Test: Reading Comprehension- 1


30 Questions MCQ Test Verbal for GMAT | Test: Reading Comprehension- 1


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QUESTION: 1

Film scholars agree that Hollywood portrayals of America at war follow a cyclical pattern. During and immediately after a conflict, important films trumpet glory and sacrifice. Ten to fifteen years later, questioning and sometimes pacifistic movies about the conflict dominate. In the late 1960’s, “the raging bulls” of Hollywood—the young trendsetters rising to prominence—proclaimed this pattern obsolete. However, the passage of time has demonstrated this cultural pattern to be more resilient than it seemed in those days of social change.
Throughout the majority of the last century, evidence of the cyclical portrayal of war in film abounds. After America declared war against Germany during World War I, the still infant film industry glorified the fight against “the Hun.” By the early 1930’s, major releases had changed their tone; for example, All Quiet on the Western Front put forth an anti-war message by displaying the horrors of combat. After World War II began, the industry shifted gears. Suddenly, important pictures again portrayed glories and courage without the questioning or despair. For example, Guadalcanal Diary, produced during the war, showed “the ultimate sacrifice” as a noble and undoubted good. Once again, though, by 1957, films such as The Bridge on the River Kwai won awards for depicting the moral confusion of war.
Those who later declared this pattern dead based their conviction on their hearts rather than their minds. During the Vietnam War, the only major film about that conflict was The Green Berets, starring John Wayne and far closer in tone to Guadalcanal Diary than to The Bridge on the River Kwai. Similarly, years went by before more complex visions of war, such as Apocalypse Now, and then Platoon, emerged.
While today’s film industry is more diverse and its audience more culturally fragmented, this cycle largely continues. Jarhead, a layered depiction of the first gulf war, premiered more than ten years after that conflict. Further evidence of this pattern can be seen in the release of Apocalypse Now Redux, which contained additional footage that the producers originally thought would repel audiences. Thus, the famous aphorism “The more things change, the more they stay the same” certainly applies to this aspect of the film industry.
Q.
According to the passage, Apocalypse Now Redux  differed from Apocalypse Now in which of the following ways?

Solution:

Passage 1
1. Apocalypse Now Redux and Apocalypse Now were discussed in the final two paragraphs. In the third paragraph, Apocalypse Now is described as a film that was released years after the conflict it portrayed and had a more complex view of the war. In the last paragraph, Apocalypse Now Redux is presented as further evidence that the pattern discussed in this passage continues. That pattern is that war movies presented less glorified and more layered portrayals when the conflict was further in the past. Thus, the correct answer will note that its perspective was more complex and morally ambiguous.

(A) This choice distorts the meaning of the passage. While the last paragraph notes that film audiences are more diverse, this is not connected to the information provided about Apocalypse Now Redux.
(B) CORRECT. The last  aragraph notes that the extra footage was not orginally included because it might repel audiences. Thus, the updated film's portrayal of war must be less appealing and more ambiguous than that of the  original.
(C) This choice indicates a change in the opposite direction; the last paragraph indicates that the additional footage made the film's perspective on war harsher as opposed to more glorified.
(D) The passage indicates that not all war movies had the same tone, and the answer choice does not specify which "other movies" are referred to; therefore, this
choice is incorrect.
(E) There is no mention of any removed footage in the passage. As it is not possible to know if any footage was removed, this choice is incorrect.

QUESTION: 2

Film scholars agree that Hollywood portrayals of America at war follow a cyclical pattern. During and immediately after a conflict, important films trumpet glory and sacrifice. Ten to fifteen years later, questioning and sometimes pacifistic movies about the conflict dominate. In the late 1960’s, “the raging bulls” of Hollywood—the young trendsetters rising to prominence—proclaimed this pattern obsolete. However, the passage of time has demonstrated this cultural pattern to be more resilient than it seemed in those days of social change.
Throughout the majority of the last century, evidence of the cyclical portrayal of war in film abounds. After America declared war against Germany during World War I, the still infant film industry glorified the fight against “the Hun.” By the early 1930’s, major releases had changed their tone; for example, All Quiet on the Western Front put forth an anti-war message by displaying the horrors of combat. After World War II began, the industry shifted gears. Suddenly, important pictures again portrayed glories and courage without the questioning or despair. For example, Guadalcanal Diary, produced during the war, showed “the ultimate sacrifice” as a noble and undoubted good. Once again, though, by 1957, films such as The Bridge on the River Kwai won awards for depicting the moral confusion of war.
Those who later declared this pattern dead based their conviction on their hearts rather than their minds. During the Vietnam War, the only major film about that conflict was The Green Berets, starring John Wayne and far closer in tone to Guadalcanal Diary than to The Bridge on the River Kwai. Similarly, years went by before more complex visions of war, such as Apocalypse Now, and then Platoon, emerged.
While today’s film industry is more diverse and its audience more culturally fragmented, this cycle largely continues. Jarhead, a layered depiction of the first gulf war, premiered more than ten years after that conflict. Further evidence of this pattern can be seen in the release of Apocalypse Now Redux, which contained additional footage that the producers originally thought would repel audiences. Thus, the famous aphorism “The more things change, the more they stay the same” certainly applies to this aspect of the film industry.
Q.
The passage implies that the combat depicted in All Quiet on the Western Front least resembles the
depiction of combat in which of the following?

Solution:

The theme of the passage is that the glories of war were emphasized in films made during the conflict but questioned in those made years afterward. In the second paragraph, All Quiet on the Western Front is cited as an example from the latter category. Therefore, its portrayal of combat would have the least in common with a film made during a conflict.
(A) In the last paragraph, Jarhead is listed as a film that was made years after the conflict it portrayed and had an ambivalent attitude to its topic. Thus, it can be inferred that it would resemble All Quiet on the Western Front. Remember that any information gleaned from seeing the film is outside knowledge. If this information cannot be deduced from the passage, it cannot be used to answer a question.
(B) In the third paragraph, Apocalypse Now is listed as a film that was made years after the conflict it portrayed and had an ambivalent attitude to its topic. Thus, it can be inferred that it would resemble All Quiet on the Western Front.
(C) In the second paragraph, The Bridge on the River Kwai is described as a film that was made years after the conflict it portrayed and showed the moral confusion of war. Thus, it can be inferred that it would resemble All Quiet on the Western Front.
(D) In the third paragraph, Platoon is described as a film that was made years after the conflict it portrayed and had an ambivalent attitude to its topic. Thus, it can be inferred that it would resemble All Quiet on the Western Front. 
(E) CORRECT. In both the second and third paragraphs, Guadalcanal Diary is mentioned as a film made in wartime. In the second paragraph, it is listed as an example of a film that portrayed the “’the ultimate sacrifice’ as a noble and undoubted good.” In contrast, the first paragraph states that “All Quiet on the Western Front put forth an anti-war message by displaying the horrors of combat.” Thus, Guadalcanal Diary must be the portrayal of combat that least resembles that in All Quiet on the Western Front.  

QUESTION: 3

Film scholars agree that Hollywood portrayals of America at war follow a cyclical pattern. During and immediately after a conflict, important films trumpet glory and sacrifice. Ten to fifteen years later, questioning and sometimes pacifistic movies about the conflict dominate. In the late 1960’s, “the raging bulls” of Hollywood—the young trendsetters rising to prominence—proclaimed this pattern obsolete. However, the passage of time has demonstrated this cultural pattern to be more resilient than it seemed in those days of social change.
Throughout the majority of the last century, evidence of the cyclical portrayal of war in film abounds. After America declared war against Germany during World War I, the still infant film industry glorified the fight against “the Hun.” By the early 1930’s, major releases had changed their tone; for example, All Quiet on the Western Front put forth an anti-war message by displaying the horrors of combat. After World War II began, the industry shifted gears. Suddenly, important pictures again portrayed glories and courage without the questioning or despair. For example, Guadalcanal Diary, produced during the war, showed “the ultimate sacrifice” as a noble and undoubted good. Once again, though, by 1957, films such as The Bridge on the River Kwai won awards for depicting the moral confusion of war.
Those who later declared this pattern dead based their conviction on their hearts rather than their minds. During the Vietnam War, the only major film about that conflict was The Green Berets, starring John Wayne and far closer in tone to Guadalcanal Diary than to The Bridge on the River Kwai. Similarly, years went by before more complex visions of war, such as Apocalypse Now, and then Platoon, emerged.
While today’s film industry is more diverse and its audience more culturally fragmented, this cycle largely continues. Jarhead, a layered depiction of the first gulf war, premiered more than ten years after that conflict. Further evidence of this pattern can be seen in the release of Apocalypse Now Redux, which contained additional footage that the producers originally thought would repel audiences. Thus, the famous aphorism “The more things change, the more they stay the same” certainly applies to this aspect of the film industry.
Q.
In the second paragraph, the author implies that “the Hun” refers to which of the following?

Solution:

he second sentence of the second paragraph reads “After America declared war against Germany during World War I, the still infant film industry glorified the fight against “the Hun.” Thus, it must follow that the Germans are referred to by that name.  GMAT inferences generally follow directly from the text of the passage.   
(A) There is no direct evidence in the passage that indicates this meaning for "the Hun." Furthermore, the use of quotation marks indicates that the reference is not literal.
(B) There is no direct evidence in the passage that indicates this meaning for "the Hun."  
(C) There is no direct evidence in the passage that indicates this meaning for "the Hun."  The fact that the Hungarians were then part of Austro-Hungary is outside knowledge which cannot be deduced from the passage.
(D) CORRECT. Since the passage states that America declared war on Germany, it must follow that the Germans were “the Hun” against whom America was fighting.
(E) There is no direct evidence in the passage that indicates this meaning for "the Hun." GMAT inferences must follow from the text of the passage. 

