A powder derived from the North American Echinacea flower, which has beeneffective in preventing colds, is grown by many small farmers out West.
To answer this question, you first have to realize that the basic structure of this sentence is fairly simple. The main verb of the sentence is “grown”. What is grown? A flower is grown, not its derivative. Choices A, B, C and D all imply that it is a derivative or a powder which is grown out West and not the flower. This is a clear flaw in logic. The only answer choice that has the correct subject is Choice E.
Trying to mimic some of the pitch variations of a dolphin chattering is the same as attempting to sing like a sick parakeet when one is intoxicated; the completelack of harmony and apparent randomness of the noise means the human vocalchords are completely incapable of reproducing these sounds.
This question is quite tricky. It involves parallel structure. You have to look carefully to figure out what form the comparison takes. The comparison is not one of similarity, it is one of equality. Saying x is y is quite different from saying x is like y or x is similar to y. Choices B, C and E all change the fundamental underlying concept of the sentence. Choice D disrupts the parallel structure. The parallel structure is “trying to mimic” and “attempting to sing”. Choice A is the correct answer.
The possibility of an attack on Indian Point, a nuclear power plant, has caused local governmental officials to plan evacuation routes, build shelters, and offering citizens potassium pills so there will be fewer casualties in case of a leak.
This question has to do with parallel structure. Something causes officials to plan, build and offer. Choices A and C disrupt parallel structure by using an “ing” form inconsistently. Choices D and E are incorrect as you cannot cause someone to evacuation route planning or to a planning. Cause should be followed by the infinitive. Choice B is the correct answer.
Although the sting of Egyptian Scorpions are rarely dangerous, they cause redwelts to appear, posing minor health risks to infants, who are particularly vulnerableto its venom.
This is a very easy question ecause the only mistakes you have to correct are mistakes in subject/verb agreement and subject/pronoun agreement. The subject is the sting. So you want the correct verb form to go with the singular, sting. That leaves you with C, D and E as possible choices because they say the sting ˇC is rarely dangerous. Another mistake you have to correct is a subject/pronoun agreement mistake. The venom belongs to the sting. Therefore, you would use ‘its’ before venom because sting is singular. That leaves you with choices D and E. Choice E makes another mistake by saying they cause red welts to appear. The scorpions don’t cause the red welts to appear, the sting of the scorpions does. Therefore the singular ‘it’ needs to be used. Choice D is the correct answer.
The catastrophic San Francisco Earthquake at the turn of the century destroyednumerous buildings and many were led to believe that the city had become apermanent disaster zone.
This sentence involves parallel structure. What did the earthquake do? It destroyed and led. These are actives verbs rather than the passive constructions in A and B. C also does not provide parallel structure. D is wordy and uses the wrong tense. The past perfect should be used as the city had become a disaster zone before people came to believe this. “The belief of the city as if it were” is also non-idiomatic. Choice E is the correct answer.
Besides offering such physiological rewards as toned muscles, karate, if practicedregularly, can turn the body into a dangerous weapon and produce numerousother benefits.
This question has to do with dangling modifiers. There is no subject in the first phrase, the part before the first comma. Therefore the subject of the verb in that phrase must come directly after the comma. What is the verb in the phrase?
Offering is the verb. Who or what does the offering? Karate offers. Therefore karate is the subject and must come directly after the first comma. The only choice which offers this is A.
The new government requires employers to inform an employee of their legal right to holidays and overtime pay.
The first issue you need to be aware of is pronoun reference. It should be employees’ legal right, not employers’. Therefore, you can eliminate A and D. The singular “an employee” does not go together with the plural “their”. Option B does not have greement between the plural “employees” and the singular “he”. Option E has an unclear pronoun, “they”, at the end of the option. It is not clear whether this word refers to the employees or the employers. Only option C is correct.
Riddled with bullets, shattered by bombs, and hidden in alleys, the historic buildingsin Lodz, Poland, were long ignored by tourists, traveling instead to morewell-known memorial museums.
This question has to do with ambiguity arising from a lack of pronouns and improper word order. Choices C, D and E all imply that tourists are the ones who were riddled with bullets, shattered by bombs and hidden in alleys. This is a case of dangling modifiers. Choice A implies that the buildings may have been the ones traveling to more well-known memorial museums. Choice B uses the pronoun “who”. This correctly connects all the parts of the sentence. Choice B is the correct answer.
Rallies organized in conjunction with the dissemination of democratic principleswhich was once prohibited by Communist Chinese leaders, are beginning to takeshape at a grass roots level permitted by the new Chinese leadership.
Option A is incorrect as it is unclear to what “which” is referring. It should refer to organizing rallies but the placement means it is referring to the democratic principles. B is incorrect as the subject “Rallies” does not agree with the verb “is”. Option C states that organizing rallies is beginning to take shape. The democratic principles are beginning to take shape. Choice D has an ambiguity resulting from the pronoun ‘they’. It is unclear to whom ‘they’ is referring. Choice E is the correct answer.
By the end of the nineteenth century, five of the Western European states haddeveloped a railroad system, but only one in the East.
