Test: Reading Comprehension- 2


30 Questions MCQ Test Verbal for GMAT | Test: Reading Comprehension- 2


Description
This mock test of Test: Reading Comprehension- 2 for GMAT helps you for every GMAT entrance exam. This contains 30 Multiple Choice Questions for GMAT Test: Reading Comprehension- 2 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this Test: Reading Comprehension- 2 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. GMAT students definitely take this Test: Reading Comprehension- 2 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other Test: Reading Comprehension- 2 extra questions, long questions & short questions for GMAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

In the past decade, rapid technological progress and a greater demand for high-quality digital imaging have led to dramatic advances in video display technology. The dominant technology currently used in most consumer product displays is the active matrix liquid crystal diode display (LCD).
LCDs apply thin-film transistors (TFTs) of amorphous or polycrystalline silicon sandwiched between two glass plates. The TFTs supply voltage to liquid-crystal-filled cells, or pixels, between the sheets of glass. When hit with an electric charge, the liquid crystals untwist to an exact degree to filter white light generated by a lamp. This filtered light shines directly on the viewing screen or, in the case of projection televisions, is projected through a small chip that acts as a lens. LCDs that are capable of producing color images, such as in televisions and computers, reproduce colors through a process of subtraction, blocking out particular color wavelengths from the spectrum of white light until only the desired color remains. It is the variation of the intensity of light permitted to pass through the matrix of liquid crystals that enables LCD displays to present images full of gradations of different colors.
The nature and functioning of LCD displays present many advantages relative to other display technologies. The amount of power required to untwist the crystals to display images, even dark ones, is much lower than that required for analogous processes using other technologies, such as plasma. The dense array of crystals displays images from computer or other video graphics sources extremely well, with full color detail, no flicker, and no screen burnin. Moreover, the number of pixels per square inch on an LCD display is typically higher than that for other display technologies, so LCD monitors are particularly good at displaying large amounts of data with exceptional clarity and precision. As a result, LCD TVs are considered the best display platform for video games, high definition television, movie special effects, and other graphicsintensive uses.
Q.
The tone of the passage could best be described as

Solution:

This is a general question that asks about the tone of the passage. In order to answer this question, it is useful to briefly examine and summarize the respective paragraphs.  
Paragraph 1: LCDs have become the dominant display technology in the past decade.
Paragraph 2: LCDs function by channeling electricity to untwist crystals to block light in order to form colors.
Paragraph 3: LCDs present advantages relative to other display technologies, particularly for certain uses.  
The correct answer will effectively identify the tone adopted in these paragraphs.
(A) It is too strong to categorize the author's tone as "advocacy," as the first two paragraphs are purely explanatory. The third paragraph, though listing advantages of LCD displays, does not advocate their use.
(B) Although the first paragraph does mention the time frame and context of the development of LCD displays, neither the second nor third paragraph could be classified as part of a historical discussion, and no contrast is drawn. Thus, it would be inaccurate to characterize the tone of the passage as that of a historical discussion.  
(C) CORRECT. The passage objectively explains the background, functioning, and advantages of LCD displays. 
(D) The passage does not indicate any questioning, skepticism, or exploration in its text, and is more technical than intellectual in tone.
(E) Although one could argue that the passage implicitly approves of the development of this new technology, the passage does not advocate for a particular point of view, and there is no evidence of any qualification in its explanation of the functioning and advantages of LCD displays. 

QUESTION: 2

A recent ball-catching experiment conducted in space by astronauts on board a space shuttle has led neuroscientists to conclude that the brain contains an internal model of gravity that is both powerful and persistent. At the same time, the experiment provided evidence that the brain can adapt to environments in which the force of downward acceleration is less pronounced than it is on earth.
The experiment’s outcomes suggested that an individual’s understanding of motion is hard-wired from an earthcentric perspective. In the experiment, the astronauts were asked to catch balls released from a spring-loaded cannon.
Analyzing data gathered from infrared tracking cameras and electrodes placed on the astronauts’ arms, McIntyre, the experiment’s principal designer, noticed that the astronauts’ anticipation of the ball’s motion was slightly off. Though they were able to catch the ball, the astronauts expected the ball to move faster than it did. He theorized that this over-anticipation is due to the fact that the brain expects the force of the earth’s gravity to act on the ball.
The experiment also demonstrates the brain’s ability to adjust to conditions that run counter to its pre-set wiring.
While the astronauts did not adapt to the conditions in space for some time, by day 15 of the experiment, the amplitude of the premature arm movements decreased and a new well-timed arm movement immediately preceded the catch. Upon returning to earth, the astronauts again mis-anticipated the ball’s motion, though this time the ball moved faster than anticipated. However, the astronauts were able to adjust back to the earth’s gravitational effect on the balls much more quickly than they had been able to adapt to the conditions in space.
Many scientists view the findings as a first step in research that could have serious practical benefits. The ability of astronauts to safely explore space and investigate other planets is dependent on understanding the differences between our physical reactions on earth and elsewhere.
On another level, understanding timing processes in the body might lead to the development of treatments for coordination problems experienced by individuals with certain types of brain damage.
Q.
It can be inferred from the passage that during the first two weeks of the experiment the astronauts, in attempting to catch the ball, tended to

Solution:

The passage states the following about the astronauts' arm movements: "While the astronauts did not adapt to the conditions in space for some time, by day 15 of the experiment, the amplitude of the premature arm movements decreased and a new well-timed arm movement immediately preceded the catch." The question asks for an inference about what was occurring BEFORE day 15, during the period when the astronauts were having trouble adjusting to the conditions in space. This inference should be provable from the passage.
(A) The passage does not discuss the height of the astronauts arm movements. While the passage mentions the amplitude, or abundance, of the premature arm movements, it never mentions the altitude, or height, of those movements.
(B) The astronauts arm movements tended to be premature, or too early, during the first two weeks of the experiment. This is the exact opposite of the inference in this answer choice – that the astronauts adjusted their arms at the latest possible time.
(C) Little can be inferred about the relative number of arm movements made by the astronauts in attempting to catch the ball. If anything, the fact that the astronauts tended to move their arms prematurely might suggest that they made a greater number of arm movements than they would have on earth.
(D) The passage mentions that by day 15 "a new well-timed arm movement immediately preceded the catch." One might infer that this new arm movement was absent during the previous two weeks. However, this does not mean that the astronauts' arms were stationary for a full two seconds immediately preceding the catch. No mention of specific time frames is ever made or hinted to in the passage.
(E) CORRECT. The astronauts moved their arms prematurely during the first two weeks of the experiment. This means that they adjusted their arms sooner than was necessary to catch the ball.

QUESTION: 3

A recent ball-catching experiment conducted in space by astronauts on board a space shuttle has led neuroscientists to conclude that the brain contains an internal model of gravity that is both powerful and persistent. At the same time, the experiment provided evidence that the brain can adapt to environments in which the force of downward acceleration is less pronounced than it is on earth.
The experiment’s outcomes suggested that an individual’s understanding of motion is hard-wired from an earthcentric perspective. In the experiment, the astronauts were asked to catch balls released from a spring-loaded cannon.
Analyzing data gathered from infrared tracking cameras and electrodes placed on the astronauts’ arms, McIntyre, the experiment’s principal designer, noticed that the astronauts’ anticipation of the ball’s motion was slightly off. Though they were able to catch the ball, the astronauts expected the ball to move faster than it did. He theorized that this over-anticipation is due to the fact that the brain expects the force of the earth’s gravity to act on the ball.
The experiment also demonstrates the brain’s ability to adjust to conditions that run counter to its pre-set wiring.
While the astronauts did not adapt to the conditions in space for some time, by day 15 of the experiment, the amplitude of the premature arm movements decreased and a new well-timed arm movement immediately preceded the catch. Upon returning to earth, the astronauts again mis-anticipated the ball’s motion, though this time the ball moved faster than anticipated. However, the astronauts were able to adjust back to the earth’s gravitational effect on the balls much more quickly than they had been able to adapt to the conditions in space.
Many scientists view the findings as a first step in research that could have serious practical benefits. The ability of astronauts to safely explore space and investigate other planets is dependent on understanding the differences between our physical reactions on earth and elsewhere.
On another level, understanding timing processes in the body might lead to the development of treatments for coordination problems experienced by individuals with certain types of brain damage.
Q.
Which of the foll owing, if tr ue, would s upport McIntyre’s theory that the brain has built-in knowledge of gravity?

Solution:

The question asks for some information that would support the theory that the brain has built-in knowledge of gravity. The correct answer choice must demonstrate that gravity is not a principle that individuals learn about exclusively through observation and experience, but instead that they are born with some instinctual understanding of downward acceleration. 
(A) An individual's hand-eye coordination generally requires some understanding of gravity. For example, one's ability to see a thrown ball and then catch it is, at least in some measure, dependent on the individual's understanding that gravity will be pulling the ball downward. However, the fact that this coordination tends to diminish as one gets older suggests nothing as to whether the brain has built-in knowledge of gravity. 
(B) CORRECT. The fact that infants placed above the ground fear falling without ever having experienced it before strongly suggests that their brains are hard-wired with some knowledge of gravity. If the infants did not understand the tendency of objects, including themselves, to accelerate down toward the earth, they would have no reason to become fearful when placed on a glass tabletop.
(C) The disorientation that astronauts experience after departing earth for space may in some way be impacted by the difference between gravitational conditions on earth and in space. However, this has no bearing on whether the brain has built-in knowledge of gravity or not. 
(D) The fact that most young children can learn to catch a ball suggests only that they can learn to anticipate the effect of gravitational forces on a ball. It suggests nothing about whether these children understand these forces a priori.
(E) The fact that this is counter-intuitive to most individuals, far from supporting the notion that the brain has built-in knowledge of gravity, actually suggests that people don't fully understand how gravity truly works

QUESTION: 4

A recent ball-catching experiment conducted in space by astronauts on board a space shuttle has led neuroscientists to conclude that the brain contains an internal model of gravity that is both powerful and persistent. At the same time, the experiment provided evidence that the brain can adapt to environments in which the force of downward acceleration is less pronounced than it is on earth.
The experiment’s outcomes suggested that an individual’s understanding of motion is hard-wired from an earthcentric perspective. In the experiment, the astronauts were asked to catch balls released from a spring-loaded cannon.
Analyzing data gathered from infrared tracking cameras and electrodes placed on the astronauts’ arms, McIntyre, the experiment’s principal designer, noticed that the astronauts’ anticipation of the ball’s motion was slightly off. Though they were able to catch the ball, the astronauts expected the ball to move faster than it did. He theorized that this over-anticipation is due to the fact that the brain expects the force of the earth’s gravity to act on the ball.
The experiment also demonstrates the brain’s ability to adjust to conditions that run counter to its pre-set wiring.
While the astronauts did not adapt to the conditions in space for some time, by day 15 of the experiment, the amplitude of the premature arm movements decreased and a new well-timed arm movement immediately preceded the catch. Upon returning to earth, the astronauts again mis-anticipated the ball’s motion, though this time the ball moved faster than anticipated. However, the astronauts were able to adjust back to the earth’s gravitational effect on the balls much more quickly than they had been able to adapt to the conditions in space.
Many scientists view the findings as a first step in research that could have serious practical benefits. The ability of astronauts to safely explore space and investigate other planets is dependent on understanding the differences between our physical reactions on earth and elsewhere.
On another level, understanding timing processes in the body might lead to the development of treatments for coordination problems experienced by individuals with certain types of brain damage.
Q.
The passage implies which of the following about gravity?