QUESTION: 4

Film scholars agree that Hollywood portrayals of America at war follow a cyclical pattern. During and immediately after a conflict, important films trumpet glory and sacrifice. Ten to fifteen years later, questioning and sometimes pacifistic movies about the conflict dominate. In the late 1960’s, “the raging bulls” of Hollywood—the young trendsetters rising to prominence—proclaimed this pattern obsolete. However, the passage of time has demonstrated this cultural pattern to be more resilient than it seemed in those days of social change.
Throughout the majority of the last century, evidence of the cyclical portrayal of war in film abounds. After America declared war against Germany during World War I, the still infant film industry glorified the fight against “the Hun.” By the early 1930’s, major releases had changed their tone; for example, All Quiet on the Western Front put forth an anti-war message by displaying the horrors of combat. After World War II began, the industry shifted gears. Suddenly, important pictures again portrayed glories and courage without the questioning or despair. For example, Guadalcanal Diary, produced during the war, showed “the ultimate sacrifice” as a noble and undoubted good. Once again, though, by 1957, films such as The Bridge on the River Kwai won awards for depicting the moral confusion of war.
Those who later declared this pattern dead based their conviction on their hearts rather than their minds. During the Vietnam War, the only major film about that conflict was The Green Berets, starring John Wayne and far closer in tone to Guadalcanal Diary than to The Bridge on the River Kwai. Similarly, years went by before more complex visions of war, such as Apocalypse Now, and then Platoon, emerged.
While today’s film industry is more diverse and its audience more culturally fragmented, this cycle largely continues. Jarhead, a layered depiction of the first gulf war, premiered more than ten years after that conflict. Further evidence of this pattern can be seen in the release of Apocalypse Now Redux, which contained additional footage that the producers originally thought would repel audiences. Thus, the famous aphorism “The more things change, the more they stay the same” certainly applies to this aspect of the film industry.
Q.
What is the main point made by the author?

Solution:

The passage clearly enunciates in the first paragraph that it plans to illustrate the cyclical pattern of the tone of Hollywood war movies. The second and third paragraphs trace the pattern's history through the last century, and then the passage ends by returning to the resilience of that cycle. Thus, the main point of the passage must reference establishing and describing the recurring pattern over time. 
(A) This choice does not address the cyclical pattern; instead, it suggests a point not made in the passage.
(B) This is a minor detail mentioned in the last paragraph, not the main point. Furthermore, this choice ignores the issue of a cyclical pattern.
(C) CORRECT. This choice reiterates the theme that a pattern is durable, despite the doubts of some during "those days of social change" -- i.e., the late 1960's. This choice exactly mirrors the structure of the passage, which makes this point, provides historical evidence, and then reiterates that the pattern continues to endure.
(D) Besides its extreme quality, this choice is incorrect because it distorts the meaning. The passage's assertion that a more nuanced view of America’s conflicts emerges in movies made years later cannot automatically be equated with a lack of support.
(E) This choice presents an irrelevant comparison. The passage is only concerned with the existence of this pattern and does not address the relative influence of various individuals. 

QUESTION: 5

Film scholars agree that Hollywood portrayals of America at war follow a cyclical pattern. During and immediately after a conflict, important films trumpet glory and sacrifice. Ten to fifteen years later, questioning and sometimes pacifistic movies about the conflict dominate. In the late 1960’s, “the raging bulls” of Hollywood—the young trendsetters rising to prominence—proclaimed this pattern obsolete. However, the passage of time has demonstrated this cultural pattern to be more resilient than it seemed in those days of social change.
Throughout the majority of the last century, evidence of the cyclical portrayal of war in film abounds. After America declared war against Germany during World War I, the still infant film industry glorified the fight against “the Hun.” By the early 1930’s, major releases had changed their tone; for example, All Quiet on the Western Front put forth an anti-war message by displaying the horrors of combat. After World War II began, the industry shifted gears. Suddenly, important pictures again portrayed glories and courage without the questioning or despair. For example, Guadalcanal Diary, produced during the war, showed “the ultimate sacrifice” as a noble and undoubted good. Once again, though, by 1957, films such as The Bridge on the River Kwai won awards for depicting the moral confusion of war.
Those who later declared this pattern dead based their conviction on their hearts rather than their minds. During the Vietnam War, the only major film about that conflict was The Green Berets, starring John Wayne and far closer in tone to Guadalcanal Diary than to The Bridge on the River Kwai. Similarly, years went by before more complex visions of war, such as Apocalypse Now, and then Platoon, emerged.
While today’s film industry is more diverse and its audience more culturally fragmented, this cycle largely continues. Jarhead, a layered depiction of the first gulf war, premiered more than ten years after that conflict. Further evidence of this pattern can be seen in the release of Apocalypse Now Redux, which contained additional footage that the producers originally thought would repel audiences. Thus, the famous aphorism “The more things change, the more they stay the same” certainly applies to this aspect of the film industry.
Q.
What is the function of the last paragraph of the passage?

Solution:

The last paragraph begins by noting that the changes in the industry and audience have not changed the pattern discussed. The paragraph ends by stating that this aspect of the film industry, that is, the pattern discussed, remains intact. The correct answer should reflect this point.
(A) CORRECT. This choice correctly summarizes the point made in the first and last sentences of the last paragraph: that this pattern continues despite changes in the industry and audience. 
(B) This choice is too extreme. The passage merely says that one pattern of the film industry has not changed. The last paragraph acknowledges that changes in the industry have occurred. 
(C) This choice is incorrect as the last paragraph explicitly states that the pattern discussed largely continues. 
(D) In the last paragraph, Jarhead and Apocalypse Now Redux are mentioned as examples proving that the discussed pattern continues. Thus, they cannot be fundamentally different from other war movies.
(E) The point of the last paragraph is that the pattern of the last century continues. Thus, it cannot make the point that war movies have changed in response to changes in the audience. 

QUESTION: 6

Film scholars agree that Hollywood portrayals of America at war follow a cyclical pattern. During and immediately after a conflict, important films trumpet glory and sacrifice. Ten to fifteen years later, questioning and sometimes pacifistic movies about the conflict dominate. In the late 1960’s, “the raging bulls” of Hollywood—the young trendsetters rising to prominence—proclaimed this pattern obsolete. However, the passage of time has demonstrated this cultural pattern to be more resilient than it seemed in those days of social change.
Throughout the majority of the last century, evidence of the cyclical portrayal of war in film abounds. After America declared war against Germany during World War I, the still infant film industry glorified the fight against “the Hun.” By the early 1930’s, major releases had changed their tone; for example, All Quiet on the Western Front put forth an anti-war message by displaying the horrors of combat. After World War II began, the industry shifted gears. Suddenly, important pictures again portrayed glories and courage without the questioning or despair. For example, Guadalcanal Diary, produced during the war, showed “the ultimate sacrifice” as a noble and undoubted good. Once again, though, by 1957, films such as The Bridge on the River Kwai won awards for depicting the moral confusion of war.
Those who later declared this pattern dead based their conviction on their hearts rather than their minds. During the Vietnam War, the only major film about that conflict was The Green Berets, starring John Wayne and far closer in tone to Guadalcanal Diary than to The Bridge on the River Kwai. Similarly, years went by before more complex visions of war, such as Apocalypse Now, and then Platoon, emerged.
While today’s film industry is more diverse and its audience more culturally fragmented, this cycle largely continues. Jarhead, a layered depiction of the first gulf war, premiered more than ten years after that conflict. Further evidence of this pattern can be seen in the release of Apocalypse Now Redux, which contained additional footage that the producers originally thought would repel audiences. Thus, the famous aphorism “The more things change, the more they stay the same” certainly applies to this aspect of the film industry.
Q.
Which one of the following does the author believe is true about The Bridge on the River Kwai?

Solution:

In the second paragraph, The Bridge on the River Kwai is mentioned as a post-WWII example of the continuing pattern of war movies becoming more ambivalent years after the conflict. The phrases “once again” and “for example” highlight this. In the third paragraph, the movie is again mentioned as an example of a more complex view of war. Thus, the correct answer must follow from these points.
(A) This is incorrect; the author does not discuss the quality of the movie or the merit of any awards. 
(B) The passage does not compare the intelligence or crafting of these, or any, films; it merely discusses their tone and approach to the depiction of war.  A movie could present a glorified depiction of war and also be very intelligent and well-crafted.
(C) This is incorrect. The passage indicates that there were movies with ambivalent perspectives produced after the first war, citing All Quiet on the Western Front as an example. Furthermore, the phrase “once again” indicates that it was not the first to have such a tone. 
(D) CORRECT. The third paragraph states that Guadalcanal Diary was much closer in tone to The Green Berets and contrasts those two to The Bridge on the River Kwai. This contrast is in terms of the greater ambivalence and moral confusion shown in The Bridge on the River Kwai.
(E) The passage does not mention the financial success, or lack thereof, of any of the movies it discusses. 

QUESTION: 7

Measuring more than five feet tall and ten feet long, the Javan rhinoceros is often called the rarest large mammal on earth. None exist in zoos. Like the Indian rhino, the Javan has only one horn; African and Sumatran rhinos have two. While the Javan rhino habitat once extended across southern Asia, now there are fewer than one hundred of the animals in Indonesia and under a dozen in Vietnam. Very little is known about Javan rhinos because they lead secretive and solitary lives in remote jungles.
Until recently, scientists debated whether females even have horns, and most scientific work has had to rely on DNA garnered from dung.
The near extinction of the Javan rhino is the direct result of human actions. For centuries, farmers, who favored the same habitat, viewed them as crop eating pests and shot them on sight. During the colonial period, hunters slaughtered thousands. Now, human efforts to save them may well prove futile. The Vietnamese herd is probably doomed, as too few remain to maintain the necessary genetic variation. Rhinos from Java cannot supplement the Vietnamese numbers because in the millions of years since Indonesia separated from the mainland, the two groups have evolved into separate sub-species. In Indonesia, the rhinos are protected on the Ujung Kulon peninsula, which is unsettled by humans, and still have sufficient genetic diversity to have a chance at survival.
Ironically, however, the lack of human disturbance allows mature forests to replace the shrubby vegetation the animals prefer. Thus, human benevolence may prove little better for these rhinos than past human maltreatment.
Q.
Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

Solution:

The correct answer to this question will be a claim that must follow from text contained in the passage. This question does not provide any clues as to where the justifying text will be found.
(A) The first paragraph mentions that the the Javan rhino is the most endangered species of large mammal. However, it does not have to be true that it is one of the most endangered animals, a category that is far broader than mammals.
(B) CORRECT. The first paragraph states that very little is known about the life of the Javan rhino. The passage does indicate, however, that scientists have been able to extract information on the species’ DNA from gathered dung. The paragraph also suggests that very little information about female Javan rhinos has been gained, given that scientists only recently discovered whether or not females of the species even have horns. Thus, one can infer that more is known about the genetics of the Javan rhino than its mating patterns.
(C) The second paragraph indicates that hunters slaughtered many rhinos, but it does not mention where. Furthermore, it does not have to be true that more rhinos were killed in Vietnam simply because fewer rhinos remain there.
(D) The passage only discusses the Javan rhino; therefore, a generalization about the extinction of "most animals" is not supported by the passage.
(E) The passage does not mention other survival factors for a species or rank them; therefore, this inference is not supported by the passage. 