This question has to do with parallel structure. You have to have a continuity of verb tenses and structures. Because you say ‘five x had’, then you have to follow it by saying, ‘but only one y had’. The only two choices that even have a verb in them are D and E. Choice D uses a different verb tense, the simple past. Choice E is the correct answer.
Unlike in the other states in the tri-state area, there are no gasoline taxes set bystate or local authorities in New Jersey.
Eliminate A and B on the grounds of a dangling modifier. New Jersey must come after the first comma in options A and B but it does not. “No such one” in option C is non-idiomatic. There is a lack of agreement in Option E between “taxes” and “has”. D is correct.
Historians and philosophers in the late nineteenth century argued that Plato’swork was perhaps the ultimate work of political philosophy, that it was the one paradigm of political discourse that there was no possibility to supersede.
This question has to do with efficiency of language. What follows the comma is going to give you some peripheral information about the work. You don’t need to precede it by any unnecessary words or phrases such as ‘for’ or ‘as’. D changes the meaning by its use of ‘a paradigm’ rather then ‘the paradigm’. ‘A paradigm’ implies that there were others. The other options are wordier than B. Choice B is the correct answer.
Although the initial setup of generators and a power grid by Edison and JP Morganwas rather costly, the electrification of lighting in lower Manhattan doubled work efficiency when the energy costs were cut in half.
Choice C has an incorrect idiom: while as. Choices A, C, D & E have passive constructions in the last part of the options. A also unnecessarily has ‘the’ before ‘energy costs’. E eliminates ‘energy’. This word is needed or the meaning of the sentence would be altered. Choice B is the correct answer.
Because the economic cycle in the United States changes little during its 20-yearinterval between recessing, it is fairly easy for analysts to predict analogous trendsin the stock market.
The word ‘interval’ is critical in this sentence. You might want to ask yourself why use the word ‘between’ at all? You need the word because of the word ‘interval’. ‘Interval’ implies that something is happening. That something has two parts to it. ‘Interval between’ is the correct idiomatic expression. A is incorrect because it uses the verb form ‘recessing’, which is not connected to a recession in the economy. This type of recession is what the sentence is discussing. Choice C is the best answer.
After the attack on the World Trade Center, the President ordered intelligenceagencies should prepare lists of who were America’s most wanted terrorists.
The part of the sentence you cannot change includes the fact that someone ordered another person or group of people. The correct following structure in this type of sentence is the infinitive. Only E provides this.
The exhibit, created by painstaking craftsmanship in the jungles of Burma, consistedof hundreds of paintings, each painting a tiny etched landscape inside its own ceramic work of pottery.
This is a very straightforward question of singular or plural and of usage of the words ‘each’ and ‘every’. When you use the word each, you always use the singular, even if you are referring to multiple elements. You would say, for example: each boy in the class is wearing a sweater. Despite the fact that you are referring to multiple boys, you still use the singular. Therefore choices D and E are incorrect. Choice B could be correct if it were: ‘all the paintings tiny etched landscapes’. Choice C uses ‘all’ with the singular ‘its’. This is also wrong. Choice A is the correct answer.
More than one hundred years ago, students of ornithology reported that hummingbirdscan hover as insects flitting gracefully from one flower to another.
The main thing you have to determine in this sentence is whether to use ‘like’ or ‘as’. Use ‘like’ to compare nouns or pronouns. Use ‘as’ to introduce either a clause, which is a group of words with a verb, or a phrase starting with a preposition. The sentence compares hummingbirds to insects. Nouns are being compared so you need ‘like’. The word ‘do’ in option D is unnecessary. B is more economical than D. ‘From one flower to another’ is also the correct expression rather then ‘from one flower to others’. B is correct.
In an effort to shorten the time span and cut the costs needed to raise full-sizebeef stock, many ranchers substitute cornmeal and ground bones for their cattle’sregular diet, branded by them to become generic-grade beef.
Choices B, C and E are ambiguous as it is not clear who or what has been branded. D is wordy and the phrase ‘for those of them branded’ is not idiomatically correct in this sentence. Choice B is the correct answer.
New high-combustion models of engines show the potential of being able to producehigh horsepower and performance without the costly requirements of maintenanceand consuming of special racing fuel by earlier high horsepower models.
The correct noun to use is ‘consumption’ rather than the word ‘consuming’. Choice D has a mistake in grammar. You need to use the plural instead of ‘that was required’. Choice E is the correct answer.
Forced to cut back their stock, automobile dealers in the area have cut prices; their pick-up trucks have been priced to sell, and they are.
Parallel structure demands agreement in verb tenses. The only option using the same tense throughout is C.
In the most bizarre court case this month, the judge ruled that two ping-pong ballmanufacturers owed restitution to four national ping-pong teams for the illegal weighting of the ping-pong balls in an effort to fix the tournament.
The electronics manufacturer announced that while earnings grew by 5% in thelast quarter, revenue decreased whereas it might have been expected for it to rise.
A, C and E are wordy. B maintains parallel structure in that you have a subject, ‘revenue’, and a verb, ‘decreased’, followed by the pronoun ‘it’, standing for revenue and another verb ‘might have been expected’. D has a subject, ‘revenue’ and then another subject ‘its rise’ Because of the two different subjects this option does not have parallel structure. Choice B is the correct answer.