Solution:

The first paragraph of the passage states that the ball-catching space experiment suggests that “the brain can adapt to environments in which the force of downward acceleration is less pronounced than it is on earth.” Since the passage compares conditions in space to conditions on earth, the “environment” referred to here must be that in space. Thus, while gravity exists in space, it is less pronounced than on earth.
(A) The passage implies that gravity is “less pronounced” in space, not that it does not exist at all.
(B) According to the passage, the “astronauts’ anticipation of the ball’s motion was slightly off.” The fact that the anticipation was “slightly” off, as opposed to completely off, implies that, contrary to this answer choice, humans do experience some, albeit less, gravity in space than they do on earth.
(C) CORRECT. The opening paragraph uses the phrase “less pronounced” to describe the difference in gravitational conditions in space and on earth. Moreover, the passage states that astronauts had “premature arm movements” when attempting to catch balls in space, implying to researchers that the astronauts were faced with a weaker downward acceleration in space than they had anticipated based on their brains' earth-centric wiring. 
(D) No text in the passage implies that the force of gravity is the same on earth as in space. On the contrary, the entire experiment provides evidence that contradicts this assertion.
(E) The passage does not mention any weightless sensation experienced by humans in space. 

QUESTION: 5

A recent ball-catching experiment conducted in space by astronauts on board a space shuttle has led neuroscientists to conclude that the brain contains an internal model of gravity that is both powerful and persistent. At the same time, the experiment provided evidence that the brain can adapt to environments in which the force of downward acceleration is less pronounced than it is on earth.
The experiment’s outcomes suggested that an individual’s understanding of motion is hard-wired from an earthcentric perspective. In the experiment, the astronauts were asked to catch balls released from a spring-loaded cannon.
Analyzing data gathered from infrared tracking cameras and electrodes placed on the astronauts’ arms, McIntyre, the experiment’s principal designer, noticed that the astronauts’ anticipation of the ball’s motion was slightly off. Though they were able to catch the ball, the astronauts expected the ball to move faster than it did. He theorized that this over-anticipation is due to the fact that the brain expects the force of the earth’s gravity to act on the ball.
The experiment also demonstrates the brain’s ability to adjust to conditions that run counter to its pre-set wiring.
While the astronauts did not adapt to the conditions in space for some time, by day 15 of the experiment, the amplitude of the premature arm movements decreased and a new well-timed arm movement immediately preceded the catch. Upon returning to earth, the astronauts again mis-anticipated the ball’s motion, though this time the ball moved faster than anticipated. However, the astronauts were able to adjust back to the earth’s gravitational effect on the balls much more quickly than they had been able to adapt to the conditions in space.
Many scientists view the findings as a first step in research that could have serious practical benefits. The ability of astronauts to safely explore space and investigate other planets is dependent on understanding the differences between our physical reactions on earth and elsewhere.
On another level, understanding timing processes in the body might lead to the development of treatments for coordination problems experienced by individuals with certain types of brain damage.
Q.
The function of the final paragraph is to

Solution:

The last paragraph comments on the potential “practical benefits” of the research experiment described earlier in the passage. In so doing, it presents the broad implications of the ball-catching space experiment which is explained with careful detail in earlier paragraphs.  
(A) The last paragraph does not provide any alternate point of view to McIntyre’s analysis of the ball-catching experiment.
(B) Although the final paragraph builds on the main points of the previous paragraphs, it does not summarize them in any way. The earlier paragraphs provide a description and analysis of the ball-catching experiment. In contrast, the final paragraph comments on the practical implications of the experiment.
(C) There is no ambiguous issue raised in the second paragraph.(D) CORRECT. The earlier paragraphs of the passage have a narrow focus in that they are chiefly concerned with a specific description and interpretation of the ballcatching experiment. The final paragraph opens up this focus by commenting on the broader implications of the experiment, such as the practical benefits this new understanding might have on safe space travel and on potential treatment for certain coordination problems.  
(E) No specific researchers are mentioned in the final paragraph. Moreover, although the final paragraph comments on potential areas for further research, no challenge is explicitly presented to scientists. 

QUESTION: 6

A recent ball-catching experiment conducted in space by astronauts on board a space shuttle has led neuroscientists to conclude that the brain contains an internal model of gravity that is both powerful and persistent. At the same time, the experiment provided evidence that the brain can adapt to environments in which the force of downward acceleration is less pronounced than it is on earth.
The experiment’s outcomes suggested that an individual’s understanding of motion is hard-wired from an earthcentric perspective. In the experiment, the astronauts were asked to catch balls released from a spring-loaded cannon.
Analyzing data gathered from infrared tracking cameras and electrodes placed on the astronauts’ arms, McIntyre, the experiment’s principal designer, noticed that the astronauts’ anticipation of the ball’s motion was slightly off. Though they were able to catch the ball, the astronauts expected the ball to move faster than it did. He theorized that this over-anticipation is due to the fact that the brain expects the force of the earth’s gravity to act on the ball.
The experiment also demonstrates the brain’s ability to adjust to conditions that run counter to its pre-set wiring.
While the astronauts did not adapt to the conditions in space for some time, by day 15 of the experiment, the amplitude of the premature arm movements decreased and a new well-timed arm movement immediately preceded the catch. Upon returning to earth, the astronauts again mis-anticipated the ball’s motion, though this time the ball moved faster than anticipated. However, the astronauts were able to adjust back to the earth’s gravitational effect on the balls much more quickly than they had been able to adapt to the conditions in space.
Many scientists view the findings as a first step in research that could have serious practical benefits. The ability of astronauts to safely explore space and investigate other planets is dependent on understanding the differences between our physical reactions on earth and elsewhere.
On another level, understanding timing processes in the body might lead to the development of treatments for coordination problems experienced by individuals with certain types of brain damage.
Q.
The primary purpose of the passage is to:

Solution:

The first paragraph of the passage presents two conclusions drawn from the ballcatching experiment:
(1) "the brain contains an internal model of gravity that is both powerful and persistent and
(2) "the brain can adapt" to environments where gravity is less pronounced than it is on earth. The second paragraph describes the experiment in-depth and demonstrates how scientists arrived at the first conclusion. The third paragraph demonstrates how scientists came to the second conclusion. The fourth and final paragraph identifies some practical benefits that the experiment might have. The correct answer choice must relate to most of the four paragraphs and, since this is a long passage, it must be closely tied to the all-important first paragraph.
(A) CORRECT. This choice directly relates to the first paragraph, which presents the experiment's conclusions, and to the second and third paragraphs, which describe the experiment in-depth.
(B) The practical applications of the experiment are described only in the fourth paragraph of the passage. This does not represent the primary purpose of the passage.
(C) The passage does not mention any misunderstanding about how the brain functions. Instead, it presents new insight about the brain's internal workings.
(D) While gravity is mentioned in the passage, there is no description of how gravity works. Moreover, the passage is focused on responses to different gravitational forces, not on gravity itself.
(E) The passage describes only one experiment in space; as such, it never alludes to space experiments in general. Additionally, while the passage implies that the ballcatching experiment was beneficial, it never explicitly outlines the benefits of conducting experiments in space. 

QUESTION: 7

A recent ball-catching experiment conducted in space by astronauts on board a space shuttle has led neuroscientists to conclude that the brain contains an internal model of gravity that is both powerful and persistent. At the same time, the experiment provided evidence that the brain can adapt to environments in which the force of downward acceleration is less pronounced than it is on earth.
The experiment’s outcomes suggested that an individual’s understanding of motion is hard-wired from an earthcentric perspective. In the experiment, the astronauts were asked to catch balls released from a spring-loaded cannon.
Analyzing data gathered from infrared tracking cameras and electrodes placed on the astronauts’ arms, McIntyre, the experiment’s principal designer, noticed that the astronauts’ anticipation of the ball’s motion was slightly off. Though they were able to catch the ball, the astronauts expected the ball to move faster than it did. He theorized that this over-anticipation is due to the fact that the brain expects the force of the earth’s gravity to act on the ball.
The experiment also demonstrates the brain’s ability to adjust to conditions that run counter to its pre-set wiring.
While the astronauts did not adapt to the conditions in space for some time, by day 15 of the experiment, the amplitude of the premature arm movements decreased and a new well-timed arm movement immediately preceded the catch. Upon returning to earth, the astronauts again mis-anticipated the ball’s motion, though this time the ball moved faster than anticipated. However, the astronauts were able to adjust back to the earth’s gravitational effect on the balls much more quickly than they had been able to adapt to the conditions in space.
Many scientists view the findings as a first step in research that could have serious practical benefits. The ability of astronauts to safely explore space and investigate other planets is dependent on understanding the differences between our physical reactions on earth and elsewhere.
On another level, understanding timing processes in the body might lead to the development of treatments for coordination problems experienced by individuals with certain types of brain damage.
Q.
According to the passage, research suggests that the brain’s built-in understanding of gravity is

Solution:

The passage describes certain explicit features of the brain's built-in understanding of gravity. The correct answer choice must be directly provable using the specific language contained in the passage.
(A) The brain's built in-understanding of gravity is, according to the passage, "hardwired from an earth-centric perspective," not a space-centric one.
(B) CORRECT. One of the major outcomes of the experiment described in the passage is that "the brain can adapt to environments in which the force of downward acceleration is less pronounced than it is on earth."
(C) According to the passage, the neuroscientists concluded that "the brain contains an internal model of gravity that is both powerful and persistent." To describe the brain's understanding of gravity as "fleeting" directly contradicts the word "persistent."  
(D) According to the passage, the neuroscientists concluded that "the brain contains an internal model of gravity that is both powerful and persistent." To describe the brain's understanding of gravity as "weak" directly contradicts the word "powerful."
(E) The passage never describes the brain's built-in understanding of gravity as "evolving." While scientists' understanding of the brain's hard-wiring may evolve, there is nothing in the passage that suggests that the hard-wiring itself is evolving. 