QUESTION: 8

Measuring more than five feet tall and ten feet long, the Javan rhinoceros is often called the rarest large mammal on earth. None exist in zoos. Like the Indian rhino, the Javan has only one horn; African and Sumatran rhinos have two. While the Javan rhino habitat once extended across southern Asia, now there are fewer than one hundred of the animals in Indonesia and under a dozen in Vietnam. Very little is known about Javan rhinos because they lead secretive and solitary lives in remote jungles.
Until recently, scientists debated whether females even have horns, and most scientific work has had to rely on DNA garnered from dung.
The near extinction of the Javan rhino is the direct result of human actions. For centuries, farmers, who favored the same habitat, viewed them as crop eating pests and shot them on sight. During the colonial period, hunters slaughtered thousands. Now, human efforts to save them may well prove futile. The Vietnamese herd is probably doomed, as too few remain to maintain the necessary genetic variation. Rhinos from Java cannot supplement the Vietnamese numbers because in the millions of years since Indonesia separated from the mainland, the two groups have evolved into separate sub-species. In Indonesia, the rhinos are protected on the Ujung Kulon peninsula, which is unsettled by humans, and still have sufficient genetic diversity to have a chance at survival.
Ironically, however, the lack of human disturbance allows mature forests to replace the shrubby vegetation the animals prefer. Thus, human benevolence may prove little better for these rhinos than past human maltreatment.
Q.
The author’s attitude toward current human efforts to save the Javan rhino can best be described as

Solution:

In the second paragraph, after citing human actions as the cause of the Javan rhino’s plight, the author goes on to mention that the population in Vietnam is probably not viable and that human efforts in Indonesia, such as the protection of the rhino on the Ujung Kulun peninsula, have had mixed results. The passage ends with the thought that human benevolence is not helping the rhinos much more than past maltreatment. Thus, the correct answer will note the problems with current human efforts.  
(A) The author is certainly not optimistic, as the passage mentions that in Vietnam the outlook is doubtful and in Indonesia, problems plague the effort. It is possible, although not certain, that the author considers the effort worthwhile.
(B) The author gives no indication that he or she believes the effort is pointless. Furthermore, especially in Indonesia, the passage does not indicate a certainty that it will fail.
(C) The passage does not at all discuss the profitability of the effort. It is possible, although not certain, that the author considers the effort idealistic.
(D) CORRECT. The discussion of the mixed results and poor prognosis for the population in Vietnam justifies “problematic.” The last sentence of the passage, observing that benevolence has proved little better than maltreatment justifies “ironic.” Also, the author references the ironic quality of human protection of the Javan rhino in the 8th sentence in the 2nd paragraph, “Ironically, however, the lack of human disturbance allows mature forests to replace the shrubby vegetation the animals prefer.”
(E) The passage indicates that the efforts have been much less than entirely successful but does not indicate any confusion related to the current efforts. It is possible for efforts to be less than fully successful without being confused. Furthermore, it does not at all address the idea that any particular heroism is involved. 

QUESTION: 9

Measuring more than five feet tall and ten feet long, the Javan rhinoceros is often called the rarest large mammal on earth. None exist in zoos. Like the Indian rhino, the Javan has only one horn; African and Sumatran rhinos have two. While the Javan rhino habitat once extended across southern Asia, now there are fewer than one hundred of the animals in Indonesia and under a dozen in Vietnam. Very little is known about Javan rhinos because they lead secretive and solitary lives in remote jungles.
Until recently, scientists debated whether females even have horns, and most scientific work has had to rely on DNA garnered from dung.
The near extinction of the Javan rhino is the direct result of human actions. For centuries, farmers, who favored the same habitat, viewed them as crop eating pests and shot them on sight. During the colonial period, hunters slaughtered thousands. Now, human efforts to save them may well prove futile. The Vietnamese herd is probably doomed, as too few remain to maintain the necessary genetic variation. Rhinos from Java cannot supplement the Vietnamese numbers because in the millions of years since Indonesia separated from the mainland, the two groups have evolved into separate sub-species. In Indonesia, the rhinos are protected on the Ujung Kulon peninsula, which is unsettled by humans, and still have sufficient genetic diversity to have a chance at survival.
Ironically, however, the lack of human disturbance allows mature forests to replace the shrubby vegetation the animals prefer. Thus, human benevolence may prove little better for these rhinos than past human maltreatment.
Q.
The author mentions that the Javan rhino has only one horn in order to do which of the following?

Solution:

The author mentions the number of horns in the first paragraph in the course of describing the Javan rhino. The correct answer must follow from this text.
(A) Although the Javan rhino is described as rare, the discussion of extinction is in the second paragraph,. Furthermore, the vitality of the African rhino is not mentioned.
(B) The passage contrasts the number of horns of the Javan rhino to that of the African and Sumatran rhinos. However, the author makes a parallel comparison to the Indian rhino because both species have one horn.
(C) The passage only discusses the Javan rhino’s evolution into a separate subspecies in the second paragraph in a completely different context,; no direct link is drawn between this evolution and the Javan rhino’s single horn.
(D) CORRECT. The author mentions the Javan rhino’s single horn in conjunction with a general description of the Javan rhino. The passage then goes on to discuss its habitat and the scientific knowledge to date. Thus, the author included this detail to add depth to his or her description.
(E) The passage only states that until recently scientists were unsure if females had horns, and no definitive answer is given. Furthermore, this point is mentioned in a different context, after the passage has finished describing the Javan rhino. 

QUESTION: 10

Measuring more than five feet tall and ten feet long, the Javan rhinoceros is often called the rarest large mammal on earth. None exist in zoos. Like the Indian rhino, the Javan has only one horn; African and Sumatran rhinos have two. While the Javan rhino habitat once extended across southern Asia, now there are fewer than one hundred of the animals in Indonesia and under a dozen in Vietnam. Very little is known about Javan rhinos because they lead secretive and solitary lives in remote jungles.
Until recently, scientists debated whether females even have horns, and most scientific work has had to rely on DNA garnered from dung.
The near extinction of the Javan rhino is the direct result of human actions. For centuries, farmers, who favored the same habitat, viewed them as crop eating pests and shot them on sight. During the colonial period, hunters slaughtered thousands. Now, human efforts to save them may well prove futile. The Vietnamese herd is probably doomed, as too few remain to maintain the necessary genetic variation. Rhinos from Java cannot supplement the Vietnamese numbers because in the millions of years since Indonesia separated from the mainland, the two groups have evolved into separate sub-species. In Indonesia, the rhinos are protected on the Ujung Kulon peninsula, which is unsettled by humans, and still have sufficient genetic diversity to have a chance at survival.
Ironically, however, the lack of human disturbance allows mature forests to replace the shrubby vegetation the animals prefer. Thus, human benevolence may prove little better for these rhinos than past human maltreatment.
Q.
The purpose of the first paragraph is to

Solution:

The first paragraph describes the Javan rhino and indicates how little is known about it. This should be reflected in the answer. It is the second paragraph that relates the effects of human activity on the rhinos and their chances for survival.
(A) This choice is too broad, as the paragraph focuses on the Javan rhino and only mentions its differences from some other rhinos to distinguish the species from others.  
(B) This answer choice describes the topic of the second paragraph, not the first.
(C) CORRECT. The first paragraph provides the known facts about the Javan rhino and indicates that much remains unknown.
(D) The steps taken to save the Javan rhino are only mentioned in the second paragraph; they do not appear in the first paragraph.
(E) The first paragraph only indicates the respective number of rhinos in Indonesia and Vietnam in passing, and does not mention the differences between the two groups. The fact that the two have evolved into separate sub-species is mentioned only in the second paragraph.

QUESTION: 11

Measuring more than five feet tall and ten feet long, the Javan rhinoceros is often called the rarest large mammal on earth. None exist in zoos. Like the Indian rhino, the Javan has only one horn; African and Sumatran rhinos have two. While the Javan rhino habitat once extended across southern Asia, now there are fewer than one hundred of the animals in Indonesia and under a dozen in Vietnam. Very little is known about Javan rhinos because they lead secretive and solitary lives in remote jungles.
Until recently, scientists debated whether females even have horns, and most scientific work has had to rely on DNA garnered from dung.
The near extinction of the Javan rhino is the direct result of human actions. For centuries, farmers, who favored the same habitat, viewed them as crop eating pests and shot them on sight. During the colonial period, hunters slaughtered thousands. Now, human efforts to save them may well prove futile. The Vietnamese herd is probably doomed, as too few remain to maintain the necessary genetic variation. Rhinos from Java cannot supplement the Vietnamese numbers because in the millions of years since Indonesia separated from the mainland, the two groups have evolved into separate sub-species. In Indonesia, the rhinos are protected on the Ujung Kulon peninsula, which is unsettled by humans, and still have sufficient genetic diversity to have a chance at survival.
Ironically, however, the lack of human disturbance allows mature forests to replace the shrubby vegetation the animals prefer. Thus, human benevolence may prove little better for these rhinos than past human maltreatment.
Q.
According to the passage, which of the following best explains why the number of Javan rhinos in Vietnam cannot be increased by additions from those in the Ujung Kulon peninsula?