The Chinese army consists of several million young men, about equivalent to the enrollment of colleges in India.
You can have an equivalent number but not equivalent people. A and B incorrectly apply ‘equivalent’ directly to the several million Chinese men. In the same way C incorrectly applies ‘equal’ to the men, not to the number of men. It implies that soldiers are equal to something. The correct comparison here is between the number of soldiers and the number of students. Choice D also makes a mistake in reference in that it compares soldiers to the noun ‘enrollment’. Choice E is the correct answer. It compares Chinese soldiers to Indian students.
In the United States, a larger percentage of the defense budget is spent on developmentof an anti-missile shield than is spent on nuclear missile technology inthe People’s Democratic Republic of North Korea.
This sentence is comparative. X does more of A than Y does of B. What is the X? The United States. What is the Y? North Korea. The simplest structure of an English sentence is to start with the subject and the verb. D & E start in this fashion. A and C are passive. The use of ‘they’ in B is incorrect as it is unclear to what ‘they’ refers. Choice D has a mistake in parallel structure. It uses spends/spending. Choice E is the correct answer.
Statisticians from the Department of Motor Vehicles have calculated that one human being should be struck every three minutes by a vehicle, while each minutetwo animals can be expected to die from such collisions.
Choices A, B and E all imply that humans should be struck by vehicles, not that they are or will be. Should implies a sense of moral purpose, which is clearly not the right thing to say here. It is tantamount to saying that if too few people are hit by vehicles, then extra humans will be hit. That leaves us with choices C and D. Choice C disrupts the parallel structure necessary to make the rest of the sentence fit. D has the correct parallel structure: Every three minutes something happens and each minute something else happens. C also implies that it is the same human being that is struck every three minutes. Only choice D doesn’t use the word should and maintains correct parallel structure. Choice D is the correct answer.
Acme, the family oriented entertainment company, has moved away from traditionalfamily programming and now draws on the production both of adult entertainerswho work for magazines and of those in the movie industry.
The sentence as written is incorrect as it places ‘both’ too far from the parts of the sentence to which it refers. B corrects this error. C unnecessarily repeats the subject using the pronoun ‘it’. It also does not have parallel structure in that it uses ‘work’ and ‘working’. D and E repeat the problem with the placement of ‘both’. D is not parallel in that it uses ‘working’ and ‘are working’. E implies that there are only two adult entertainers. B is correct.
Although coffee is not usually considered a drug, it is so addictive that it hasbecome a critical part of breakfast for many people.
When used as an intensifier ‘so’ is applied to adjectives while the intensifier ‘such’ is applied to an adjective and a noun. For example, you can say ‘such a hot day’ or ‘the day was so hot’. B is therefore incorrect as it does not fit this pattern. The correct adjective is addictive not addicting as used in C. D is not a complete sentence. E changes the meaning. The correct option, A, emphasizes that coffee is so addictive. E loses this emphasis.
The survey showed that children are much more psychologically stable whenraised in a family with two parents than in a family where one parent only caresfor the child.
The first thing you want to look at in this sentence is parallel structure. Because you say in the beginning ‘raised in a family’, you have to maintain the singular form of family. That eliminates choices C and E as possible answers. Also, the parallel structure carries over to prepositions. In the beginning, it says ‘raised in a family of x than in a family of y’. You have to maintain that structure of ‘in a family’. That leaves you with two possible choices: A and D. A uses the word ‘where’, which is incorrect. ‘Where’ refers to locations. The placement of ‘only’ in A and E is incorrect. It implies that the only thing this parent does is to care for a child. Choice D is the correct answer.
The CEO has proposed a new policy requiring that employees should retain all pensions indefinitely or be allowed to cash them in at retirement.
There are two possible constructions after ‘require’ One is ‘someone requires someone else to do something’. The other uses the subjunctive. For example, ‘I require that you be on time’. The subjunctive is always introduced by ‘that’. Choice A does not fit the correct subjunctive pattern as it uses ‘should’, instead of just the infinitive of the verb without ‘to’. B is grammatically correct but it is passive. C is passive and uses ‘retaining’ instead of ‘retention’. D incorrectly implies that there is only one employee. E is also grammatically correct and is shorter and simpler than B and is therefore the correct answer. It is active rather than the passive B.
The recently discovered notes of the writer suddenly revealed that this most timidand shy of women was an intellectual giant guided in both emotional and spiritualactivities by a sharp sense of moral courage.
This sentence clearly has to do with tense agreement. You can reduce the sentence down to the simple form: A woman was guided in x and y. Choice E uses different tenses. The use of ‘by’ in the part of the sentence which cannot be changed means that the verb before ‘by’ will be in the passive. E is active and changes the meaning by saying that she guided herself, rather then being guided by a sense of courage. ‘And’ in options A and C is more economical than ‘as well as’ in the other options. The use of ‘also’ in B is unnecessary. C is wordy. You could eliminate ‘and that she was’. D repeats this error. A is correct.