QUESTION: 8

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease, such as tremors, are thought to be caused by low dopamine levels in the brain.
Current treatments of Parkinson’s disease are primarily reactionary, aiming to replenish dopamine levels after dopamine-producing neurons in the brain have died.
Without a more detailed understanding of the behavior of dopamine-producing neurons, it has been impossible to develop treatments that would prevent the destruction of these neurons in Parkinson’s patients.
Recent research provides insight into the inner workings of dopamine-producing neurons, and may lead to a new drug treatment that would proactively protect the neurons from decay. By examining the alpha-synuclein protein in yeast cells, scientists have determined that toxic levels of the protein have a detrimental effect on protein transfer within the cell. More specifically, high levels of alphasynuclein disrupt the flow of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, the site of protein production in the cell, to the Golgi apparatus, the component of the cell that modifies and sorts the proteins before sending them to their final destinations within the cell. When the smooth transfer of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is interrupted, the cell dies.
With this in mind, researchers conducted a genetic screen in yeast cells in order to identify any gene that works to reverse the toxic levels of alpha-synuclein in the cell.
Researchers discovered that such a gene does in fact exist, and have located the genetic counterpart in mammalian nerve cells, or neurons. This discovery has led to new hopes that drug therapy could potentially activate this gene, thereby suppressing the toxicity of alpha-synuclein in dopamine-producing neurons.
While drug therapy to suppress alpha-synuclein has been examined in yeast, fruitflies, roundworms, and cultures of rat neurons, researchers are hesitant to conclude that such therapies will prove successful on human patients.
Alpha-synuclein toxicity seems to be one cause for the death of dopamine-producing neurons in Parkinson’s patients, but other causes may exist. Most scientists involved with Parkinson’s research do agree, however, that such promising early results provide a basis for further testing.
Q.
It can be inferred from the passage that a yeast cell with toxic levels of alpha-synuclein will die because

Solution:

This is a specific question that can be answered by examining the information given in the second paragraph.
(A) According the second paragraph, “high levels of alpha-synuclein disrupt the flow of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum…to the Golgi apparatus,” not low levels of dopamine.
(B) While a missing or malfunctioning gene may explain why levels of alphasynuclein have risen to toxic levels in the cell, it does not explain why these high levels cause the cell to die. 
(C) The effectiveness or ineffectiveness of drug therapy in yeast cells does not explain why high levels of alpha-synuclein would kill the cell. Furthermore, the fourth paragraph suggests that drug therapy actually has been effective in yeast cells, not to mention in fruitflies, roundworms, and cultures of rat neurons.
(D) CORRECT. The second paragraph states that high levels of alpha-synuclein “disrupt the flow of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum…to the Golgi apparatus.” According to the passage, the Golgi apparatus is responsible for distributing proteins within the cell. It also states that "when the smooth transfer of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is interrupted, the cell dies." 
(E) The passage gives no indication that alpha-synuclein is “by nature” a toxic substance. Rather, the passage states that high levels of alpha-synuclein are toxic to the cell. 

QUESTION: 9

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease, such as tremors, are thought to be caused by low dopamine levels in the brain.
Current treatments of Parkinson’s disease are primarily reactionary, aiming to replenish dopamine levels after dopamine-producing neurons in the brain have died.
Without a more detailed understanding of the behavior of dopamine-producing neurons, it has been impossible to develop treatments that would prevent the destruction of these neurons in Parkinson’s patients.
Recent research provides insight into the inner workings of dopamine-producing neurons, and may lead to a new drug treatment that would proactively protect the neurons from decay. By examining the alpha-synuclein protein in yeast cells, scientists have determined that toxic levels of the protein have a detrimental effect on protein transfer within the cell. More specifically, high levels of alphasynuclein disrupt the flow of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, the site of protein production in the cell, to the Golgi apparatus, the component of the cell that modifies and sorts the proteins before sending them to their final destinations within the cell. When the smooth transfer of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is interrupted, the cell dies.
With this in mind, researchers conducted a genetic screen in yeast cells in order to identify any gene that works to reverse the toxic levels of alpha-synuclein in the cell.
Researchers discovered that such a gene does in fact exist, and have located the genetic counterpart in mammalian nerve cells, or neurons. This discovery has led to new hopes that drug therapy could potentially activate this gene, thereby suppressing the toxicity of alpha-synuclein in dopamine-producing neurons.
While drug therapy to suppress alpha-synuclein has been examined in yeast, fruitflies, roundworms, and cultures of rat neurons, researchers are hesitant to conclude that such therapies will prove successful on human patients.
Alpha-synuclein toxicity seems to be one cause for the death of dopamine-producing neurons in Parkinson’s patients, but other causes may exist. Most scientists involved with Parkinson’s research do agree, however, that such promising early results provide a basis for further testing.
Q.
One function of the third paragraph of the passage is to

Solution:

This is a general question asking about the function of the third paragraph. To answer this question, it is helpful to examine the general role that each paragraph in the passage plays. The first paragraph introduces the problem: researchers have not known enough about neurons to effectively treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease. The second paragraph introduces new research in yeast cells. The third paragraph makes the connection between this research and neurons affected by Parkinson’s disease. In other words, the third paragraph serves to transition from the technical detail of the yeast cell research in paragraph two to the implications of this research on Parkinson’s treatment.
(A) While the third paragraph mentions genetic counterparts in yeast cells and mammalian nerve cells, its role is not to highlight similarities between the cells. In fact, no additional similarities are mentioned.
(B) The third paragraph does not get into the details of genetic screening methods.
C) The third paragraph does not explain the roles of various cellular components. The second paragraph does discuss the roles of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus, but this discussion is not continued in the third paragraph.
(D) The third paragraph does not actually identify, or name, any genes. Rather, it explains that researchers were able to identify a specific gene in yeast cells and its counterpart in mammalian nerve cells.
(E) CORRECT. The third paragraph relates the genetic testing in yeast cells to the broader issue of Parkinson’s treatment: “Researchers discovered that such a gene does in fact exist [in yeast cells], and have located the genetic counterpart in mammalian nerve cells, or neurons. This discovery has led to new hopes that drug therapy could potentially activate this gene, thereby suppressing the toxicity of alphasynuclein in dopamine-producing neurons.” 

QUESTION: 10

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease, such as tremors, are thought to be caused by low dopamine levels in the brain.
Current treatments of Parkinson’s disease are primarily reactionary, aiming to replenish dopamine levels after dopamine-producing neurons in the brain have died.
Without a more detailed understanding of the behavior of dopamine-producing neurons, it has been impossible to develop treatments that would prevent the destruction of these neurons in Parkinson’s patients.
Recent research provides insight into the inner workings of dopamine-producing neurons, and may lead to a new drug treatment that would proactively protect the neurons from decay. By examining the alpha-synuclein protein in yeast cells, scientists have determined that toxic levels of the protein have a detrimental effect on protein transfer within the cell. More specifically, high levels of alphasynuclein disrupt the flow of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, the site of protein production in the cell, to the Golgi apparatus, the component of the cell that modifies and sorts the proteins before sending them to their final destinations within the cell. When the smooth transfer of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is interrupted, the cell dies.
With this in mind, researchers conducted a genetic screen in yeast cells in order to identify any gene that works to reverse the toxic levels of alpha-synuclein in the cell.
Researchers discovered that such a gene does in fact exist, and have located the genetic counterpart in mammalian nerve cells, or neurons. This discovery has led to new hopes that drug therapy could potentially activate this gene, thereby suppressing the toxicity of alpha-synuclein in dopamine-producing neurons.
While drug therapy to suppress alpha-synuclein has been examined in yeast, fruitflies, roundworms, and cultures of rat neurons, researchers are hesitant to conclude that such therapies will prove successful on human patients.
Alpha-synuclein toxicity seems to be one cause for the death of dopamine-producing neurons in Parkinson’s patients, but other causes may exist. Most scientists involved with Parkinson’s research do agree, however, that such promising early results provide a basis for further testing.
Q.
It can be inferred from the passage that current treatments of Parkinson’s Disease

Solution:

his is a specific question. We can use the key phrase “current treatments of Parkinson’s Disease” from the question to help us locate the relevant portion of the passage. The first paragraph discusses current treatments.
(A) Current treatments do not repair damaged cells. Rather, they “are primarily reactionary, aiming to replenish dopamine levels after dopamine-producing neurons in the brain have died.” 
(B) The passage does not discuss the effectiveness of current treatments.
(C) CORRECT. The first paragraph states that current treatments “replenish dopamine levels after dopamine-producing neurons in the brain have died.” It goes on to say that “without a more detailed understanding of the behavior of dopamineproducing neurons, it has been impossible to develop treatments that would prevent the destruction of these neurons in Parkinson’s patients.” We can therefore conclude that current treatments are based on an incomplete understanding of the dopamineproducing neuron. 
(D) While the passage gives hope that new drug therapy will be effective, the fourth paragraph introduces the possibility that such treatments won’t be transferable to humans: “researchers are hesitant to conclude that such therapies will prove successful on human patients.” Thus, the claim that current treatments will inevitably be replaced by new drug therapy is unsupported by the passage.
(E) There is no information in the passage on the methods used to develop current treatments. It is very possible that yeast cells were used in researching current treatments. 

QUESTION: 11

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease, such as tremors, are thought to be caused by low dopamine levels in the brain.
Current treatments of Parkinson’s disease are primarily reactionary, aiming to replenish dopamine levels after dopamine-producing neurons in the brain have died.
Without a more detailed understanding of the behavior of dopamine-producing neurons, it has been impossible to develop treatments that would prevent the destruction of these neurons in Parkinson’s patients.
Recent research provides insight into the inner workings of dopamine-producing neurons, and may lead to a new drug treatment that would proactively protect the neurons from decay. By examining the alpha-synuclein protein in yeast cells, scientists have determined that toxic levels of the protein have a detrimental effect on protein transfer within the cell. More specifically, high levels of alphasynuclein disrupt the flow of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, the site of protein production in the cell, to the Golgi apparatus, the component of the cell that modifies and sorts the proteins before sending them to their final destinations within the cell. When the smooth transfer of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is interrupted, the cell dies.
With this in mind, researchers conducted a genetic screen in yeast cells in order to identify any gene that works to reverse the toxic levels of alpha-synuclein in the cell.
Researchers discovered that such a gene does in fact exist, and have located the genetic counterpart in mammalian nerve cells, or neurons. This discovery has led to new hopes that drug therapy could potentially activate this gene, thereby suppressing the toxicity of alpha-synuclein in dopamine-producing neurons.
While drug therapy to suppress alpha-synuclein has been examined in yeast, fruitflies, roundworms, and cultures of rat neurons, researchers are hesitant to conclude that such therapies will prove successful on human patients.
Alpha-synuclein toxicity seems to be one cause for the death of dopamine-producing neurons in Parkinson’s patients, but other causes may exist. Most scientists involved with Parkinson’s research do agree, however, that such promising early results provide a basis for further testing.
Q.
According to the passage, which of the following represents the chronology of a typical protein life in a healthy yeast cell?

