answer must be broad enough to encompass all the content of the passage without veering outside the scope.

The first paragraph explains the relationship between cultivating a positive outlook and professional success while the second paragraphs shows how happiness and success can be achieved. The correct answer must take in to account the main idea of both these paragraphs.

Answer Choices

A

showing how happiness can be cultivated rather than passively experienced

Incorrect: Partial scope

This choice captures the scope of only the second paragraph.

B

guiding employers with respect to increasing the overall happiness and success quotient of the employees

Incorrect: Partial scope

The author does talk about boosting employee performance in the last sentence of the passage but nowhere else in the passage does the author make any other suggestions to employers as such.

C

clarifying why happiness is not dependent on factors other than a positive outlook

Incorrect: Inconsistent 

The author does talk about the link between happiness and positive outlook in the second paragraph but at the same time agrees that our genetics and environment affect how happy we are. Hence, there are other factors as well that determine happiness.

D

proposing that happiness and the resultant success at work are rather dependent on our attitude

Correct

This choice is on the lines of our pre-thought answer. It combines the scope of both the paragraphs.

E

outlining the ways in which one can achieve professional success

Incorrect: Partial scope

While this choice does almost cover the scope of the first paragraph, it does not take in to account the author’s main point in writing the first paragraph.

 

QUESTION: 17

Research shows that when people work with a positive mind-set, performance on nearly every level—productivity, creativity, engagement—improves. Yet the correlation between happiness and performance is perhaps not so easily understood by many. For one, most people believe that success precedes happiness, but, because success is a moving target, the happiness that results from success is fleeting.  Instead people who cultivate a positive mind-set perform better in the face of a challenge. In a meta-analysis of 225 academic studies, researchers found strong evidence of directional causality between life satisfaction and successful business outcomes.

What is even more encouraging is that even though our genetics and our environment have an impact on how happy we are, our general sense of well-being is surprisingly malleable. Our habits, our interactions with coworkers, our attitude towards stress—all these aspects can be managed to increase our happiness and our chances of success. Habits such as taking short breaks and constantly having a positive engagement with coworkers not only reduce stress substantially but also enhance our productivity and thus better our prospects of professional success. Accordingly, encouraging employees to accept some level of stress as an inevitability and perceive it as a motivator and a fuel to growth, is vital for boosting the performance of the workforce.

According to the passage, which of the following is true?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Detail question. Keep crossing out answer choices that are not explicitly stated in the passage and choose the one for which you can directly refer to a portion in the passage.

Answer Choices

A

Most people use success to measure their happiness.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

The author says that most people think success comes before happiness and not that they use it as a tool to measure happiness.

B

Even when the situation is tough, a positive outlook can trick the brain in to believing otherwise.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

Although the author does state that a positive outlook helps perform better in the face of an obstacle/challenge, there is no mention of how the same is achieved- whether by tricking the brain our changing the way we perceive the challenge is not discussed. However, given the contents of the passage, it is most likely in the latter way.

C

One of the most important ways of boosting employee performance is encouraging them to accept some level of stress as a part of the job.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

The author does consider it an important way but there is no information given on whether it is one of the “most important” ways.

D

Developing common habits with coworkers can help reduce stress significantly.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

Habits and interactions with co-workers are listed as two separate aspects and the author does not build or indicate towards a combination of the two.

E

When happiness is triggered by success, it is anything but everlasting.

Correct

This statement states the same thing as the following statement made by the author in the first paragraph:

but, because success is a moving target, the happiness that results from success is fleeting.

QUESTION: 18

Although the journal Social Text was never at the forefront of publishing articles on feminism and never debated whether capitalism was the source of women’s oppression in 1970s or whether male supremacy was itself a systematic form of domination, it is not clear whether social feminist’s classification of the journal as the one run by “boy’s club” could have been completely justified till recently. There could have been many reasons that the journal’s mission statement as set out in its first prospectus in 1979 did not take notice of the burning issues feminists were then discussing. May be triumvirate of founding editors were too focused on Marxist high theory to consider gender alongside economic class as an important mode of social organization and oppression, or on the other hand they may have simply chosen on purpose to not include feminism specifically in its charter.

The recent paper by Rosa Luxemburg suggests that the first prospectus contained the seeds of its own feminist undoing. The founders demarcated fields of focus for the journal that could hardly be explored without attention to gender, sexuality, and the historical experiences of women. They were rather interested in “everyday life,” “mass culture,” and “consumer society”. Hence, the little feminist work that appears in Social Text is in the realm of cultural analysis not revolutionary praxis and is often buried in the back of the journal in “Unequal Developments,” the section that offers reviews and experimental writing.

 

For example, in the second edition of the journal in the section Unequal Developments, Christine Holmland performs a thorough feminist dissection of the then-current Disney film ‘The North Avenue Irregulars’, showing how this comedy about a group of church ladies who take on the local mafia superficially celebrates, but finally deflates the idea of women’s activism, and along the way reinforces gendered roles at every level of social life.