Solution:

The passage mentions the Ujung Kulon peninsula in the second paragraph. Immediately before that, the passage states that Indonesian Javan rhinos cannot supplement those in because they have evolved into separate sub-species. The correct answer choice will rely upon this fact.
(A) CORRECT. This choice rephrases the information in the second paragraph which states that the Indonesian Javan rhinos have evolved into a separate subspecies.
(B) The passage does not mention the aquatic abilities of the Javan rhino nor can it be assumed that they would have to get there without human assistance.
(C) The passage does not discuss the funds available in either country; therefore this choice is incorrect.
(D) The passage does not mention the difficulty involved in capturing a rhino; therefore this choice is incorrect.
(E) The passage does not mention terrorist activity at all; therefore, this choice is incorrect.  

QUESTION: 12

Measuring more than five feet tall and ten feet long, the Javan rhinoceros is often called the rarest large mammal on earth. None exist in zoos. Like the Indian rhino, the Javan has only one horn; African and Sumatran rhinos have two. While the Javan rhino habitat once extended across southern Asia, now there are fewer than one hundred of the animals in Indonesia and under a dozen in Vietnam. Very little is known about Javan rhinos because they lead secretive and solitary lives in remote jungles.
Until recently, scientists debated whether females even have horns, and most scientific work has had to rely on DNA garnered from dung.
The near extinction of the Javan rhino is the direct result of human actions. For centuries, farmers, who favored the same habitat, viewed them as crop eating pests and shot them on sight. During the colonial period, hunters slaughtered thousands. Now, human efforts to save them may well prove futile. The Vietnamese herd is probably doomed, as too few remain to maintain the necessary genetic variation. Rhinos from Java cannot supplement the Vietnamese numbers because in the millions of years since Indonesia separated from the mainland, the two groups have evolved into separate sub-species. In Indonesia, the rhinos are protected on the Ujung Kulon peninsula, which is unsettled by humans, and still have sufficient genetic diversity to have a chance at survival.
Ironically, however, the lack of human disturbance allows mature forests to replace the shrubby vegetation the animals prefer. Thus, human benevolence may prove little better for these rhinos than past human maltreatment.
Q.
The author states that which of the following was most responsible for the near extinction of the Javan rhino?

Solution:

In the second paragraph, the passage states that the “near extinction of the Javan rhino is the direct result of human actions.” The correct answer must be justified by that statement.  
(A) Rhino deaths at the hands of farmers are mentioned as a detail and as just one of the human actions responsible. It does not single farmers out as the primary cause of the Javan rhino’s near extinction.
(B) The passage mentions the separation of from the mainland to explain why the Javan rhino population in Vietnam cannot be supplemented by rhinos from Ujung Kulon. It is not discussed as a reason for the near extinction of the Javan rhino.
(C) Rhino deaths at the hands of hunters are mentioned as a detail and as just one of the human actions responsible. It does not single hunters out as the primary cause of the Javan rhino’s near extinction.
D) The passage does not say that current human efforts are at all responsible for the near extinction of the Javan rhino.  Instead, it indicates that current benevolent human efforts may not prove sufficient to save them.
(E) CORRECT. The beginning of the second paragraph clearly states that human actions, taken as a whole, have directly caused the near extinction of the Javan rhino.

QUESTION: 13

For years, U.S. employers have counted on a steady flow of labor from Mexico willing to accept low-skilled, low paying jobs. These workers, many of whom leave economically depressed villages in the Mexican interior, are often more than willing to work for wages well below both the U.S. minimum wage and the poverty line.
However, thanks to a dramatic demographic shift currently taking place in Mexico, the seemingly inexhaustible supply of workers migrating from Mexico to the United States might one day greatly diminish if not cease.
Predictions of such a drastic decrease in the number of Mexican immigrants, both legal and illegal, are driven by Mexico’s rapidly diminishing population growth. As a result of a decades-long family planning campaign, most Mexicans are having far fewer children than was the norm a generation ago. The campaign, organized around the slogan that “the small family lives better,” saw the Mexican government establish family-planning clinics and offer free contraception. For nearly three decades, the government’s message concerning population hasn’t wavered. In fact, the Mexican Senate recently voted to extend public school sex education programs to kindergarten.
The result of Mexico’s efforts to stem population growth is nothing short of stunning. In 1968, the average Mexican woman had just fewer than seven children; today, the figure is slightly more than two. For two primary reasons, Mexico’s new demographics could greatly impact the number of Mexicans seeking work in the U.S. First, smaller families by their nature limit the pool of potential migrants.
Second, the slowing of Mexico’s population growth has fostered hope that Mexico will develop a healthy middle class of people content to make their livelihoods in their home country.
Though the former of these factors is all but assured, the growth of a healthy middle class is far from a foregone conclusion. The critical challenge for Mexico is what it does with the next 20 years. Mexico must invest in education, job training, and infrastructure, as well as a social-security system to protect its aging population.  If Mexico is willing to step forward and meet this challenge, America may one day wake up to find that, like cheap gasoline, cheap Mexican labor has become a thing of the past.
Q.
The passage does NOT indicate which of the following concerning Mexico’s current demographics?

Solution:

The best way to answer a question that asks for information NOT indicated in the passage is to quickly skim through the passage and eliminate any answer choice that IS indicated in the passage.
(A) CORRECT. The passage states several times that Mexico’s population growth is diminishing due to the country’s declining birth rate. However, the passage never suggests that Mexico’s population itself is diminishing.
(B) The third paragraph states that, on average, a Mexican woman had just fewer than seven children in 1968. Today the average number of children born to a Mexican woman is slightly more than two, or approximately one-third of the 1968 figure.  
(C) The first paragraph states that U.S. employers are still counting on a steady flow of labor from Mexico. To reinforce this contention, the final sentence of the first paragraph says this flow might “one day” diminish, indicating that at present it is continuing.  
(D) The final paragraph states that Mexico’s population is aging. This aging of the population naturally results from the declining number of babies born in Mexico. As fewer babies are born, the average age of the population gradually increases.
(E) The third and final paragraphs indicate that a healthy middle class in Mexico is a hope and a goal but that it is far from a foregone conclusion.

QUESTION: 14

For years, U.S. employers have counted on a steady flow of labor from Mexico willing to accept low-skilled, low paying jobs. These workers, many of whom leave economically depressed villages in the Mexican interior, are often more than willing to work for wages well below both the U.S. minimum wage and the poverty line.
However, thanks to a dramatic demographic shift currently taking place in Mexico, the seemingly inexhaustible supply of workers migrating from Mexico to the United States might one day greatly diminish if not cease.
Predictions of such a drastic decrease in the number of Mexican immigrants, both legal and illegal, are driven by Mexico’s rapidly diminishing population growth. As a result of a decades-long family planning campaign, most Mexicans are having far fewer children than was the norm a generation ago. The campaign, organized around the slogan that “the small family lives better,” saw the Mexican government establish family-planning clinics and offer free contraception. For nearly three decades, the government’s message concerning population hasn’t wavered. In fact, the Mexican Senate recently voted to extend public school sex education programs to kindergarten.
The result of Mexico’s efforts to stem population growth is nothing short of stunning. In 1968, the average Mexican woman had just fewer than seven children; today, the figure is slightly more than two. For two primary reasons, Mexico’s new demographics could greatly impact the number of Mexicans seeking work in the U.S. First, smaller families by their nature limit the pool of potential migrants.
Second, the slowing of Mexico’s population growth has fostered hope that Mexico will develop a healthy middle class of people content to make their livelihoods in their home country.
Though the former of these factors is all but assured, the growth of a healthy middle class is far from a foregone conclusion. The critical challenge for Mexico is what it does with the next 20 years. Mexico must invest in education, job training, and infrastructure, as well as a social-security system to protect its aging population.  If Mexico is willing to step forward and meet this challenge, America may one day wake up to find that, like cheap gasoline, cheap Mexican labor has become a thing of the past.
Q.
Which of the following can be inferred about U.S. employers of Mexican immigrants?

Solution:

The correct answer to an inference question must be directly supported by evidence from the text. The passage states that U.S. employers of Mexican immigrants often provide low-skilled, low-paying jobs to individuals who "are often more than willing to work for wages well below both the U.S. minimum wage and the poverty line."
(A) No information is provided concerning the amount of money paid to American citizens.  It is possible that there are many Americans who also work for wages well below both the U.S. minimum wage and the poverty line.    
(B) CORRECT. If some of these immigrant workers are accepting wages “well below the U.S. minimum wage,” their American employers must be violating wage laws (i.e. paying wages below what the U.S. minimum wage requires).  
(C) Nothing in the passage suggests the particular industry of these employers. This answer is outside the scope of the argument, and assumes knowledge from sources other than the passage.    
(D) The passage does not suggest that, without labor from Mexico, these employers will be forced to close. This answer is both too predictive and outside the scope of the argument.  
(E) The passage suggests nothing about how these employers either regard or treat their workers. Moreover, indication that these employers show “no concern” is too extreme to be inferred from the passage. 

