Test: Sentence Correction


31 Questions MCQ Test Verbal for GMAT | Test: Sentence Correction


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This mock test of Test: Sentence Correction for GMAT helps you for every GMAT entrance exam. This contains 31 Multiple Choice Questions for GMAT Test: Sentence Correction (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this Test: Sentence Correction quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. GMAT students definitely take this Test: Sentence Correction exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other Test: Sentence Correction extra questions, long questions & short questions for GMAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Meticulously developed into a mainstream style of writing by the great Elizabethan dramatists, blank verse, used in theater to represent the speech patterns of aristocratic characters, was rarely used by playwrights after the eighteenth century.   

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

  • Meticulously developed into a mainstream style of writing by the great Elizabethan dramatists,
  • blank verse,
    • used in theater to represent the speech patterns of aristocratic characters,
  • was rarely used by playwrights after the eighteenth century.   

This sentence tells us about blank verse. It was: 

  1. meticulously formulated into a mainstream style of writing by the great Elizabethan dramatists.
  2. used in theater to represent the speech patterns of noble characters. 

The sentence further states that after the eighteenth century playwrights rarely used blank verse.

Error Analysis

1)     As shown in the sentence structure, there is only one clause in the sentence. The subject-verb pair in the clause is accounted for and makes sense with each other.

2)     The simple past tense verb “was used” perfectly describes an event from the past.

3)     The opening verb-ed modifier “meticulously developed….” correctly refers to blank verse.   

4)     The second verb-ed modifier “used in theater…” also correctly refers to the blank verse.  

5)     The sentence does not have any error. It is correct as-is.

Answer Choices

A

Meticulously developed into a mainstream style of writing by the great Elizabethan dramatists, blank verse, used in theater to represent the speech patterns of aristocratic characters, was

Correct:

As pointed out in the error analysis, this choice has no error.

B

The great Elizabethan dramatists meticulously developed a mainstream style of writing, using blank verse in theater to represent the speech patterns of aristocratic characters,

Incorrect:  

1)     The comma + verb-ing modifier “using” modifies the preceding clause, suggesting that “blank verse” was used in developing a style of writing. This changes the intended meaning of the sentence - blank verse itself was the style of writing developed by the Elizabethan dramatists.

2)     The modifier “rarely used…” in the non-underlined portion of the sentence incorrectly refers to “the speech patterns of aristocratic characters”. It should refer to “blank verse”.

C

Using blank verse in theater to represent the speech patterns of aristocratic characters, the great Elizabethan dramatists meticulously developed a mainstream style of writing that was

Incorrect:

This choice repeats the first meaning error in Choice B. It does not make it clear that blank verse itself was the style developed by the Elizabethan dramatists.

D

The great Elizabethan dramatists, meticulously developing a mainstream style of writing, used blank verse in theater to represent the speech patterns of aristocratic characters,

Incorrect:  

This choice has the same errors as Choice B does.

E

The speech patterns of aristocratic characters were represented in theater using blank verse, a mainstream style of writing meticulously developed by the Elizabethan dramatists and that was

Incorrect:    

The phrase “a mainstream style of writing….” is not parallel to the clause “that was….”.

QUESTION: 2

In establishing a shorter route to Virginia from England in 1609, lasting fame was achieved by Samuel Argall, one of England’s maritime pioneers, even though the route had been taken by Bartholomew Gosnold and Martin Pring six years earlier.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

  • In establishing a shorter route to Virginia from England in 1609,
  • lasting fame was achieved by Samuel Argall,
      • one of England’s maritime pioneers,
    • even though the route had been taken by Bartholomew Gosnold and Martin Pring six years earlier.

The sentence says that the Samuel Argall was one of England’s maritime pioneers. In 1609, he established a shorter path to Virginia from England. However, this route had already been used by Bartholomew Gosnold and Martin Pring in 1609.