Solution:

The second paragraph states that “high levels of alpha-synuclein disrupt the flow of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, the site of protein production in the cell, to the Golgi apparatus, the component of the cell that modifies and sorts the proteins before sending them to their final destinations within the cell.” This implies that proteins in healthy cells are produced in the endoplasmic reticulum, sent to the Golgi apparatus where they are modified, and then shipped to the rest of the cell.
(A) CORRECT. This chronology is supported by the information given in the second paragraph.
(B) Proteins are created in the endoplasmic reticulum, not the Golgi apparatus. Further, there is no evidence to show that proteins in healthy cells are decomposed by alpha-synuclein.
(C) There is no evidence to show that proteins in healthy cells are decomposed by alpha-synuclein. 
(D) Proteins are created in the endoplasmic reticulum, not the Golgi apparatus.
(E) Proteins are created in the endoplasmic reticulum, not by alpha-synuclein. 

QUESTION: 12

The single-celled parasite known as Toxoplasma gondii infects more than half of the world’s human population without creating any noticeable symptoms. Once inside the human body, Toxoplasma rapidly spreads to the heart and other organs. It can even penetrate the tight barrier that normally protects the brain from most pathogens.
Yet, the blood of infected persons carries very few freefloating Toxoplasma cells. Scientists have long been puzzled by this ability of Toxoplasma to parasitize the human body without triggering an immune response and without an appreciable presence in the bloodstream.
Recent research, however, has shed light on the ways in which Toxoplasma achieves its remarkable infiltration of the human body.
Though there are few individual Toxoplasma cells coursing freely in the blood of an infected person, scientists have discovered that the parasite is quite common in certain cells, known as dendritic cells, involved in the human immune system. Dendritic cells are found in the digestive tract and frequently come into contact with the various pathogens that enter the human body through food and water. When the dendritic cells encounter pathogens, they travel to lymph nodes and relay this information to other immune cells that then take action against the reported pathogen. Scientists have found, however, that Toxoplasma is capable of hijacking dendritic cells, forcing them from their usual activity and using them as a form of transportation to infect the human body quickly. Without this transport mechanism, Toxoplasma could not reach the better-protected areas of the body.
Toxoplasma invades the human body through consumption of the undercooked meat of infected animals, primarily pigs and chickens. Other animals, such as cats, can become infected as well. In fact, cats are a necessary component in the reproductive cycle of Toxoplasma, since the animal’s intestines are the parasite’s sole breeding ground.
Toxoplasma creates egg-like cysts, known as oocysts, in the cats’ intestines. These oocysts are shed in the cats’ droppings and contaminate ground water and soil, eventually finding their way into the food chain. Because Toxoplasma must somehow find its way into a new host cat in order to reproduce, it cannot kill its current host.
Instead, it waits for the host, usually a small rodent, to be eaten by a cat, thus providing Toxoplasma the opportunity to reproduce.
Q.
It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following statements is true of dendritic cells in the human body?

Solution:

The question asks us to infer something about dendritic cells from the information contained in the passage. The correct answer must be based only on the information contained in the passage. If any additional information is required to justify an answer choice, that choice cannot be the correct answer.
(A) The passage states only that dendritic cells are involved with the lymphatic system. No information is given as to the location of the cells' production.
(B) The passage states only that dendritic cells are common in the digestive tract. No information is given as to where the cells are most numerous.
(C) The passage states only that Toxoplasma infects dendritic cells. No information is given as to the proportion of the cells that are affected when a person is infected with Toxoplasma. 
(D) The passage states only that dendritic cells are capable of being infected with Toxoplasma. No information is given regarding any other types of cell.
(E) CORRECT. The passage states that Toxoplasma is capable of penetrating the barriers protecting the brain. The passage also states that Toxoplasma uses dendritic cells as transport around the human body. Thus, we can infer that the Toxoplasma uses the dendritic cells to penetrate the barriers around the brain. 

QUESTION: 13

The single-celled parasite known as Toxoplasma gondii infects more than half of the world’s human population without creating any noticeable symptoms. Once inside the human body, Toxoplasma rapidly spreads to the heart and other organs. It can even penetrate the tight barrier that normally protects the brain from most pathogens.
Yet, the blood of infected persons carries very few freefloating Toxoplasma cells. Scientists have long been puzzled by this ability of Toxoplasma to parasitize the human body without triggering an immune response and without an appreciable presence in the bloodstream.
Recent research, however, has shed light on the ways in which Toxoplasma achieves its remarkable infiltration of the human body.
Though there are few individual Toxoplasma cells coursing freely in the blood of an infected person, scientists have discovered that the parasite is quite common in certain cells, known as dendritic cells, involved in the human immune system. Dendritic cells are found in the digestive tract and frequently come into contact with the various pathogens that enter the human body through food and water. When the dendritic cells encounter pathogens, they travel to lymph nodes and relay this information to other immune cells that then take action against the reported pathogen. Scientists have found, however, that Toxoplasma is capable of hijacking dendritic cells, forcing them from their usual activity and using them as a form of transportation to infect the human body quickly. Without this transport mechanism, Toxoplasma could not reach the better-protected areas of the body.
Toxoplasma invades the human body through consumption of the undercooked meat of infected animals, primarily pigs and chickens. Other animals, such as cats, can become infected as well. In fact, cats are a necessary component in the reproductive cycle of Toxoplasma, since the animal’s intestines are the parasite’s sole breeding ground.
Toxoplasma creates egg-like cysts, known as oocysts, in the cats’ intestines. These oocysts are shed in the cats’ droppings and contaminate ground water and soil, eventually finding their way into the food chain. Because Toxoplasma must somehow find its way into a new host cat in order to reproduce, it cannot kill its current host.
Instead, it waits for the host, usually a small rodent, to be eaten by a cat, thus providing Toxoplasma the opportunity to reproduce.
Q.
According to the passage, all of the following are true of Toxoplasma gondii EXCEPT

Solution:

We are asked to determine which one of the five choices is NOT true of Toxoplasma, according to the passage. In other words, four of the five choices are stated in the passage and one choice is not. The choice that is not stated is the correct answer.
(A) The passage explicitly states that Toxoplasma can contaminate soil and water.
(B) The passage explicitly states that Toxoplasma enters the human body through contaminated food. 
(C) The passage explicitly states that Toxoplasma alters the behavior of human dendritic cells.
(D) CORRECT. The word "incapable" in this answer choice is too strong; the passage does not state that the human body cannot detect Toxoplasma. Rather, it merely indicates that Toxoplasma does not trigger the body's immune system in the same way as other parasites. We have no information about the human body's ability to detect free-floating Toxoplasma cells.
(E) The passage explicitly states that Toxoplasma can breed in a host cat only. 

QUESTION: 14

The single-celled parasite known as Toxoplasma gondii infects more than half of the world’s human population without creating any noticeable symptoms. Once inside the human body, Toxoplasma rapidly spreads to the heart and other organs. It can even penetrate the tight barrier that normally protects the brain from most pathogens.
Yet, the blood of infected persons carries very few freefloating Toxoplasma cells. Scientists have long been puzzled by this ability of Toxoplasma to parasitize the human body without triggering an immune response and without an appreciable presence in the bloodstream.
Recent research, however, has shed light on the ways in which Toxoplasma achieves its remarkable infiltration of the human body.
Though there are few individual Toxoplasma cells coursing freely in the blood of an infected person, scientists have discovered that the parasite is quite common in certain cells, known as dendritic cells, involved in the human immune system. Dendritic cells are found in the digestive tract and frequently come into contact with the various pathogens that enter the human body through food and water. When the dendritic cells encounter pathogens, they travel to lymph nodes and relay this information to other immune cells that then take action against the reported pathogen. Scientists have found, however, that Toxoplasma is capable of hijacking dendritic cells, forcing them from their usual activity and using them as a form of transportation to infect the human body quickly. Without this transport mechanism, Toxoplasma could not reach the better-protected areas of the body.
Toxoplasma invades the human body through consumption of the undercooked meat of infected animals, primarily pigs and chickens. Other animals, such as cats, can become infected as well. In fact, cats are a necessary component in the reproductive cycle of Toxoplasma, since the animal’s intestines are the parasite’s sole breeding ground.
Toxoplasma creates egg-like cysts, known as oocysts, in the cats’ intestines. These oocysts are shed in the cats’ droppings and contaminate ground water and soil, eventually finding their way into the food chain. Because Toxoplasma must somehow find its way into a new host cat in order to reproduce, it cannot kill its current host.
Instead, it waits for the host, usually a small rodent, to be eaten by a cat, thus providing Toxoplasma the opportunity to reproduce.
Q.
The second paragraph performs which of the following functions in the passage?

Solution:

3. 
The second paragraph contains information describing the mechanism by which Toxoplasma is able to infiltrate the human body and remain undetected by the body's immune system. We need to find an answer choice that reflects this.
(A) The paragraph does not summarize research that remains to be done. Instead, it discusses what has already been discovered.
(B) The paragraph does not present any recommendations.
(C) CORRECT. This matches our description of the paragraph.
(D) The paragraph does not introduce information about the role of Toxoplasma in human development. If anything, it introduces information about the role of humans in the development of Toxoplasma.
(E) The paragraph does not mention any outdated scientific models. 

QUESTION: 15

The single-celled parasite known as Toxoplasma gondii infects more than half of the world’s human population without creating any noticeable symptoms. Once inside the human body, Toxoplasma rapidly spreads to the heart and other organs. It can even penetrate the tight barrier that normally protects the brain from most pathogens.
Yet, the blood of infected persons carries very few freefloating Toxoplasma cells. Scientists have long been puzzled by this ability of Toxoplasma to parasitize the human body without triggering an immune response and without an appreciable presence in the bloodstream.
Recent research, however, has shed light on the ways in which Toxoplasma achieves its remarkable infiltration of the human body.
Though there are few individual Toxoplasma cells coursing freely in the blood of an infected person, scientists have discovered that the parasite is quite common in certain cells, known as dendritic cells, involved in the human immune system. Dendritic cells are found in the digestive tract and frequently come into contact with the various pathogens that enter the human body through food and water. When the dendritic cells encounter pathogens, they travel to lymph nodes and relay this information to other immune cells that then take action against the reported pathogen. Scientists have found, however, that Toxoplasma is capable of hijacking dendritic cells, forcing them from their usual activity and using them as a form of transportation to infect the human body quickly. Without this transport mechanism, Toxoplasma could not reach the better-protected areas of the body.
Toxoplasma invades the human body through consumption of the undercooked meat of infected animals, primarily pigs and chickens. Other animals, such as cats, can become infected as well. In fact, cats are a necessary component in the reproductive cycle of Toxoplasma, since the animal’s intestines are the parasite’s sole breeding ground.
Toxoplasma creates egg-like cysts, known as oocysts, in the cats’ intestines. These oocysts are shed in the cats’ droppings and contaminate ground water and soil, eventually finding their way into the food chain. Because Toxoplasma must somehow find its way into a new host cat in order to reproduce, it cannot kill its current host.
Instead, it waits for the host, usually a small rodent, to be eaten by a cat, thus providing Toxoplasma the opportunity to reproduce.
Q.
Which of the following is the most likely outcome for Toxoplasma cells that invade the human body?