QUESTION: 15

For years, U.S. employers have counted on a steady flow of labor from Mexico willing to accept low-skilled, low paying jobs. These workers, many of whom leave economically depressed villages in the Mexican interior, are often more than willing to work for wages well below both the U.S. minimum wage and the poverty line.
However, thanks to a dramatic demographic shift currently taking place in Mexico, the seemingly inexhaustible supply of workers migrating from Mexico to the United States might one day greatly diminish if not cease.
Predictions of such a drastic decrease in the number of Mexican immigrants, both legal and illegal, are driven by Mexico’s rapidly diminishing population growth. As a result of a decades-long family planning campaign, most Mexicans are having far fewer children than was the norm a generation ago. The campaign, organized around the slogan that “the small family lives better,” saw the Mexican government establish family-planning clinics and offer free contraception. For nearly three decades, the government’s message concerning population hasn’t wavered. In fact, the Mexican Senate recently voted to extend public school sex education programs to kindergarten.
The result of Mexico’s efforts to stem population growth is nothing short of stunning. In 1968, the average Mexican woman had just fewer than seven children; today, the figure is slightly more than two. For two primary reasons, Mexico’s new demographics could greatly impact the number of Mexicans seeking work in the U.S. First, smaller families by their nature limit the pool of potential migrants.
Second, the slowing of Mexico’s population growth has fostered hope that Mexico will develop a healthy middle class of people content to make their livelihoods in their home country.
Though the former of these factors is all but assured, the growth of a healthy middle class is far from a foregone conclusion. The critical challenge for Mexico is what it does with the next 20 years. Mexico must invest in education, job training, and infrastructure, as well as a social-security system to protect its aging population.  If Mexico is willing to step forward and meet this challenge, America may one day wake up to find that, like cheap gasoline, cheap Mexican labor has become a thing of the past.
Q.
With which of the following statements would the author of the passage MOST likely agree?

Solution:

A keen understanding of the main idea of the passage, in combination with a well developed sketch of the passage to help you quickly access the pertinent information, will help you to accurately eliminate incorrect answer choices.
(A) In both the first and fourth paragraphs the author indicates that the supply of Mexican labor to the United States might diminish over time if certain conditions in Mexico continue to change. The author does not believe this to be a foregone conclusion. Moreover, the author never hints that this hypothetical labor vacuum will have to be filled by other immigrant groups.
(B) The author speaks only of Mexico and its challenges. It is beyond the scope of the passage to assume what the author might believe, in general, about countries with large populations. Additionally, the passage never quantifies the definition of a “large population.”  
(C) In the first paragraph, the author says Mexican immigrants are “more than willing to work for wages well below both the U.S. minimum wage and the poverty line.” Thus, the workers themselves seem not to feel taken advantage of.
(D) Similar to answer choice B, this answer choice asks about the author’s attitude toward countries other than Mexico. The passage, however, discusses only Mexico and its policies and challenges.
(E) CORRECT. In the final paragraph, the author indicates that "the growth of a healthy middle class is far from a foregone conclusion. The critical challenge for Mexico is what it does with the next 20 years.” Then, the author indicates the steps that Mexico must take. Thus, the author obviously believes that Mexico does not currently have the infrastructure to develop a healthy middle class. The key, for the author, is whether Mexico is willing and able to build this infrastructure.  

QUESTION: 16

For years, U.S. employers have counted on a steady flow of labor from Mexico willing to accept low-skilled, low paying jobs. These workers, many of whom leave economically depressed villages in the Mexican interior, are often more than willing to work for wages well below both the U.S. minimum wage and the poverty line.
However, thanks to a dramatic demographic shift currently taking place in Mexico, the seemingly inexhaustible supply of workers migrating from Mexico to the United States might one day greatly diminish if not cease.
Predictions of such a drastic decrease in the number of Mexican immigrants, both legal and illegal, are driven by Mexico’s rapidly diminishing population growth. As a result of a decades-long family planning campaign, most Mexicans are having far fewer children than was the norm a generation ago. The campaign, organized around the slogan that “the small family lives better,” saw the Mexican government establish family-planning clinics and offer free contraception. For nearly three decades, the government’s message concerning population hasn’t wavered. In fact, the Mexican Senate recently voted to extend public school sex education programs to kindergarten.
The result of Mexico’s efforts to stem population growth is nothing short of stunning. In 1968, the average Mexican woman had just fewer than seven children; today, the figure is slightly more than two. For two primary reasons, Mexico’s new demographics could greatly impact the number of Mexicans seeking work in the U.S. First, smaller families by their nature limit the pool of potential migrants.
Second, the slowing of Mexico’s population growth has fostered hope that Mexico will develop a healthy middle class of people content to make their livelihoods in their home country.
Though the former of these factors is all but assured, the growth of a healthy middle class is far from a foregone conclusion. The critical challenge for Mexico is what it does with the next 20 years. Mexico must invest in education, job training, and infrastructure, as well as a social-security system to protect its aging population.  If Mexico is willing to step forward and meet this challenge, America may one day wake up to find that, like cheap gasoline, cheap Mexican labor has become a thing of the past.
Q.
One function of the final paragraph of the passage is to

Solution:

The final paragraph primarily explains why the development of a healthy middle class, an important factor in limiting the desire of many Mexicans to migrate to the United States, is not a foregone conclusion.  (A) The final paragraph actually explains why a dramatic reduction of Mexican immigration to the United States is still an uncertainty. 
B) Mexico’s family planning campaign was not mentioned in the final paragraph.
(C) CORRECT. The final paragraph explains that Mexico must take specific actions to foster the development of a healthy middle class. Without a healthy middle class, the author believes that large numbers of Mexicans will continue to seek work in the United States.  
(D) Though the author does mention that Mexico must invest in infrastructure, no mention is made of the types of infrastructure this investment should benefit.
(E) Though the final paragraph reinforces that Mexican immigration to the United States and thus Mexican labor might one day dramatically decline, this answer choice goes too far by stating that this "will" definitely happen. Further, is too great a leap to assume that the purpose of the paragraph is to explicitly put American employers on notice. Nothing in the paragraph, or the passage, suggests this intention. 

QUESTION: 17

The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity inspired an unusual degree of human interest from a public generally unconcerned about amphibians, may have been driven to extinction by human activity nevertheless. In the United States, a public relations campaign featuring the toad raised money to purchase and protect the toad’s habitat in Costa Rica, establishing the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve in 1972. Although this action seemed to secure the toad’s future, it is now apparent that setting aside habitat was not enough to save this beautiful creature. The toad’s demise in the late 1980s was a harbinger of further species extinction in Costa Rica. Since that time, another twenty of the fifty species of frogs and toads known to once inhabit a 30 square kilometer area near Monteverde have disappeared.
The unexplained, relatively sudden disappearance of amphibians in Costa Rica is not a unique story. Populations of frogs, toads, and salamanders have declined or disappeared the world over. Scientists hypothesize that the more subtle effects of human activities on the world’s ecosystems, such as the build-up of pollutants, the decrease in atmospheric ozone, and changing weather patterns due to global warming, are beginning to take their toll. Perhaps amphibians - whose permeable skin makes them sensitive to environmental changes - are the “canary in the coal mine,” giving us early notification of the deterioration of our environment. If amphibians are the biological harbingers of environmental problems, humans would be wise to heed their warning.
Q. 
According to the passage, all of the following are true EXCEPT:

Solution:

"Except" questions require us to test the five answer choices to determine the "odd one out." It is beneficial to use the True / False technique: label each answer choice with a T or an F and look for the odd one out (which, in this case, we should expect to be an F).  
(A) True. The third sentence of the second paragraph characterizes changing weather patterns due to global warming as a subtle effect of human activities
(B) True. The first two sentences of the second paragraph classify both toads and frogs as amphibians. Later in the second paragraph, the passage explains that amphibians have permeable skin.
(C) True. The third sentence of the second paragraph states explicitly that scientists “hypothesize” that human activity is responsible for the global decline of amphibious populations. Since a hypothesis is an educated guess rather than a fact, it is true that human activity may not be responsible for the decline.
(D) True. The second sentence of the first paragraph states that money was raised in the United States to establish the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve
(E) CORRECT. False. The passage offers no information about the number of salamander species in Costa Rica that have disappeared since the late 1980s. We cannot assume that this omission indicates a lesser number than either toad or frog species. 

QUESTION: 18

The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity inspired an unusual degree of human interest from a public generally unconcerned about amphibians, may have been driven to extinction by human activity nevertheless. In the United States, a public relations campaign featuring the toad raised money to purchase and protect the toad’s habitat in Costa Rica, establishing the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve in 1972. Although this action seemed to secure the toad’s future, it is now apparent that setting aside habitat was not enough to save this beautiful creature. The toad’s demise in the late 1980s was a harbinger of further species extinction in Costa Rica. Since that time, another twenty of the fifty species of frogs and toads known to once inhabit a 30 square kilometer area near Monteverde have disappeared.
The unexplained, relatively sudden disappearance of amphibians in Costa Rica is not a unique story. Populations of frogs, toads, and salamanders have declined or disappeared the world over. Scientists hypothesize that the more subtle effects of human activities on the world’s ecosystems, such as the build-up of pollutants, the decrease in atmospheric ozone, and changing weather patterns due to global warming, are beginning to take their toll. Perhaps amphibians - whose permeable skin makes them sensitive to environmental changes - are the “canary in the coal mine,” giving us early notification of the deterioration of our environment. If amphibians are the biological harbingers of environmental problems, humans would be wise to heed their warning.
Q. 
It can be inferred from the passage that

Solution:

The correct answer to an inference question on the GMAT must be supported by evidence from the text without need for external information.
(A) The passage states that twenty of the fifty species of frogs and toads known to once inhabit a 30-square-kilometer area near Monteverde have disappeared. Nothing is implied about the areas of Costa Rica farther from Monteverde.
(B) CORRECT. The passage suggests that amphibians are able to offer humans early notification of the deterioration of the environment because of the amphibians’ permeable skin. Thus, permeable skin must be a characteristic that humans do not possess.  
(C) No causal relationship between the build-up of pollutants in the atmosphere and a decrease in atmospheric ozone is suggested in the passage.
(D) The author states that humans would be wise to heed the warning offered by the decline of amphibious populations, but nothing suggests that humans normally do not take signals of environmental deterioration seriously.
(E) The passage does not compare Costa Rica’s environmental problems to those of other countries. 