 

Error Analysis

The opening modifier “In establishing…” should logically refer to Samuel Argall because he did the action of establishing the shorter route. But since the subject of the main clause is “lasting fame”, this opening modifier illogically refers to “lasting fame”. This is the only error in the sentence.

Notice that use of the past perfect tense verb “had been taken” is optional because the sentence clearly establishes the time sequence by saying that the route was already taken 6 years ago.  

Answer Choices

A

In establishing a shorter route to Virginia from England in 1609, lasting fame was achieved by Samuel Argall, one of England’s maritime pioneers, even though the route had been taken by Bartholomew Gosnold and Martin Pring six years earlier. 

Incorrect: This choice has the error stated in the error analysis.

B

One of England's maritime pioneers, Samuel Argall achieved lasting fame by establishing a shorter route to Virginia from England in 1609, although the route had been taken by Bartholomew Gosnold and Martin Pring six years earlier. 

Correct:

This choice is the correct answer as all the modifiers are correctly worded and placed to clearly convey the intended meaning of the sentence.

C

Lasting fame was achieved by Samuel Argall, who was one of England’s maritime pioneers, in the establishment of a shorter route to Virginia from England in 1609, which had been taken by Bartholomew Gosnold and Martin Pring six years earlier. 

Incorrect:      

The intended contrast is missing in this option.

D

Although taken by Bartholomew Gosnold and Martin Pring six years earlier, the shorter route established to Virginia from England by Samuel Argall in 1609 achieved lasting fame and became one of England’s maritime pioneers.

Incorrect:      

The subject “the shorter route” does not make sense with its verbs “achieved” and “became”. “Samuel Argall” should be the subject of these verbs.       

E

Despite having been taken by Bartholomew Gosnold and Martin Pring six years earlier, the shorter route to Virginia from England in 1609, which was established by Samuel Argall, one of England’s maritime pioneers, achieved lasting fame.

Incorrect:      

The subject “the shortest route” does not make sense with the verb “achieved”. It was Argall who achieved lasting fame, not the route.

QUESTION: 3

A USS16 drone dropped a misguided anti-bunker bomb on a populated area, which caused death of over 100 people and also wiped out all the vegetation.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

A USS16 drone dropped an anti-bunker bomb on a populated area. This act led to the death of over 100 people and wiping out of vegetation.

This question primarily tests your understanding of the structure of the sentence and ability to determine which modifier can best convey the intended meaning.


Error Analysis

“Which” always modifies the preceding noun/noun phrase. In this case, it modifies “area” – this modification leads to illogical meaning that area caused death of over 100 people. Per the intended meaning, we need a comma + verb-ing modifier, which can modify the preceding clause.

Answer Choices

A

area, which caused death of over 100 people and also wiped

Incorrect use of "which", as identified in the error analysis.

B

area, not only causing death of over 100 people but also wiping

Correct. The choice uses comma + verb-ing modifiers "causing" and "wiping" to modify the preceding clause. This option statement conveys the intended meaning. Use of "not only – but also" is correct.

C

area, which causing death of over 100 people also wiped

Incorrect use of "which" as in option A.

 

D

area, which having caused death of over 100 people wiped

Incorrect use of "which" as in option A.

 

E

area and had caused death of over 100 people, wiping

This option statement has two errors:
Verb tense error: death of over 100 people occurred at the same time when the bomb was dropped. Use of "had been" is incorrect.
Meaning: Per the intended meaning, dropping of bomb led to death of over 100 people. Per this option statement, there is no cause and effect relationship between dropping of bomb and death of people.

QUESTION: 4

World War II combatants gained an advantage over their opponents either by employing a number of new and devastating inventions such as rudimentary flame throwers, tracer bullets, pilotless drones, or having strong leadership and geographic advantage.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis  

  • World War II combatants gained an advantage over their opponents
    • either by employing a number of new and devastating inventions such as
      • rudimentary flame throwers,
      • tracer bullets,
      • pilotless drones,
    • or having strong leadership and geographic advantage.                              