Solution:

The question asks us to infer something about Toxoplasma from the information given in the passage. When answering questions of this type, remember that GMAT inferences are typically very close to the original text, although they never repeat information verbatim. Make sure to select an answer that is not stated explicitly but can be inferred without making any additional assumptions.
(A) The passage does not suggest that the immune system will destroy Toxoplasma cells.  
(B) The passage does not suggest that Toxoplasma collects in the lymphatic system.
(C) CORRECT. The passage states that Toxoplasma can reproduce only in a host cat. Therefore, any Toxoplasma cells that remain in the human body are not likely to reproduce.  
(D) The passage does not suggest that Toxoplasma will be detected after several weeks.
(E) The passage does not suggest that Toxoplasma will be destroyed by pathogens in the bloodstream. 

QUESTION: 16

The single-celled parasite known as Toxoplasma gondii infects more than half of the world’s human population without creating any noticeable symptoms. Once inside the human body, Toxoplasma rapidly spreads to the heart and other organs. It can even penetrate the tight barrier that normally protects the brain from most pathogens.
Yet, the blood of infected persons carries very few freefloating Toxoplasma cells. Scientists have long been puzzled by this ability of Toxoplasma to parasitize the human body without triggering an immune response and without an appreciable presence in the bloodstream.
Recent research, however, has shed light on the ways in which Toxoplasma achieves its remarkable infiltration of the human body.
Though there are few individual Toxoplasma cells coursing freely in the blood of an infected person, scientists have discovered that the parasite is quite common in certain cells, known as dendritic cells, involved in the human immune system. Dendritic cells are found in the digestive tract and frequently come into contact with the various pathogens that enter the human body through food and water. When the dendritic cells encounter pathogens, they travel to lymph nodes and relay this information to other immune cells that then take action against the reported pathogen. Scientists have found, however, that Toxoplasma is capable of hijacking dendritic cells, forcing them from their usual activity and using them as a form of transportation to infect the human body quickly. Without this transport mechanism, Toxoplasma could not reach the better-protected areas of the body.
Toxoplasma invades the human body through consumption of the undercooked meat of infected animals, primarily pigs and chickens. Other animals, such as cats, can become infected as well. In fact, cats are a necessary component in the reproductive cycle of Toxoplasma, since the animal’s intestines are the parasite’s sole breeding ground.
Toxoplasma creates egg-like cysts, known as oocysts, in the cats’ intestines. These oocysts are shed in the cats’ droppings and contaminate ground water and soil, eventually finding their way into the food chain. Because Toxoplasma must somehow find its way into a new host cat in order to reproduce, it cannot kill its current host.
Instead, it waits for the host, usually a small rodent, to be eaten by a cat, thus providing Toxoplasma the opportunity to reproduce.
Q.
The author mentions “pigs and chickens” in the final paragraph in order to

Solution:

The question asks us why the author mentions "pigs and chickens" in the final paragraph of the passage. The author mentions these animals in the context of explaining how Toxoplasma enters the human body. Specifically, Toxoplasma enters the human body when humans ingest the meat of infected animals, "such as pigs and chickens." So the author uses pigs and chickens as specific examples of animals that can carry the parasite.
(A) CORRECT. This matches our assessment of the passage exactly.
B) The author mentions only "small rodents" as examples of animals that are eaten by cats. 
(C) The author does not mention the dendritic cells of any animals other than humans. 
(D) The passage states that cats are Toxoplasma's "sole breeding ground." Thus, the author could not mention the pigs and chickens as examples of animals in which the parasite can breed. 
(E) The author does not mention any animals at all that are immune to Toxoplasma. 

QUESTION: 17

Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The success of antibiotics against disease-causing bacteria is one of modern medicine’s great achievements. However, many bacteria harmful to humans have developed ways to circumvent the effects of antibiotics, and many infectious diseases are now much more difficult to treat than they were just a few decades ago. Antibiotic resistance is an especially difficult problem for hospitals with critically ill patients who are less able to fight off infections without the help of antibiotics.
Bacteria can develop antibiotic resistance because they have the ability to adapt quickly to new environmental conditions. Most commonly, bacteria share with each other genetic material called resistance plasmids; these shared plasmids, which contain the genetic code enabling antibiotic resistance, can spread throughout a bacterial population to create a strain of resistant bacteria. Less commonly, a natural mutation that enables antibiotic resistance takes place within the chromosome of the bacteria, and the resulting strain of bacteria can reproduce and become dominant via natural selection. In the absence of human involvement, however, bacteria in the wild rarely develop resistance to antibiotics.
In the United States, animals raised on industrial-scale factory farms are routinely administered low levels of antibiotics in their feed not as a cure for ongoing maladies, but primarily as a growth-enhancing agent to produce more meat and also as a prophylactic measure to compensate for overcrowded and unsanitary conditions.
Currently, several antibiotics that are used in human medical treatment are administered non-therapeutically to healthy livestock and poultry. Examples include tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin. This long-term non-therapeutic feeding of antibiotics to animals creates the ideal conditions for the development of antibioticresistant bacteria, as it kills the susceptible bacteria while leaving the resistant strains to reproduce and flourish.
Europe is far ahead of the United States in the responsible use of antibiotics: On January 1, 2006, the European Union banned the feeding of all antibiotics to livestock for nontherapeutic purposes. This sweeping policy follows a 1998 ban on the non-therapeutic use of four medically-important antibiotics on animals. The time has come for the United States to follow Europe’s lead.
Q.
Based on the information in the passage, to which of the following practices would the author most likely be opposed?

Solution:

1. 
This question is an example of a GMAT “application” question. An application question is a specialized case of an inference question that asks you to discern the relationship between situations or ideas presented by the author and other situations or ideas that are outside the scope of the passage; in this case, the question asks you to recognize an idea that the author would be likely to agree or disagree with based on the statements made in the passage. Unlike questions that test your ability to grasp specific portions of the passage, an application question usually requires you to grasp or infer the essential idea behind the author’s point of view, then apply this idea to something outside the scope of the passage. (Note: Application questions are usually among the more difficult GMAT reading comprehension questions.). The key to answering this question is recognizing that the author believes the “non-therapeutic” use of antibiotics is a major factor contributing to the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria, that he does not consider this to be a responsible use of antibiotics, and that he takes a stand strongly opposing the practice. 
(A) The passage does not make any statements regarding the practice of hospitals hiring infectious diseases specialists so this answer choice is not relevant to the passage. If anything, since the author is concerned with the spread of anti-resistant bacteria, he would probably support this practice more than oppose it.
(B) The degree of reimbursement for newer antibiotics does not address the topic of the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria and its causes. Hence, this answer is not relevant.
(C) There is nothing in the passage that directly links the amount of contributions made by the farming industry to Congress with anything that promotes the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The argument that such contributions might be linked to the level of government-imposed sanitary standards which might in turn be linked to the level of “preventive” use of antibiotics requires too many assumptions to make this the best answer. 
(D) CORRECT. Since antibiotics have no medically curative effect on patients with viral diseases, doctors prescribing such to a patient with a viral illness are administering the drugs in a “non-therapeutic” manner. The author specifically points out that the “non-therapeutic” or non-curative use of antibiotics creates conditions favorable for antibiotic-resistant bacteria to develop and implies that such use is not a "responsible" one. Therefore, this is a practice to which the author would very likely be opposed. (Note: Many doctors prescribe antibiotics to patients with viral diseases simply because they are asked to or expected to (do something) by the patient.)
(E) Since the author is generally concerned with bacterial infection and responsible use of antibiotics, this is a practice with which he or she would probably agree.

QUESTION: 18

Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The success of antibiotics against disease-causing bacteria is one of modern medicine’s great achievements. However, many bacteria harmful to humans have developed ways to circumvent the effects of antibiotics, and many infectious diseases are now much more difficult to treat than they were just a few decades ago. Antibiotic resistance is an especially difficult problem for hospitals with critically ill patients who are less able to fight off infections without the help of antibiotics.
Bacteria can develop antibiotic resistance because they have the ability to adapt quickly to new environmental conditions. Most commonly, bacteria share with each other genetic material called resistance plasmids; these shared plasmids, which contain the genetic code enabling antibiotic resistance, can spread throughout a bacterial population to create a strain of resistant bacteria. Less commonly, a natural mutation that enables antibiotic resistance takes place within the chromosome of the bacteria, and the resulting strain of bacteria can reproduce and become dominant via natural selection. In the absence of human involvement, however, bacteria in the wild rarely develop resistance to antibiotics.
In the United States, animals raised on industrial-scale factory farms are routinely administered low levels of antibiotics in their feed not as a cure for ongoing maladies, but primarily as a growth-enhancing agent to produce more meat and also as a prophylactic measure to compensate for overcrowded and unsanitary conditions.
Currently, several antibiotics that are used in human medical treatment are administered non-therapeutically to healthy livestock and poultry. Examples include tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin. This long-term non-therapeutic feeding of antibiotics to animals creates the ideal conditions for the development of antibioticresistant bacteria, as it kills the susceptible bacteria while leaving the resistant strains to reproduce and flourish.
Europe is far ahead of the United States in the responsible use of antibiotics: On January 1, 2006, the European Union banned the feeding of all antibiotics to livestock for nontherapeutic purposes. This sweeping policy follows a 1998 ban on the non-therapeutic use of four medically-important antibiotics on animals. The time has come for the United States to follow Europe’s lead.
Q.
Based on the information in the passage, which of the following statements can be inferred?