QUESTION: 19

The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity inspired an unusual degree of human interest from a public generally unconcerned about amphibians, may have been driven to extinction by human activity nevertheless. In the United States, a public relations campaign featuring the toad raised money to purchase and protect the toad’s habitat in Costa Rica, establishing the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve in 1972. Although this action seemed to secure the toad’s future, it is now apparent that setting aside habitat was not enough to save this beautiful creature. The toad’s demise in the late 1980s was a harbinger of further species extinction in Costa Rica. Since that time, another twenty of the fifty species of frogs and toads known to once inhabit a 30 square kilometer area near Monteverde have disappeared.
The unexplained, relatively sudden disappearance of amphibians in Costa Rica is not a unique story. Populations of frogs, toads, and salamanders have declined or disappeared the world over. Scientists hypothesize that the more subtle effects of human activities on the world’s ecosystems, such as the build-up of pollutants, the decrease in atmospheric ozone, and changing weather patterns due to global warming, are beginning to take their toll. Perhaps amphibians - whose permeable skin makes them sensitive to environmental changes - are the “canary in the coal mine,” giving us early notification of the deterioration of our environment. If amphibians are the biological harbingers of environmental problems, humans would be wise to heed their warning.
Q. 
The author uses the adjective “subtle” in the second paragraph most probably to emphasize that

Solution:

In the second paragraph, the author mentions “the more subtle effects of human activity on the world's ecosystems,” and then lists three of these effects: the build-up of pollutants, the decrease in atmospheric ozone, and changing weather patterns due to global warming, all of which, scientists hypothesize, “are beginning to take their toll.” The key to answering this question correctly is to recognize, in context, what these effects have in common.
(A) Nowhere does the passage suggest or imply that these changes are not easily recognized by sophisticated testing equipment.  
(B) CORRECT. All of these effects happen on a global scale, so their immediate consequences on specific ecosystems are difficult to recognize. Furthermore, the passage states these effects are “beginning to take their toll,” indicating that the effects happen over time.
(C) Scientists hypothesize that these effects do affect amphibians, but nothing in the passage indicates that only small animal species such as amphibians are affected. In fact, the final sentence of the passage indicates that humans too might be affected by these environmental changes.
(D) The passage states that scientists hypothesize about the consequences of these subtle effects; this indicates that scientists do in fact discuss these effects
(E) The passage indicates that the consequences of these effects are global, causing disruptions in amphibious populations “the world over.” 

QUESTION: 20

The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity inspired an unusual degree of human interest from a public generally unconcerned about amphibians, may have been driven to extinction by human activity nevertheless. In the United States, a public relations campaign featuring the toad raised money to purchase and protect the toad’s habitat in Costa Rica, establishing the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve in 1972. Although this action seemed to secure the toad’s future, it is now apparent that setting aside habitat was not enough to save this beautiful creature. The toad’s demise in the late 1980s was a harbinger of further species extinction in Costa Rica. Since that time, another twenty of the fifty species of frogs and toads known to once inhabit a 30 square kilometer area near Monteverde have disappeared.
The unexplained, relatively sudden disappearance of amphibians in Costa Rica is not a unique story. Populations of frogs, toads, and salamanders have declined or disappeared the world over. Scientists hypothesize that the more subtle effects of human activities on the world’s ecosystems, such as the build-up of pollutants, the decrease in atmospheric ozone, and changing weather patterns due to global warming, are beginning to take their toll. Perhaps amphibians - whose permeable skin makes them sensitive to environmental changes - are the “canary in the coal mine,” giving us early notification of the deterioration of our environment. If amphibians are the biological harbingers of environmental problems, humans would be wise to heed their warning.
Q. 
The passage implies that

Solution:

This question is really just a disguised inference question. The correct answer to an inference question must be directly supported by evidence from the text. 
(A) CORRECT. The first sentence of the passage states that the beauty of Costa Rica’s golden toad was one factor that generated interest from a public normally unconcerned with amphibians. Thus, many amphibians must not be considered beautiful.
(B) The passage indicates that habitat preservation in isolation - no matter the size of the habitat - was not enough to save the golden toad. Instead, scientists theorize that broader ecological issues are harming the world’s amphibious populations
(C) The second paragraph tells us that amphibian populations have been declining around the world. 
(D) This is a misinterpretation of the analogy used in the second paragraph. The author is implying that amphibians may provide humans an early warning for detrimental changes to the environment, just as canaries provide humans an indication of detrimental conditions in coal mines.
(E) The final sentence of the passage indicates that humans would be wise to recognize the potential environmental deterioration signified by declining amphibious population, but it is too extreme to infer that no humans consider this decline a threat to humans. In fact, the author of the passage seems to consider it a threat!

QUESTION: 21

The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity inspired an unusual degree of human interest from a public generally unconcerned about amphibians, may have been driven to extinction by human activity nevertheless. In the United States, a public relations campaign featuring the toad raised money to purchase and protect the toad’s habitat in Costa Rica, establishing the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve in 1972. Although this action seemed to secure the toad’s future, it is now apparent that setting aside habitat was not enough to save this beautiful creature. The toad’s demise in the late 1980s was a harbinger of further species extinction in Costa Rica. Since that time, another twenty of the fifty species of frogs and toads known to once inhabit a 30 square kilometer area near Monteverde have disappeared.
The unexplained, relatively sudden disappearance of amphibians in Costa Rica is not a unique story. Populations of frogs, toads, and salamanders have declined or disappeared the world over. Scientists hypothesize that the more subtle effects of human activities on the world’s ecosystems, such as the build-up of pollutants, the decrease in atmospheric ozone, and changing weather patterns due to global warming, are beginning to take their toll. Perhaps amphibians - whose permeable skin makes them sensitive to environmental changes - are the “canary in the coal mine,” giving us early notification of the deterioration of our environment. If amphibians are the biological harbingers of environmental problems, humans would be wise to heed their warning.
Q. 
The primary purpose of the passage is to

Solution:

The first paragraph of the passage discusses a specific case in which a particular amphibian mysteriously disappeared from its habitat and suggests that humans may have been in some way responsible for its demise. The second paragraph explains that declining amphibious populations are actually a global trend and hypothesizes that a variety of human activities are harming these environmentally sensitive animals.
(A) The example of the golden toad is too narrow and specific to be the primary purpose of the passage. Instead, the golden toad is used as an example of a much larger trend.
(B) Though this answer choice is on the right track, it is too extreme to say that human activity is “undoubtedly” to blame for the global decline of amphibian populations. Instead the passage indicates that scientists “hypothesize” that human activity is responsible.
(C) An attempt to convince humans to minimize the output of pollutants is never mentioned in the passage.
(D) CORRECT. The passage discusses the mysterious disappearance of amphibious populations worldwide and hypothesizes that subtle effects on ecosystems resulting from human activity may be responsible for these disappearances.
(E) The final sentence of the passage does urge humans to pay attention to declining amphibian populations, but this is not the primary purpose of the passage. 

QUESTION: 22

For millennia, the Nile River flooded nearly every year as a natural consequence of heavy summer rains on the Ethiopian Plateau; in the last century, as the population in the region exploded, the cycle of flooding interspersed with periodic drought caused widespread suffering for the local population.  In the mid-1950s, the Egyptian government concluded that a significant dam was necessary to enable the country’s economic development to be on a par with that of Western nations.  The Aswan Dam would prevent the annual flooding, generate hydroelectric power and supply a steady source of water for residents and agricultural activities, though it would also have other, less positive effects.
By the 1970s, most Egyptian villages had electric power, and the dam provided approximately half of Egypt’s entire output of electricity.  The benefits were counteracted, however, by consequences which were sometimes slow to appear but ruinous in their long-term effects.  Dams prevent silt from flowing through to downstream lands.
The silt is essential for renewing the minerals and nutrients that make the land fertile; before the dam, the Nile floodplain was famously productive.  Farmers have had to substitute artificial fertilizers, reducing profits and causing pervasive chemical pollution with deleterious effects for the human, animal and plant populations living near or in the river.  It is difficult to draw definite conclusions about a project with such substantial and varied results, but it would be untenable to assert that the Egyptian government should never have built the Aswan Dam.
Q.
Based upon the content of the passage, the author would most likely agree with which of the following propositions?

Solution:

The first paragraph of the passage introduces the reasons that the Egyptian government undertook to build the Aswan Dam and also lists the main benefits of the completed dam. The second paragraph begins with an example of a positive result, but then offers a significant and unexpected negative consequence.  It ends by stating that "it is difficult to draw... conclusions" when there are strong positive and negative effects, "but it would be untenable" to say that the dam shouldn't have been built.  The first half of this last sentence indicates the author's acknowledgment that this is a complex topic without any one right opinion or answer.  The second half, though, states that the author disagrees with those who believe the dam should not have been built. 
(A) The answer is too extreme; the author discusses only one example in the passage and does not make any sweeping conclusions.  He does not imply that anything that achieves its goals should be carried out.
(B) Although this may be a reasonable stance in the real world, it is out of scope.  The author does not discuss what planners should or should not expect anywhere in the passage. 
(C) CORRECT.  The passage essentially states that, despite mixed consequences, we cannot defend the position that the dam should not have been built, as the last sentence indicates that "it would be untenable to assert that the Egyptian government should never have built the Aswan Dam."  This mirrors the idea that "unpredictable" or mixed results do not necessarily lead to "condemning the entire endeavor."
(D) Although this may be a reasonable stance in the real world, it is out of scope.  Nowhere in the passage does the author discuss what actions should be taken before starting sizable projects.
(E) Although this may be a reasonable stance in the real world, it is out of scope.  The author does not discuss what criteria to use in order to decide whether to denounce a project.
In fact, the author states that it is "difficult to draw definite conclusions" even though the positive and negative outcomes are known in this circumstance. 