What does the passage suggest about the kind of articles published by Social Text journal in relation to feminism?

Solution:
QUESTION: 19

Although the journal Social Text was never at the forefront of publishing articles on feminism and never debated whether capitalism was the source of women’s oppression in 1970s or whether male supremacy was itself a systematic form of domination, it is not clear whether social feminist’s classification of the journal as the one run by “boy’s club” could have been completely justified till recently. There could have been many reasons that the journal’s mission statement as set out in its first prospectus in 1979 did not take notice of the burning issues feminists were then discussing. May be triumvirate of founding editors were too focused on Marxist high theory to consider gender alongside economic class as an important mode of social organization and oppression, or on the other hand they may have simply chosen on purpose to not include feminism specifically in its charter.

The recent paper by Rosa Luxemburg suggests that the first prospectus contained the seeds of its own feminist undoing. The founders demarcated fields of focus for the journal that could hardly be explored without attention to gender, sexuality, and the historical experiences of women. They were rather interested in “everyday life,” “mass culture,” and “consumer society”. Hence, the little feminist work that appears in Social Text is in the realm of cultural analysis not revolutionary praxis and is often buried in the back of the journal in “Unequal Developments,” the section that offers reviews and experimental writing.

 

For example, in the second edition of the journal in the section Unequal Developments, Christine Holmland performs a thorough feminist dissection of the then-current Disney film ‘The North Avenue Irregulars’, showing how this comedy about a group of church ladies who take on the local mafia superficially celebrates, but finally deflates the idea of women’s activism, and along the way reinforces gendered roles at every level of social life.

What does the author imply when he states “May be triumvirate of founding editors were too focused on Marxist high theory to consider gender alongside economic class as an important mode of social organization and oppression”?

Solution:
QUESTION: 20

Although the journal Social Text was never at the forefront of publishing articles on feminism and never debated whether capitalism was the source of women’s oppression in 1970s or whether male supremacy was itself a systematic form of domination, it is not clear whether social feminist’s classification of the journal as the one run by “boy’s club” could have been completely justified till recently. There could have been many reasons that the journal’s mission statement as set out in its first prospectus in 1979 did not take notice of the burning issues feminists were then discussing. May be triumvirate of founding editors were too focused on Marxist high theory to consider gender alongside economic class as an important mode of social organization and oppression, or on the other hand they may have simply chosen on purpose to not include feminism specifically in its charter.

The recent paper by Rosa Luxemburg suggests that the first prospectus contained the seeds of its own feminist undoing. The founders demarcated fields of focus for the journal that could hardly be explored without attention to gender, sexuality, and the historical experiences of women. They were rather interested in “everyday life,” “mass culture,” and “consumer society”. Hence, the little feminist work that appears in Social Text is in the realm of cultural analysis not revolutionary praxis and is often buried in the back of the journal in “Unequal Developments,” the section that offers reviews and experimental writing.

 

For example, in the second edition of the journal in the section Unequal Developments, Christine Holmland performs a thorough feminist dissection of the then-current Disney film ‘The North Avenue Irregulars’, showing how this comedy about a group of church ladies who take on the local mafia superficially celebrates, but finally deflates the idea of women’s activism, and along the way reinforces gendered roles at every level of social life.

The passage suggested that while drafting the first prospectus, the editors

Solution:
QUESTION: 21

Although the journal Social Text was never at the forefront of publishing articles on feminism and never debated whether capitalism was the source of women’s oppression in 1970s or whether male supremacy was itself a systematic form of domination, it is not clear whether social feminist’s classification of the journal as the one run by “boy’s club” could have been completely justified till recently. There could have been many reasons that the journal’s mission statement as set out in its first prospectus in 1979 did not take notice of the burning issues feminists were then discussing. May be triumvirate of founding editors were too focused on Marxist high theory to consider gender alongside economic class as an important mode of social organization and oppression, or on the other hand they may have simply chosen on purpose to not include feminism specifically in its charter.

The recent paper by Rosa Luxemburg suggests that the first prospectus contained the seeds of its own feminist undoing. The founders demarcated fields of focus for the journal that could hardly be explored without attention to gender, sexuality, and the historical experiences of women. They were rather interested in “everyday life,” “mass culture,” and “consumer society”. Hence, the little feminist work that appears in Social Text is in the realm of cultural analysis not revolutionary praxis and is often buried in the back of the journal in “Unequal Developments,” the section that offers reviews and experimental writing.

 

For example, in the second edition of the journal in the section Unequal Developments, Christine Holmland performs a thorough feminist dissection of the then-current Disney film ‘The North Avenue Irregulars’, showing how this comedy about a group of church ladies who take on the local mafia superficially celebrates, but finally deflates the idea of women’s activism, and along the way reinforces gendered roles at every level of social life.

Why does the author cite Christine Holmland’s example to?

Solution:

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