Solution:

This is a GMAT inference question, which means that the correct answer is not explicitly stated in the passage, but can be reasonably concluded or deduced based on the given information. The correct choice is always a likely or probable conclusion: if an answer choice requires you to assume too much or make a large leap of faith, it is incorrect. 
(A) We are not given any information as to the government’s standards regarding sanitation. Although the passage states that antibiotics are used “to compensate for overcrowded or unsanitary conditions,” the word “unsanitary” could refer to a wide range of conditions considered unsanitary by the author and not necessarily those that do not meet government standards. In addition, the fact that antibiotics are “routinely” administered to compensate for such conditions could imply that such conditions described as “unsanitary” by the author may be the norm and may actually fall within government guidelines.
(B) The passage does not state that non-therapeutic use of antibiotics is the sole cause of antibiotic resistance.  Hence, it is not reasonable to conclude that halting such use would prevent new types of resistant bacteria from developing.
(C) The passage says nothing to imply that conditions for European livestock and poultry are generally better than those for their American counterparts.
(D) While this may be true in general, the passage does not state anything from which such an inference can be made. It is not reasonable to conclude that hospitals are better learning to cope with the problem simply because the problem is becoming worse and they are forced to deal with it.
(E) CORRECT. In the first paragraph, the passage discusses how antibiotic resistant bacteria are becoming a problem for the treatment of infectious diseases in humans. The third paragraph, however, discusses a practice that promotes the spread of antibiotic resistance in animals, and the conclusion of the passage calls for the ban of this specific practice. In addition, in the third paragraph, the author makes a point to specifically mention that some of those antibiotics are used to treat humans. If it were not possible for the resistant bacteria in animals to infect humans, then there would be no link between the animal bacteria and the author’s concern for human health; the policy that is subsequently advocated would be moot. Hence, it is a reasonable inference that antibiotic resistant bacteria in livestock and poultry can indeed be spread to humans. 

QUESTION: 19

Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The success of antibiotics against disease-causing bacteria is one of modern medicine’s great achievements. However, many bacteria harmful to humans have developed ways to circumvent the effects of antibiotics, and many infectious diseases are now much more difficult to treat than they were just a few decades ago. Antibiotic resistance is an especially difficult problem for hospitals with critically ill patients who are less able to fight off infections without the help of antibiotics.
Bacteria can develop antibiotic resistance because they have the ability to adapt quickly to new environmental conditions. Most commonly, bacteria share with each other genetic material called resistance plasmids; these shared plasmids, which contain the genetic code enabling antibiotic resistance, can spread throughout a bacterial population to create a strain of resistant bacteria. Less commonly, a natural mutation that enables antibiotic resistance takes place within the chromosome of the bacteria, and the resulting strain of bacteria can reproduce and become dominant via natural selection. In the absence of human involvement, however, bacteria in the wild rarely develop resistance to antibiotics.
In the United States, animals raised on industrial-scale factory farms are routinely administered low levels of antibiotics in their feed not as a cure for ongoing maladies, but primarily as a growth-enhancing agent to produce more meat and also as a prophylactic measure to compensate for overcrowded and unsanitary conditions.
Currently, several antibiotics that are used in human medical treatment are administered non-therapeutically to healthy livestock and poultry. Examples include tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin. This long-term non-therapeutic feeding of antibiotics to animals creates the ideal conditions for the development of antibioticresistant bacteria, as it kills the susceptible bacteria while leaving the resistant strains to reproduce and flourish.
Europe is far ahead of the United States in the responsible use of antibiotics: On January 1, 2006, the European Union banned the feeding of all antibiotics to livestock for nontherapeutic purposes. This sweeping policy follows a 1998 ban on the non-therapeutic use of four medically-important antibiotics on animals. The time has come for the United States to follow Europe’s lead.
Q.
Which of the following best describes what the phrase “prophylactic measure” in the third paragraph means?

Solution:

While it is helpful to know that the dictionary definition of the adjective “prophylactic” is “acting to defend against or prevent something, especially disease; protective,” this knowledge is not necessary; the intended meaning of the phrase “prophylactic measure” can be inferred from the context of the passage. The beginning of the first sentence of the third paragraph specifically points out that the antibiotics are used “not as a cure for ongoing maladies” and the last sentence of the paragraph describes such use as “non-therapeutic.” In addition, the phrase “to compensate for … unsanitary conditions” implies that the antibiotics were used to counteract an environment replete with bacteria. Hence, it is reasonable to infer that the antibiotics were applied as a preventive measure to protect the animals from catching an infectious disease in such an environment.
(A) The passage specifically points out that the antibiotics are not used “as a cure for ongoing maladies” and describes such use as “non-therapeutic.”
(B) The passage is not concerned with genetic diseases.
(C) CORRECT. Since the use of antibiotics in the farm industry is specifically described to be “non-therapeutic,” it cannot be used as a curative measure and, therefore, is most likely used as a pre-emptive measure in order to prevent or protect the animals from developing infectious diseases.
(D) The passage states that the antibiotics are administered to the animals in their feed. Hence, it is clearly not used as a surface disinfectant.
(E) The antibiotics are orally administered to the animals in their feed. There is nothing in the passage to suggest that a “physical barrier” is involved in any way.

QUESTION: 20

Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The success of antibiotics against disease-causing bacteria is one of modern medicine’s great achievements. However, many bacteria harmful to humans have developed ways to circumvent the effects of antibiotics, and many infectious diseases are now much more difficult to treat than they were just a few decades ago. Antibiotic resistance is an especially difficult problem for hospitals with critically ill patients who are less able to fight off infections without the help of antibiotics.
Bacteria can develop antibiotic resistance because they have the ability to adapt quickly to new environmental conditions. Most commonly, bacteria share with each other genetic material called resistance plasmids; these shared plasmids, which contain the genetic code enabling antibiotic resistance, can spread throughout a bacterial population to create a strain of resistant bacteria. Less commonly, a natural mutation that enables antibiotic resistance takes place within the chromosome of the bacteria, and the resulting strain of bacteria can reproduce and become dominant via natural selection. In the absence of human involvement, however, bacteria in the wild rarely develop resistance to antibiotics.
In the United States, animals raised on industrial-scale factory farms are routinely administered low levels of antibiotics in their feed not as a cure for ongoing maladies, but primarily as a growth-enhancing agent to produce more meat and also as a prophylactic measure to compensate for overcrowded and unsanitary conditions.
Currently, several antibiotics that are used in human medical treatment are administered non-therapeutically to healthy livestock and poultry. Examples include tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin. This long-term non-therapeutic feeding of antibiotics to animals creates the ideal conditions for the development of antibioticresistant bacteria, as it kills the susceptible bacteria while leaving the resistant strains to reproduce and flourish.
Europe is far ahead of the United States in the responsible use of antibiotics: On January 1, 2006, the European Union banned the feeding of all antibiotics to livestock for nontherapeutic purposes. This sweeping policy follows a 1998 ban on the non-therapeutic use of four medically-important antibiotics on animals. The time has come for the United States to follow Europe’s lead.
Q.
The passage is primarily concerned with

Solution:

The main point of the passage is that the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics on livestock and poultry should be banned in the United States (as it is in Europe) because the practice promotes the spread of antibiotic resistance.
(A) CORRECT. This choice reflects the main point, hence, the primary concern, of the passage.  
(B) While paragraph two briefly explains the mechanism behind how antibiotic resistance is acquired, it does so in support of the main point and is not the main point itself.
(C) While paragraph three briefly explains a practice of the industrial farming industry, it does so in support of the main point and is not the main point itself.
(D) The passage does not concern itself with the history of antibiotic resistance other than to state that it has become a problem.
(E) The passage does not weigh the costs versus benefits of any particular practice.  

QUESTION: 21

Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The success of antibiotics against disease-causing bacteria is one of modern medicine’s great achievements. However, many bacteria harmful to humans have developed ways to circumvent the effects of antibiotics, and many infectious diseases are now much more difficult to treat than they were just a few decades ago. Antibiotic resistance is an especially difficult problem for hospitals with critically ill patients who are less able to fight off infections without the help of antibiotics.
Bacteria can develop antibiotic resistance because they have the ability to adapt quickly to new environmental conditions. Most commonly, bacteria share with each other genetic material called resistance plasmids; these shared plasmids, which contain the genetic code enabling antibiotic resistance, can spread throughout a bacterial population to create a strain of resistant bacteria. Less commonly, a natural mutation that enables antibiotic resistance takes place within the chromosome of the bacteria, and the resulting strain of bacteria can reproduce and become dominant via natural selection. In the absence of human involvement, however, bacteria in the wild rarely develop resistance to antibiotics.
In the United States, animals raised on industrial-scale factory farms are routinely administered low levels of antibiotics in their feed not as a cure for ongoing maladies, but primarily as a growth-enhancing agent to produce more meat and also as a prophylactic measure to compensate for overcrowded and unsanitary conditions.
Currently, several antibiotics that are used in human medical treatment are administered non-therapeutically to healthy livestock and poultry. Examples include tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin. This long-term non-therapeutic feeding of antibiotics to animals creates the ideal conditions for the development of antibioticresistant bacteria, as it kills the susceptible bacteria while leaving the resistant strains to reproduce and flourish.
Europe is far ahead of the United States in the responsible use of antibiotics: On January 1, 2006, the European Union banned the feeding of all antibiotics to livestock for nontherapeutic purposes. This sweeping policy follows a 1998 ban on the non-therapeutic use of four medically-important antibiotics on animals. The time has come for the United States to follow Europe’s lead.
Q.
According to the passage, which of the following describes how bacteria can develop antibiotic resistance?

Solution:

The question asks for information specifically stated in the passage although in slightly different language. Paragraph two describes two methods by which bacteria can develop antibiotic resistance.
(A) The passage does not mention the effects of radiation on bacteria.
(B) The passage states that natural mutations can become dominant via natural selection. However, genetic engineering is not a “natural” process by which mutation occurs.
(C) While this may be true, the over-prescribing of antibiotics in hospitals is not a practice mentioned in the passage. Remember: the correct answer must be based “according to the passage….”
(D) CORRECT. In paragraph two, the passage specifically states that “bacteria share with each other genetic material called resistance plasmids … [which] … can reproduce and become dominant via natural selection.”
(E) The loss of potency and effectiveness of antibiotics over time is described as an effect of antibiotic resistance, not a cause or a method by which it is developed. 