QUESTION: 23

For millennia, the Nile River flooded nearly every year as a natural consequence of heavy summer rains on the Ethiopian Plateau; in the last century, as the population in the region exploded, the cycle of flooding interspersed with periodic drought caused widespread suffering for the local population.  In the mid-1950s, the Egyptian government concluded that a significant dam was necessary to enable the country’s economic development to be on a par with that of Western nations.  The Aswan Dam would prevent the annual flooding, generate hydroelectric power and supply a steady source of water for residents and agricultural activities, though it would also have other, less positive effects.
By the 1970s, most Egyptian villages had electric power, and the dam provided approximately half of Egypt’s entire output of electricity.  The benefits were counteracted, however, by consequences which were sometimes slow to appear but ruinous in their long-term effects.  Dams prevent silt from flowing through to downstream lands.
The silt is essential for renewing the minerals and nutrients that make the land fertile; before the dam, the Nile floodplain was famously productive.  Farmers have had to substitute artificial fertilizers, reducing profits and causing pervasive chemical pollution with deleterious effects for the human, animal and plant populations living near or in the river.  It is difficult to draw definite conclusions about a project with such substantial and varied results, but it would be untenable to assert that the Egyptian government should never have built the Aswan Dam.
Q.
The author’s attitude toward the Aswan Dam Project is best reflected by which of the following phrases?

Solution:

The passage is fairly balanced but turns positive at the end.  The author first states the intended positive consequences and acknowledges the unintended negative effects of the dam before stating, in the last sentence, that the dam was ultimately successful.  The author concludes this last sentence by giving the opinion (very mildly stated) that the dam should have been built.
(A) While the author does show mild support for the project, there is no sign of inconsistency in the author's support.  The author does not switch viewpoints regarding the merits of the Aswan Dam, even while weighing the pros and cons.
(B) While most of the passage maintains a fairly neutral tone, the final sentence states the author's opinion that the dam should have been built.  This undermines a position of "strict" neutrality.
(C) While the author does ultimately show support for the project, it is very mild.  "Keen enthusiasm" is much too optimistic a phrase to describe this passage.
(D) CORRECT.  The author examines both sides of the issue before asserting that the dam should have been built; this reflects a mild endorsement.
(E) Though the author mentions some negative effects of the dam, he ultimately concludes it should have been built; this cannot be categorized as "opposition" to the project. 

QUESTION: 24

For millennia, the Nile River flooded nearly every year as a natural consequence of heavy summer rains on the Ethiopian Plateau; in the last century, as the population in the region exploded, the cycle of flooding interspersed with periodic drought caused widespread suffering for the local population.  In the mid-1950s, the Egyptian government concluded that a significant dam was necessary to enable the country’s economic development to be on a par with that of Western nations.  The Aswan Dam would prevent the annual flooding, generate hydroelectric power and supply a steady source of water for residents and agricultural activities, though it would also have other, less positive effects.
By the 1970s, most Egyptian villages had electric power, and the dam provided approximately half of Egypt’s entire output of electricity.  The benefits were counteracted, however, by consequences which were sometimes slow to appear but ruinous in their long-term effects.  Dams prevent silt from flowing through to downstream lands.
The silt is essential for renewing the minerals and nutrients that make the land fertile; before the dam, the Nile floodplain was famously productive.  Farmers have had to substitute artificial fertilizers, reducing profits and causing pervasive chemical pollution with deleterious effects for the human, animal and plant populations living near or in the river.  It is difficult to draw definite conclusions about a project with such substantial and varied results, but it would be untenable to assert that the Egyptian government should never have built the Aswan Dam.
Q.
TCrops cannot grow without silt.he passage implies which of the following about the effects of the Aswan Dam?

Solution:

Inference questions require us to draw a conclusion based only upon the information presented in the passage.  
(A) The passage states that "before the dam” was built, blocking the flow of silt, “the Nile floodplain was famously productive." However, this choice goes too far by stating that crops “cannot” grow without silt. In fact, the passage indicates that farmers still grow crops on the land, despite the lack of silt in the soil.
(B) While it is reasonable to suppose that some farmers feel this way, the passage does not provide any information about the farmers' approval or disapproval of the dam.
(C) CORRECT.  In the second paragraph, the passage states "before the dam, the Nile floodplain was famously productive" and goes on to say that farmers now have to use artificial fertilizers.  This implies that the land is not as fertile as it was before the dam was built.  
(D) This idea was presented in paragraph one as a reason for the government to build the dam, but the rest of the passage does not address whether the government succeeded in this goal.
(E) This choice contradicts the last sentence of the passage, in which the author disagrees with those who think the dam should not have been built.

QUESTION: 25

For millennia, the Nile River flooded nearly every year as a natural consequence of heavy summer rains on the Ethiopian Plateau; in the last century, as the population in the region exploded, the cycle of flooding interspersed with periodic drought caused widespread suffering for the local population.  In the mid-1950s, the Egyptian government concluded that a significant dam was necessary to enable the country’s economic development to be on a par with that of Western nations.  The Aswan Dam would prevent the annual flooding, generate hydroelectric power and supply a steady source of water for residents and agricultural activities, though it would also have other, less positive effects.
By the 1970s, most Egyptian villages had electric power, and the dam provided approximately half of Egypt’s entire output of electricity.  The benefits were counteracted, however, by consequences which were sometimes slow to appear but ruinous in their long-term effects.  Dams prevent silt from flowing through to downstream lands.
The silt is essential for renewing the minerals and nutrients that make the land fertile; before the dam, the Nile floodplain was famously productive.  Farmers have had to substitute artificial fertilizers, reducing profits and causing pervasive chemical pollution with deleterious effects for the human, animal and plant populations living near or in the river.  It is difficult to draw definite conclusions about a project with such substantial and varied results, but it would be untenable to assert that the Egyptian government should never have built the Aswan Dam.
Q.
What is the significance of the author’s statement that the dam generated half of Egypt’s output of electricity by the 1970s?

Solution:

The question asks for the significance of the author’s statement about the quantity of electricity produced by the dam, not just for the significance of the fact that the dam generated electricity at all. The correct answer will have something to do with the author's desire to highlight the magnitude of this particular benefit of the dam.
(A) The passage does not comment on Egypt's other electricity needs (and, in fact, the passage tells us that the dam provided only half of the country's output, so Egypt did have other sources of electricity).
(B) CORRECT. The author quantified the output in order to demonstrate the magnitude of this particular benefit.
(C) Although the author concludes the passage by mildly indicating that the positive effects outweighed the negative, the only positive effect he mentions there is the lack of flooding. Moreover, he does not argue that any one effect of the dam is more “important” than any other effect.
(D) The passage did not provide or imply any expectations for the magnitude of the electricity output. 
(E) The sentence in question does not mention anything about negative effects, nor does it contrast the positive and negative effects. Although the second paragraph as a whole might be considered a contrast of the positive and negative effects of the dam, the author would not need to quantify the electricity output in order to make such a contrast. 

QUESTION: 26

For millennia, the Nile River flooded nearly every year as a natural consequence of heavy summer rains on the Ethiopian Plateau; in the last century, as the population in the region exploded, the cycle of flooding interspersed with periodic drought caused widespread suffering for the local population.  In the mid-1950s, the Egyptian government concluded that a significant dam was necessary to enable the country’s economic development to be on a par with that of Western nations.  The Aswan Dam would prevent the annual flooding, generate hydroelectric power and supply a steady source of water for residents and agricultural activities, though it would also have other, less positive effects.
By the 1970s, most Egyptian villages had electric power, and the dam provided approximately half of Egypt’s entire output of electricity.  The benefits were counteracted, however, by consequences which were sometimes slow to appear but ruinous in their long-term effects.  Dams prevent silt from flowing through to downstream lands.
The silt is essential for renewing the minerals and nutrients that make the land fertile; before the dam, the Nile floodplain was famously productive.  Farmers have had to substitute artificial fertilizers, reducing profits and causing pervasive chemical pollution with deleterious effects for the human, animal and plant populations living near or in the river.  It is difficult to draw definite conclusions about a project with such substantial and varied results, but it would be untenable to assert that the Egyptian government should never have built the Aswan Dam.
Q.
What is the primary purpose of the passage?

Solution:

In the first paragraph, the passage introduces a problem (flooding) and a solution (the Aswan Dam).  In the second, the passage notes that the dam had both the intended positive effects and some unexpected negative consequences.  The author concludes by noting that, despite the negative effects, the dam did accomplish its primary intended goal; the author also explicitly rejects the idea that the dam should not have been built.
(A) CORRECT.  The passage discusses the "varied effects" (positive and negative consequences) that resulted from a plan that generally succeeded.
(B) The conclusion of the passage supports the idea that the author thinks the advantages outweighed the disadvantages, not vice versa.  In addition, the adverb "usually" raises a red flag; the author presents only one example and makes no attempt to draw a universal conclusion.
(C) This choice contradicts the last sentence of the passage ("it would be untenable..."); the author does not agree with those who think the dam should not have been built. 
(D) The passage discussed a problem (flooding), a solution (the Aswan Dam), and some positive and negative effects of the project. The passage did not focus on the implementation of the project, i.e., the construction of the dam.
(E) The main idea encompasses both positive and negative effects, not just the negative ones.  In addition, the author makes no comment or claim about poor planning. 

QUESTION: 27

For millennia, the Nile River flooded nearly every year as a natural consequence of heavy summer rains on the Ethiopian Plateau; in the last century, as the population in the region exploded, the cycle of flooding interspersed with periodic drought caused widespread suffering for the local population.  In the mid-1950s, the Egyptian government concluded that a significant dam was necessary to enable the country’s economic development to be on a par with that of Western nations.  The Aswan Dam would prevent the annual flooding, generate hydroelectric power and supply a steady source of water for residents and agricultural activities, though it would also have other, less positive effects.
By the 1970s, most Egyptian villages had electric power, and the dam provided approximately half of Egypt’s entire output of electricity.  The benefits were counteracted, however, by consequences which were sometimes slow to appear but ruinous in their long-term effects.  Dams prevent silt from flowing through to downstream lands.
The silt is essential for renewing the minerals and nutrients that make the land fertile; before the dam, the Nile floodplain was famously productive.  Farmers have had to substitute artificial fertilizers, reducing profits and causing pervasive chemical pollution with deleterious effects for the human, animal and plant populations living near or in the river.  It is difficult to draw definite conclusions about a project with such substantial and varied results, but it would be untenable to assert that the Egyptian government should never have built the Aswan Dam.
Q.
All of the following are mentioned as benefits of the Aswan Dam EXCEPT

Solution:

Specific detail EXCEPT questions require us to search the passage for four details which are mentioned in the passage; the fifth is not mentioned and is, therefore, the right answer.  One helpful technique is to label each answer choice with a T (for "true") if you find it in the passage and an F (for "false") if you cannot.
(A) True.  The last sentence of the first paragraph says the dam will "supply a steady source of water for residents and agricultural activities."
(B) True.  The first sentence of the second paragraph says "the dam provided approximately half of Egypt's entire electricity output.
(C) True.  The second sentence of the first paragraph says that the dam would "enable the country's economic development to be on a par with that of Western nations," and it is clear from the passage that the actual completion of the dam served to move Egypt toward this goal
(D) True.  The last sentence of the first paragraph says the dam "would prevent the annual flooding" and the last sentence of the second paragraph confirms that the dam succeeded in this goal.
(E) CORRECT.  False.  In fact, the opposite is true; the dam led farmers to use fertilizers which caused pollution and harmed the animal and plant life in the area. 