The sentence says that World War II fighters gained a benefit over their opponents by doing either of the following:

  1. employing a few novel and dangerous inventions such as rudimentary flame throwers, tracer bullets, and pilotless drones.
  2. having strong leadership and geographic advantage.

Error Analysis

This sentence has two parallel lists. And there are errors in both the lists.

1)     The first list as suggested by the presence of the parallel markers “either-or” is “by employing…” and “having strong…” These two entities are certainly not parallel as the word “by” appears only before the first entity and not before the second entity.   

2)     The second list is a nested list in the first entity of the main list. This nested list has three entities – “rudimentary flame throwers, tracer bullets, pilotless drones”. However, this list is not correct because the parallel marker joining the last entity of the list with the first two is missing. The last entity in the list must be preceded by a relevant parallelism marker such as “and”. 

Answer Choices

A

inventions such as rudimentary flame throwers, tracer bullets, pilotless drones, or having strong leadership and geographic advantage 

Incorrect: This choice has the errors stated in the error analysis.

B

inventions, such as flame throwers that were rudimentary, tracer bullets, pilotless drones, or strong leadership and geographic advantage

Incorrect:      

1)     This choice repeats the missing “and” parallelism error of Choice A.

2)     The noun “strong leadership…” is not parallel to “by employing”    

C

inventions such as rudimentary flame throwers, tracer bullets, and pilotless drones, or by having strong leadership and geographic advantage 

Correct:

This is the correct answer choice as it corrects both the parallelism errors spotted in the original sentence. 

D

inventions, such as rudimentary flame throwers, tracer bullets, and pilotless drones, or had strong leadership and geographic advantage

Incorrect:   

This choice has parallelism error.  “Either by employing…” is not parallel to “or had strong leadership…”

E

inventions such as flame throwers that were rudimentary, tracer bullets, and pilotless drones, and by having strong leadership and geographic advantage    

Incorrect: 

Use of “and” before “by having strong leadership…” leads to an idiom error. “Either” should be followed by “or,” not “and”.  

QUESTION: 5

Like an expert cricket fielder focusing his attention on his movement and catching the ball coming in his direction, any object tossed in its direction is grabbed by a newly developed robot without ever missing a single one and could be incorporated in machines that help humans by catching them if they are in danger of falling.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

  • Like an expert cricket fielder focusing his attention on his movement and catching the ball coming in his direction,
  • any object tossed in its direction
    • is grabbed by a newly developed robot without ever missing a single one
    • and could be incorporated in machines
      • that help humans by catching them
        • if they are in danger of falling.

This sentence presents a comparison.  The construction of the sentence is such that the comparison appears to be between an expert cricket fielder and any object.  This is illogical.  So we should read the sentence to infer the logical comparison.  Notice that the sentence states that a robot grabs an object thrown in its direction.  Thus, it’s logical to consider that the author intends to present comparison between an expert cricket fielder and the newly developed robot. It says that like an expert cricket fielder who focuses his attention on his movement and catching the ball coming towards him, the robot catches any object tossed in its direction without ever missing a single one. The sentence further states that this robot could be incorporated in the machines that catch human beings if they are at the risk of falling. 

Error Analysis

  1. As discussed in the meaning analysis, this sentence illogically compares “an expert cricket fielder” to “any object”.
  2. Furthermore, per the context of the sentence, it does not make sense to say that “any object” could be incorporated in machines, since the incorporation of any object will not help the machines catch humans. As discussed in the meaning analysis, the incorporation of robots in machines will help the machines catch humans.

Answer Choices

A

Like an expert cricket fielder focusing his attention on his movement and catching the ball coming in his direction, any object tossed in its direction is grabbed by a newly developed robot

Incorrect:

This choice has the errors pointed out in the error analysis.

B

Similar to an expert cricket fielder who focuses his attention on his movement for catching the ball coming in his direction, a newly developed robot grabs any object tossed in its direction

Incorrect:   

The phrase “for catching” establishes a relationship between the two actions of focusing attention and catching the ball. It indicates that the fielder focuses his attention in order to catch the ball. Per the original sentence, these two are independent actions. The expert fielder focuses his attention on movement and catches the ball.       