QUESTION: 22

In the early to mid-1980s, a business practice known as a “leveraged buyout” became popular as a method for companies to expand without having to spend any of their own assets. The leveraged buyout was not without its problems, however, and in time it came to represent in the public imagination not only corporate ingenuity and success, but also excess and greed. Many of the main corporate figures of the 1980s saw spectacular rises and, perhaps inevitably, spectacular falls as they abused the leveraged buyout as a means to extraordinary financial gain.
A leveraged buyout entails one company purchasing another using the assets of the purchased company as the collateral to secure the funds needed to buy that company. The leveraged buyout allows companies to take on debt that their own assets would have been insufficient to secure in order to finance expansion. The benefit of the leveraged buyout is obvious: companies with insufficient funds can still expand to compete with larger competitors. The drawbacks, however, became apparent only after the fact: the purchased company must perform extraordinarily well in order to generate the capital to pay off the loans that made the purchase possible in the first place. When the purchased company underperforms, the buyer must somehow find the money to pay off the loans. If such funds are not obtained, the buyer may be forced to sell off the company, or parts thereof, for less than the purchase price. In these cases, the buyer is still responsible for repaying the debt that is not covered by the sale price. Many of these deals resulted in the evisceration of the purchased companies, as subparts were sold to pay down the loans and employees were laid off to reduce costs and increase profits.
The most famous leveraged buyout is probably the 1988 purchase of RJR Nabisco by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (“KKR”). The purchase price for the corporate giant RJR Nabisco was $25 billion, almost all of which was borrowed money. The takeover was “hostile,” meaning that RJR Nabisco resisted any overtures from potential buyers. KKR ultimately succeeded by buying a controlling interest in RJR Nabisco, thereby obtaining voting control over the company. By the mid-1990s, though, KKR had seen a reversal of fortune and was forced to sell off RJR Nabisco in order to relieve itself of the crushing debt load.
The 1980s were the heyday of the leveraged buyout, as lending institutions were willing to loan money for these ventures. When the deals turned out to be much riskier in life than on paper, the lenders turned away from the buyouts and returned to the notion that borrowers must possess adequate collateral of their own.
Q.
The primary purpose of the passage is to

Solution:

The answer to a question that asks about "primary purpose" must take the entirety of the passage into account. Since the author never states an opinion about the subject of the passage, the primary purpose of the passage cannot be characterized by any verb that requires an opinion.
(A) This choice begins with "criticize", which requires an opinion.
(B)This choice begins with "challenge", which requires an opinion.
(C) CORRECT. The passage was concerned with describing how leveraged buyouts are used and how their status changed over time. This is reflected in this choice.
(D) This choice begins with "explain", which is neutral. However, the passage as a whole was not concerned with the "popularity of leveraged buyouts during a certain period."
(E) This choice begins with "argue," which requires an opinion.  

QUESTION: 23

In the early to mid-1980s, a business practice known as a “leveraged buyout” became popular as a method for companies to expand without having to spend any of their own assets. The leveraged buyout was not without its problems, however, and in time it came to represent in the public imagination not only corporate ingenuity and success, but also excess and greed. Many of the main corporate figures of the 1980s saw spectacular rises and, perhaps inevitably, spectacular falls as they abused the leveraged buyout as a means to extraordinary financial gain.
A leveraged buyout entails one company purchasing another using the assets of the purchased company as the collateral to secure the funds needed to buy that company. The leveraged buyout allows companies to take on debt that their own assets would have been insufficient to secure in order to finance expansion. The benefit of the leveraged buyout is obvious: companies with insufficient funds can still expand to compete with larger competitors. The drawbacks, however, became apparent only after the fact: the purchased company must perform extraordinarily well in order to generate the capital to pay off the loans that made the purchase possible in the first place. When the purchased company underperforms, the buyer must somehow find the money to pay off the loans. If such funds are not obtained, the buyer may be forced to sell off the company, or parts thereof, for less than the purchase price. In these cases, the buyer is still responsible for repaying the debt that is not covered by the sale price. Many of these deals resulted in the evisceration of the purchased companies, as subparts were sold to pay down the loans and employees were laid off to reduce costs and increase profits.
The most famous leveraged buyout is probably the 1988 purchase of RJR Nabisco by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (“KKR”). The purchase price for the corporate giant RJR Nabisco was $25 billion, almost all of which was borrowed money. The takeover was “hostile,” meaning that RJR Nabisco resisted any overtures from potential buyers. KKR ultimately succeeded by buying a controlling interest in RJR Nabisco, thereby obtaining voting control over the company. By the mid-1990s, though, KKR had seen a reversal of fortune and was forced to sell off RJR Nabisco in order to relieve itself of the crushing debt load.
The 1980s were the heyday of the leveraged buyout, as lending institutions were willing to loan money for these ventures. When the deals turned out to be much riskier in life than on paper, the lenders turned away from the buyouts and returned to the notion that borrowers must possess adequate collateral of their own.
Q.
The passage provides support for which of the following statements?

Solution:

The question itself is rather broad, so the best approach is to evaluate the choices and compare each one to the passage.
(A) The passage does not imply this.
(B) CORRECT. The reference to the sale of RJR Nabisco provides support for this choice. Presumably, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts did not purchase RJR Nabisco with the intention of having to sell it to pay off the loans used to buy it.
(C) Though tempting, this choice is incorrect because we do not have any information in the passage about the attitude of the banks towards leveraged buyouts today, only about their attitude during and immediately after their period of greatest popularity. Also, the language in this answer ("No banks . . .") is too extreme to be correct.
(D) The passage does not imply this.
(E) The passage does not imply this. 

QUESTION: 24

In the early to mid-1980s, a business practice known as a “leveraged buyout” became popular as a method for companies to expand without having to spend any of their own assets. The leveraged buyout was not without its problems, however, and in time it came to represent in the public imagination not only corporate ingenuity and success, but also excess and greed. Many of the main corporate figures of the 1980s saw spectacular rises and, perhaps inevitably, spectacular falls as they abused the leveraged buyout as a means to extraordinary financial gain.
A leveraged buyout entails one company purchasing another using the assets of the purchased company as the collateral to secure the funds needed to buy that company. The leveraged buyout allows companies to take on debt that their own assets would have been insufficient to secure in order to finance expansion. The benefit of the leveraged buyout is obvious: companies with insufficient funds can still expand to compete with larger competitors. The drawbacks, however, became apparent only after the fact: the purchased company must perform extraordinarily well in order to generate the capital to pay off the loans that made the purchase possible in the first place. When the purchased company underperforms, the buyer must somehow find the money to pay off the loans. If such funds are not obtained, the buyer may be forced to sell off the company, or parts thereof, for less than the purchase price. In these cases, the buyer is still responsible for repaying the debt that is not covered by the sale price. Many of these deals resulted in the evisceration of the purchased companies, as subparts were sold to pay down the loans and employees were laid off to reduce costs and increase profits.
The most famous leveraged buyout is probably the 1988 purchase of RJR Nabisco by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (“KKR”). The purchase price for the corporate giant RJR Nabisco was $25 billion, almost all of which was borrowed money. The takeover was “hostile,” meaning that RJR Nabisco resisted any overtures from potential buyers. KKR ultimately succeeded by buying a controlling interest in RJR Nabisco, thereby obtaining voting control over the company. By the mid-1990s, though, KKR had seen a reversal of fortune and was forced to sell off RJR Nabisco in order to relieve itself of the crushing debt load.
The 1980s were the heyday of the leveraged buyout, as lending institutions were willing to loan money for these ventures. When the deals turned out to be much riskier in life than on paper, the lenders turned away from the buyouts and returned to the notion that borrowers must possess adequate collateral of their own.
Q.
The author mentions the RJR Nabisco case most probably in order to emphasize which of the following points?

Solution:

The author discusses the RJR Nabisco buyout in the context of its consequences: the eventual sale of RJR Nabisco to pay off the debts used to buy the company in the first place. We must find a choice that reflects this.
(A) This choice does not reflect the context of the reference.
(B) This choice does not reflect the context of the reference.
(C) This choice does not reflect the context of the reference.
(D) CORRECT. This choice does indeed reflect the context mentioned above.
(E) This choice does not reflect the context of the reference.

QUESTION: 25

To remain financially sound, health insurance companies must charge higher rates to insure people considered a higher risk. Lacking complete information about individuals, insurers are forced to set a standard rate, based on the average risk of the group, for a particular segment of the population. Consumers in poor health are willing to pay for the insurance, knowing that it will cover their higher-than-average health-care costs. In contrast, healthy consumers often decide to forgo the insurance, reasoning that it is less expensive to pay out-of-pocket for their lower-than-average health-care costs. The result, called “adverse selection,” is that the riskier members of a group will comprise the group of insurance applicants, potentially leading to a market failure in which insurance companies cannot afford to offer insurance at any price.
Among people over age sixty-five, even the wealthy can have difficulty obtaining fairly priced medical insurance, simply because of their age. However, those who blame so-called insurance company greed and discrimination against the elderly are ignoring the reality of adverse selection. Younger people generally obtain health insurance through their employers’ group insurance plan.
Employer’s plans obligate all employees to enroll in the plan and effectively pre-screen for general health, as a minimum health level is required to hold a job. Insurance companies can therefore charge a lower premium, based on the lower average risk of the employee pool, without worrying that healthy employees will opt out of the plan.
Consumers over sixty-five, typically not employed and thus seeking insurance individually, are necessarily more vulnerable to market failure stemming from adverse selection.
Q.
It can be inferred from the passage that unemployed people

Solution:

The role of employer health insurance plans is discussed in the second paragraph. The passage states that “employer’s plans obligate all employees to enroll in the plan and effectively pre-screen for general health, as a minimum health level is required to hold a job.” This implies that having a job is a sign of health, since people in poor health would have trouble performing job duties. 
(A) By using the word “always,” this statement goes too far. Although the second paragraph explains why insurance companies are more likely to offer reasonably priced health insurance to employees in a group health plan, the first paragraph discusses the role of consumer choice: consumers can (and do) decide to forgo insurance that they deem too expensive. Therefore, we cannot infer that unemployed people always pay higher health insurance premiums than employed people.
(B) By using the word “cannot,” this statement goes too far. The passage states that some unemployed consumers, such as those over sixty-five, “can have difficulty obtaining fairly priced medical insurance,” but that does not means that they cannot purchase health insurance at all.
(C) CORRECT. The passage implies that having a job is a sign of health, since people in poor health would have trouble performing job duties. Therefore, since the group of unemployed people includes those too sick to work, it is not as healthy, on average, as the group of employed people.
(D) The passage does not discuss the reasons people participate or decline to participate in the workforce. We cannot infer that the unemployed voluntarily opted not to work for health reasons.
(E) By using the word “must,” this statement goes too far. The passage does not discuss the many reasons people might work: to make money, to acquire health insurance, to gain personal satisfaction, etc. Some workers might not really need or want health insurance, and might work primarily for the paycheck. Additionally, we cannot infer that health care must be acquired by holding a job. The second paragraph mentions consumers over sixty-five, who are “typically not employed and thus seeking insurance individually.” Clearly, individual insurance is an alternative to employers' group insurance plans, even if it is more expensive.