QUESTION: 28

In the past decade, rapid technological progress and a greater demand for high-quality digital imaging have led to dramatic advances in video display technology. The dominant technology currently used in most consumer product displays is the active matrix liquid crystal diode display (LCD).
LCDs apply thin-film transistors (TFTs) of amorphous or polycrystalline silicon sandwiched between two glass plates. The TFTs supply voltage to liquid-crystal-filled cells, or pixels, between the sheets of glass. When hit with an electric charge, the liquid crystals untwist to an exact degree to filter white light generated by a lamp. This filtered light shines directly on the viewing screen or, in the case of projection televisions, is projected through a small chip that acts as a lens. LCDs that are capable of producing color images, such as in televisions and computers, reproduce colors through a process of subtraction, blocking out particular color wavelengths from the spectrum of white light until only the desired color remains. It is the variation of the intensity of light permitted to pass through the matrix of liquid crystals that enables LCD displays to present images full of gradations of different colors.
The nature and functioning of LCD displays present many advantages relative to other display technologies. The amount of power required to untwist the crystals to display images, even dark ones, is much lower than that required for analogous processes using other technologies, such as plasma. The dense array of crystals displays images from computer or other video graphics sources extremely well, with full color detail, no flicker, and no screen burnin. Moreover, the number of pixels per square inch on an LCD display is typically higher than that for other display technologies, so LCD monitors are particularly good at displaying large amounts of data with exceptional clarity and precision. As a result, LCD TVs are considered the best display platform for video games, high definition television, movie special effects, and other graphicsintensive uses.
Q.
The process through which an LCD monitor displays different colors is most closely analogous to

Solution:

This question asks which is most analogous to the process through which an LCD display presents different colors. The fifth and sixth sentences of the second paragraph read, “LCDs that are capable of producing color images, such as in televisions and computers, reproduce colors through a process of subtraction, blocking out particular color wavelengths from the spectrum of white light until only the desired color remains. It is the variation of the intensity of light permitted to pass through the matrix of liquid crystals that enables LCD displays to present images full of gradations of different colors.” This process of subtraction consists of taking a large number of elements, in this case wavelengths of light, and carefully blocking out certain of them while allowing only certain others to get through. We should look for an answer that mirrors this precise process of subtraction.
(A) This answer choice describes a process that does not result in only certain elements passing through. Each grain of sand is equally capable of falling through the hourglass; in fact, all of it will eventually pass through, although it will happen at a slower rate than it might because it the opening is partially blocked.
(B) A series of filters that separate out all of the elements of a mixture is not analogous to filtering out only certain elements and letting others "pass through" to together create the end result.
(C) A soundproofed recording studio blcoks all sound, not only certain elements of it. Hence, this is very different from the process described regarding an LCD display. 
(D) CORRECT. A piece of construction paper with outlines of characters cut out would allow certain spaces of light to pass while blocking others, resulting in a refined mixture that has a certain meaning (e.g. the word, “Apple”). This is closely analogous to the process of subtraction through which LCD displays different colors. (E) An air vent that expels warm air does not carefully select remaining elements, and all of the elements that pass through are indistinguishable from each other. 

QUESTION: 29

In the past decade, rapid technological progress and a greater demand for high-quality digital imaging have led to dramatic advances in video display technology. The dominant technology currently used in most consumer product displays is the active matrix liquid crystal diode display (LCD).
LCDs apply thin-film transistors (TFTs) of amorphous or polycrystalline silicon sandwiched between two glass plates. The TFTs supply voltage to liquid-crystal-filled cells, or pixels, between the sheets of glass. When hit with an electric charge, the liquid crystals untwist to an exact degree to filter white light generated by a lamp. This filtered light shines directly on the viewing screen or, in the case of projection televisions, is projected through a small chip that acts as a lens. LCDs that are capable of producing color images, such as in televisions and computers, reproduce colors through a process of subtraction, blocking out particular color wavelengths from the spectrum of white light until only the desired color remains. It is the variation of the intensity of light permitted to pass through the matrix of liquid crystals that enables LCD displays to present images full of gradations of different colors.
The nature and functioning of LCD displays present many advantages relative to other display technologies. The amount of power required to untwist the crystals to display images, even dark ones, is much lower than that required for analogous processes using other technologies, such as plasma. The dense array of crystals displays images from computer or other video graphics sources extremely well, with full color detail, no flicker, and no screen burnin. Moreover, the number of pixels per square inch on an LCD display is typically higher than that for other display technologies, so LCD monitors are particularly good at displaying large amounts of data with exceptional clarity and precision. As a result, LCD TVs are considered the best display platform for video games, high definition television, movie special effects, and other graphicsintensive uses.
Q.
It can be inferred from the passage that an LCD monitor would utilize the most electrical power when displaying

Solution:

The third and fourth sentences of the second paragraph of the passage indicate that, in LCD displays, electricity is used to untwist liquid crystals in order to filter white light from a lamp. Also the second sentence of the third paragraph reads that “the amount of power required to untwist the crystals to display images, even dark ones, is much lower than that required for analogous processes . . . “ As a result, it can be inferred that LCDs require more electricity to produce dark images as opposed to lighter images. The correct answer choice will involve a set of images that have a high degree of darkness, and thus a high level of electricity use.
(A) There is no indication in the passage that LCDs require more electricity to display computer-generated special effects than any other images, or that these special effects are dark images. 
(B) There is no indication in the passage that LCDs require more electricity to display video game graphics than any other images, or that these graphics are dark images.
C) There is no indication in the passage that LCDs require more electricity to display video game graphics than any other images; further, a "bright" image cannot also be dark. 
(D) There is no indication in the passage that LCDs require more electricity to display photorealistic images than any other images, or that these images are dark images.
(E) CORRECT. A filmed scene set inside a cave with minimal lighting would certainly be classified as a dark image, which we can infer will use more electricity than a lighter image. 

QUESTION: 30

In the past decade, rapid technological progress and a greater demand for high-quality digital imaging have led to dramatic advances in video display technology. The dominant technology currently used in most consumer product displays is the active matrix liquid crystal diode display (LCD).
LCDs apply thin-film transistors (TFTs) of amorphous or polycrystalline silicon sandwiched between two glass plates. The TFTs supply voltage to liquid-crystal-filled cells, or pixels, between the sheets of glass. When hit with an electric charge, the liquid crystals untwist to an exact degree to filter white light generated by a lamp. This filtered light shines directly on the viewing screen or, in the case of projection televisions, is projected through a small chip that acts as a lens. LCDs that are capable of producing color images, such as in televisions and computers, reproduce colors through a process of subtraction, blocking out particular color wavelengths from the spectrum of white light until only the desired color remains. It is the variation of the intensity of light permitted to pass through the matrix of liquid crystals that enables LCD displays to present images full of gradations of different colors.
The nature and functioning of LCD displays present many advantages relative to other display technologies. The amount of power required to untwist the crystals to display images, even dark ones, is much lower than that required for analogous processes using other technologies, such as plasma. The dense array of crystals displays images from computer or other video graphics sources extremely well, with full color detail, no flicker, and no screen burnin. Moreover, the number of pixels per square inch on an LCD display is typically higher than that for other display technologies, so LCD monitors are particularly good at displaying large amounts of data with exceptional clarity and precision. As a result, LCD TVs are considered the best display platform for video games, high definition television, movie special effects, and other graphicsintensive uses.
Q.
The passage indicates that each of the following may be considered an advantage of LCD displays relative to other display technologies EXCEPT

Solution:

This is a specific question that asks us which answer choice is not indicated in the passage as an advantage of LCD displays relative to other display technologies. In order to answer this question, one must examine each answer choice and determine if it is mentioned in the passage. (A) The second sentence of the third paragraph reads, “The amount of power required to untwist the crystals to display images, even dark ones, is much lower than that required for analogous processes using other technologies, such as plasma.” The passage indicates that LCD displays consume less power than other display technologies. 
B) The fourth sentence of the third paragraph reads, “Moreover, the number of pixels per square inch on an LCD display is typically higher than that for other display technologies, so LCD monitors are particularly good at displaying large amounts of data with exceptional clarity and precision.” The passage indicates that LCD displays generally have more pixels per square inch.
(C) The third sentence of the third paragraph reads, “The dense array of crystals displays images from computer or other video graphics sources extremely well, with full color detail, no flicker, and no screen burn-in.” The passage indicates that LCD displays can present video graphics images with no flicker or interruption.
(D) The second sentence of the first paragraph reads, “The dominant technology currently used in most consumer product displays is the active matrix liquid crystal diode display (LCD).” The passage indicates that the technology is a widely adopted standard, which would logically have certain advantages (e.g. the technology has been widely tested and is known to work).
(E) CORRECT.  While the passage indicates that LCDs are the result of rapid technological progress in the past decade and the dominant technology currently used, the passage does not indicate that LCDs are the most advanced technology. There may be a more cutting edge technology (e.g. LEDs, or Light Emitting Diodes) available for certain applications. Also, the passage does not cite any specific functional advantage to being the latest and most advanced. 

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