C

Like an expert cricket fielder who focuses his attention on his movement and catches the ball coming in his direction, a newly developed robot grabs any object tossed in its direction

Correct: 

This choice presents a logically parallel comparison between the fielder and the robot.

D

As with an expert cricket fielder who focuses his attention on his movement, catching the ball coming in his direction, a newly developed robot grabs any object tossed in its direction

Incorrect:

The use of comma + verb-ing modifier “catching” changes the intended meaning of the sentence. Per this choice, the fielder focuses his attention on his movement and as a result catches the ball whereas the original choice states that the fielder focuses attention on his movement and catches the ball.

E

Like an expert cricket fielder who focuses his attention on his movement to catch the ball coming in his direction, any object tossed in its direction is grabbed by the newly developed robot

Incorrect:

1)     This choice retains both the errors from choice A. 

2)     The “to + verb” form “to catch” changes the intended meaning of the sentence in the same way as it does in choice D. 

QUESTION: 6

The proliferation of personal computing by laptops and desktops had started in 1998 with the advent of internet and is continuing since then so much so that over 90% of Americans now own at least one personal computing device.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

This sentence explains sequencing of events related to proliferation of personal computing. This proliferation started in 1998 and it has been continuing since then. 

The question tests your expertise in using appropriate verb tenses to convey the intended sequencing of events. It also tests your understanding of the meaning of the original sentence.


Error Analysis

The original sentence has verb tense error. The verb ‘had started’ is incorrectly stated in past perfect tense. This is because there is no other related event in the past with which the sequencing needs to be established. Also, the verb ‘is continuing’ is incorrectly stated in present continuous. Notice that the correct verb tense for this verb should be present perfect due to the use of word ‘since’ which indicates that this event started in 1998 and has been continuing since then.

Answer Choices

A

had started in 1998 with the advent of internet and is

The original sentence has the Verb Tense errors as explained in error analysis. 

B

had been started in 1998 with the advent of internet and has been

This choice also has verb tense errors. The verb 'had been started' is unnecessarily stated in past perfect tense in passive voice.

C

started in 1998 with the advent of internet that has been

This choice is grammatically correct; however, it distorts the meaning of the original sentence. Notice carefully that the original sentence states that proliferation of personal computing has been continuing. In contrast, this choice is worded such that it implies that internet has been continuing. Thus this choice has meaning error.

D

has started in 1998 with the advent of internet and has been

The use of present perfect tense for the verb 'has started' is non-sensical since the action of started was completed and is not still continuing. The proliferation started at a POINT in time in the past.

E

started in 1998 with the advent of internet and has been

Correct


 

QUESTION: 7

Even though the new CEO’s critics complained about the rate at which employees had been fired under his management, the board of directors insisted that more positions with higher average salaries were created on a monthly basis than were eliminated since he took up the position.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

  • Even though the new CEO’s critics complained about the rate
    • at which employees had been fired under his management,
  • the board of directors insisted
    • that more positions with higher average salaries
      • were created on a monthly basis
      • than were eliminated
        • since he took up the position.

The sentence presents a contrast. According to the critics of the new CEO, employees had been fired under the new management at an alarming rate. But according to the board of directors, since the new CEO joined, more posts with higher average salaries were created every month than the posts that were eliminated.

 

Error Analysis

The pronoun “he” should logically refer to the “CEO”, but the sentence has “CEO’s”. Since pronouns can only refer to nouns or other pronouns, “he” grammatically cannot refer to “CEO’s” as the latter is an adjective. This is the only error in the sentence. 

Answer Choices

A

that more positions with higher average salaries were created on a monthly basisthan were eliminated since he

Incorrect: This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.  

B

on a monthly basis that more positions with higher average salaries were created as had been eliminated since he

Incorrect:

1)    This choice retains the pronoun error of Choice A.