QUESTION: 26

To remain financially sound, health insurance companies must charge higher rates to insure people considered a higher risk. Lacking complete information about individuals, insurers are forced to set a standard rate, based on the average risk of the group, for a particular segment of the population. Consumers in poor health are willing to pay for the insurance, knowing that it will cover their higher-than-average health-care costs. In contrast, healthy consumers often decide to forgo the insurance, reasoning that it is less expensive to pay out-of-pocket for their lower-than-average health-care costs. The result, called “adverse selection,” is that the riskier members of a group will comprise the group of insurance applicants, potentially leading to a market failure in which insurance companies cannot afford to offer insurance at any price.
Among people over age sixty-five, even the wealthy can have difficulty obtaining fairly priced medical insurance, simply because of their age. However, those who blame so-called insurance company greed and discrimination against the elderly are ignoring the reality of adverse selection. Younger people generally obtain health insurance through their employers’ group insurance plan.
Employer’s plans obligate all employees to enroll in the plan and effectively pre-screen for general health, as a minimum health level is required to hold a job. Insurance companies can therefore charge a lower premium, based on the lower average risk of the employee pool, without worrying that healthy employees will opt out of the plan.
Consumers over sixty-five, typically not employed and thus seeking insurance individually, are necessarily more vulnerable to market failure stemming from adverse selection.
Q.
The author refers to “greed and discrimination” in the second paragraph of the passage in order to

Solution:

The passage states that “people over age sixty-five…can have difficulty obtaining fairly price medical insurance.” The explanation that the author supports, known as “adverse selection,” was detailed in the first paragraph. Further, the context of the reference reveals the author’s intent: “However, those who blame so-called insurance company greed and discrimination against the elderly are ignoring the reality of adverse selection.” 
(A) The author does not provide an example, but rather takes a dim view of the belief that “greed and discrimination” are the root cause of the consumer problem described. 
(B) “Greed and discrimination” are not presented as justifications of medical insurance pricing decisions. 
(C) The author does not accuse employers; in fact, the author goes on to explain how employer provided group insurance plans benefit some insurance consumers.
(D) The causes of adverse selection were explained in the first paragraph. The author mentions “greed and discrimination” to point out an alternate explanation for the same result. 
(E) CORRECT. The author believes that “adverse selection” is the reason that the elderly can have difficulty obtaining fairly priced insurance. Other people believe that “greed and discrimination” are the reasons. The author disputes that explanation by stating that such people are “ignoring the reality of adverse selection.”  

QUESTION: 27

To remain financially sound, health insurance companies must charge higher rates to insure people considered a higher risk. Lacking complete information about individuals, insurers are forced to set a standard rate, based on the average risk of the group, for a particular segment of the population. Consumers in poor health are willing to pay for the insurance, knowing that it will cover their higher-than-average health-care costs. In contrast, healthy consumers often decide to forgo the insurance, reasoning that it is less expensive to pay out-of-pocket for their lower-than-average health-care costs. The result, called “adverse selection,” is that the riskier members of a group will comprise the group of insurance applicants, potentially leading to a market failure in which insurance companies cannot afford to offer insurance at any price.
Among people over age sixty-five, even the wealthy can have difficulty obtaining fairly priced medical insurance, simply because of their age. However, those who blame so-called insurance company greed and discrimination against the elderly are ignoring the reality of adverse selection. Younger people generally obtain health insurance through their employers’ group insurance plan.
Employer’s plans obligate all employees to enroll in the plan and effectively pre-screen for general health, as a minimum health level is required to hold a job. Insurance companies can therefore charge a lower premium, based on the lower average risk of the employee pool, without worrying that healthy employees will opt out of the plan.
Consumers over sixty-five, typically not employed and thus seeking insurance individually, are necessarily more vulnerable to market failure stemming from adverse selection.
Q.
The primary purpose of the passage is to

Solution:

The first paragraph of the passage describes the behavior of both insurance companies and consumers. The paragraph is summed up with the statement “the result, called “adverse selection,” is that the riskier members of a group will comprise the group of insurance applicants, potentially leading to a market failure.”   The second paragraph explains how adverse selection affects one segment of the population (those over age 65).
(A) The author of the passage does not advocate on behalf of consumers, but rather explains a situation faced by both consumers and insurance companies.
(B) CORRECT. The first paragraph defines adverse selection and explains that the situation is considered a market failure.  The second paragraph explains how adverse selection affects one segment of the population.
(C) The information presented is not described as “recently discovered.”
(D) In the second paragraph, the author challenges those who “hysterically blame so-called insurance company greed and discrimination against the elderly.” However, the passage does not indicate that this explanation, placing blame on the insurance companies, is "widely" accepted.
(E) The passage does not assert that the situation discussed is “morally wrong"; rather, it just explains why the situation occurs. 

QUESTION: 28

To remain financially sound, health insurance companies must charge higher rates to insure people considered a higher risk. Lacking complete information about individuals, insurers are forced to set a standard rate, based on the average risk of the group, for a particular segment of the population. Consumers in poor health are willing to pay for the insurance, knowing that it will cover their higher-than-average health-care costs. In contrast, healthy consumers often decide to forgo the insurance, reasoning that it is less expensive to pay out-of-pocket for their lower-than-average health-care costs. The result, called “adverse selection,” is that the riskier members of a group will comprise the group of insurance applicants, potentially leading to a market failure in which insurance companies cannot afford to offer insurance at any price.
Among people over age sixty-five, even the wealthy can have difficulty obtaining fairly priced medical insurance, simply because of their age. However, those who blame so-called insurance company greed and discrimination against the elderly are ignoring the reality of adverse selection. Younger people generally obtain health insurance through their employers’ group insurance plan.
Employer’s plans obligate all employees to enroll in the plan and effectively pre-screen for general health, as a minimum health level is required to hold a job. Insurance companies can therefore charge a lower premium, based on the lower average risk of the employee pool, without worrying that healthy employees will opt out of the plan.
Consumers over sixty-five, typically not employed and thus seeking insurance individually, are necessarily more vulnerable to market failure stemming from adverse selection.
Q.
Which of the following best describes the function of the first paragraph within the passage as a whole?

Solution:

To answer this question, look at the structure of the author’s argument. The first paragraph describes the motives and behavior of consumers and insurance companies, defining a problem called “adverse selection.” The second paragraph discusses the effect of this situation on a specific group of people, those over age sixty-five.  
(A) The first paragraph does not state an opinion.
(B) The first paragraph outlines the decision making process of both consumers and insurance companies, but that process is not critiqued elsewhere in the passage.
(C) The author does not advance an argument in the first paragraph, but rather presents a scenario as factual.
(D) The author does not advance arguments in the first paragraph, but rather presents a scenario as factual.
(E) CORRECT. The first paragraph describes a situation and defines it as “adverse selection.” The remainder of the passage discusses the effect of the problem on a certain group, ending with the statement that “consumers over sixty-five...are necessarily more vulnerable to market failure stemming from adverse selection.” 

QUESTION: 29

To remain financially sound, health insurance companies must charge higher rates to insure people considered a higher risk. Lacking complete information about individuals, insurers are forced to set a standard rate, based on the average risk of the group, for a particular segment of the population. Consumers in poor health are willing to pay for the insurance, knowing that it will cover their higher-than-average health-care costs. In contrast, healthy consumers often decide to forgo the insurance, reasoning that it is less expensive to pay out-of-pocket for their lower-than-average health-care costs. The result, called “adverse selection,” is that the riskier members of a group will comprise the group of insurance applicants, potentially leading to a market failure in which insurance companies cannot afford to offer insurance at any price.
Among people over age sixty-five, even the wealthy can have difficulty obtaining fairly priced medical insurance, simply because of their age. However, those who blame so-called insurance company greed and discrimination against the elderly are ignoring the reality of adverse selection. Younger people generally obtain health insurance through their employers’ group insurance plan.
Employer’s plans obligate all employees to enroll in the plan and effectively pre-screen for general health, as a minimum health level is required to hold a job. Insurance companies can therefore charge a lower premium, based on the lower average risk of the employee pool, without worrying that healthy employees will opt out of the plan.
Consumers over sixty-five, typically not employed and thus seeking insurance individually, are necessarily more vulnerable to market failure stemming from adverse selection.
Q.
The passage states which of the following about the cost of health-care?

Solution:

The majority of the passage concerns health insurance costs, which are distinct from the costs of the underlying health-care itself. The author discusses the cost of healthcare only in the middle of the first paragraph, explaining that healthy consumers incur lower-than-average health-care costs, while consumers in poor health incur higher-than-average costs.  
(A) CORRECT. The first paragraph of the passage states that “consumers in poor health…[know] that [insurance] will cover their higher-than-average health-care costs.”  
(B) The passage does not compare the cost of health-care for full-time workers to that for any other segment of the population.
(C) Although paragraph two mentions that some consumers have difficulty finding fairly priced insurance, the passage does not assert that the cost of health-care itself is unfair. 
(D) The passage does not discuss any changes in health-care costs over time.
(E) The passage does not make any assertions about what might happen in the future, and does not discuss younger workers in particular. 

QUESTION: 30

Many musicologists consider jazz the only purely American form of music. Others, however, argue that jazz is rooted in a history similar to that of America itself, a history of confluence.
The immigration of Europeans and the slave trade of West Africans to America resulted in a convergence of cultures, traditions, and art forms, including music. Jazz, first played in New Orleans in the early 1900s, borrowed heavily from the European musical scale and harmonic system. Jazz ensembles were built predominantly on European instruments, such as the trumpet, trombone, saxophone, and piano. The West African influence on jazz was manifested primarily in its performance. Scatting, a technique used by jazz vocalists to mimic the sounds of instruments, had its origin in West African vocal traditions.
The emphasis on improvisation in jazz music, in addition to group participation, also came from West African music.
Proponents of the argument that jazz is purely American often point to its genesis in New Orleans as evidence for this perspective. The irony, however, is that the essence of America lies in the plurality of its roots. To deny the rich and complex history of jazz, and the true origins of the art form, is in effect denying the very aspects of the art form that make it undeniably American.
Q.
It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be less inclined to label jazz an American art form if which of the following were true?

Solution:

To answer this question, we must determine why the author currently DOES believe jazz is an American art form. We can find the criterion the author uses in the third paragraph: “…the essence of America lies in the plurality of its roots. To deny the rich and complex history of jazz, and the true origins of the art form, is in effect denying the very aspects of the art form that make it undeniably American.” So, the author believes the “plurality of roots” makes jazz undeniably American. The author would probably be less inclined to label jazz an American art form if jazz did NOT come from a diverse set of musical and cultural traditions. (A) This does not speak to the roots of jazz music.
(B) This statement, if true, would indicate that jazz music was derived from the confluence of four different musical styles, or a “plurality of roots.” Therefore, the author would still be likely to label jazz an American art form.
(C) CORRECT. This statement would indicate that jazz in fact did not come from a diverse set of musical traditions. The lack of “plurality” would most likely make the author less inclined to label jazz an American art form.
(D) If this statement were true, jazz would still have been derived from a “plurality of roots,” regardless of what these roots were.
(E) This statement would only further illustrate that jazz has a rich and complex history, formed from the confluence of many different musical styles and traditions. 

Related tests