2)    According to this choice, placement of “on a monthly basis” suggests that the board of directors insisted “on a monthly basis” and not that more positions were created on a monthly basis.

3)    This choice uses the incorrect idiom “more X as Y”.

4)    Use of the past perfect tense verb “had been eliminated” is incorrect because some positions were eliminated and new ones were created during the same time frame. It is not that first the positions were eliminated and then the new ones were created.

C

that more positions with higher average salaries every month were created than were eliminated since he

Incorrect:

1)    This choice also repeats the pronoun reference error of Choice A.

2)    Placement of “every month” suggests that higher salaries were given every month for the new positions. This is certainly distortion of the intended meaning.  According to the intended meaning of the sentence, “every month” should modify when the new positions were created and not when the higher salaries were given.

D

that more positions with higher average salaries were created every month as eliminated since the CEO

Incorrect:

This choice corrects the pronoun reference error by replacing “he” with “CEO” but repeats the idiom error of “more X as Y” as in Choice B.  

E

that more positions with higher average salaries were created on a monthly basis than were eliminated since the CEO

Correct:

This is the correct answer choice as it corrects the pronoun reference error in the original sentence and does not introduce any new errors.   

QUESTION: 8

Bill Gates had originally rejected the idea of a dedicated browser, but in 1997 on hearing that the Netscape browser had demonstrated the potential to make Windows obsolete, he invested heavily in the development of the browser.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

This sentence states a few facts about Bill Gates and browser.

1: He rejected the idea of a dedicated browser sometime before 1997.

2: He heard that Netscape browser demonstrated the potential to make Windows obsolete.

3: He invested heavily in the development of the browser.

What does the question test – This question tests your ability to understand the meaning correctly and determine the correct verb sequencing. There are 3 verbs in this sentence and hence proper understanding of meaning is required to establish verb sequencing.

Error Analysis

The original sentence has verb sequencing error. Among the three verbs, two are related and one is independent event. The first event “rejected” is an independent event that happened before the next two events took place. The second event “had demonstrated” takes place before the last event “invested”. Thus based on this sequencing, the correct verb tenses are as follows:

Had rejected = simple past as rejected

Had demonstrated = past perfect as is

Invested = simple past as is

Answer Choices

A

Bill Gates had originally rejected the idea of a dedicated browser, but in 1997 on hearing that the Netscape browser had demonstrated the potential to make Windows obsolete, he

This choice has verb sequencing error as explained in error analysis. 

B

Even though Bill Gates originally rejected the idea of a dedicated browser, in 1997 on hearing that the Netscape browser demonstrated the potential to make Windows obsolete,

This choice has two errors:

1: Verb Sequencing = Per the discussion of the sentence, the verb "demonstrated" should be stated in past perfect tense in order to show sequencing with the verb "invested".

2: Fragment Error = There is no subject for the verb "invested". 

C

Even though Bill Gates originally rejected the idea of a dedicated browser, but in 1997 after hearing that the Netscape browser had demonstrated the potential to make Windows obsolete, he

This choice has redundancy since both "even though" and "but" are used to express the same contrast. 

D

Bill Gates originally rejected the idea of a dedicated browser, but in 1997 on hearing that the Netscape browser had demonstrated the potential to make Windows obsolete, he 

Correct

E

Bill Gates originally rejecting the idea of a dedicated browser, but in 1997 on hearing that the Netscape browser had demonstrated the potential to make Windows obsolete, 

Fragment error – The wording of this choice is such that "Bill Gates" subject can be linked with "invested" verb. However, the construction of this sentence with "comma but" makes the first part of the sentence an independent clause that does not have a verb and results in a fragment. Similarly, the verb "invested" does not have any subject, leading to a fragment.

QUESTION: 9

The recent decline in tremors have raised hope that the worst is over for Haiti, yet, according to their analysis, seismologists believe that a big earthquake is eminent

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

The sentence presents a contrast. It states that recent decline in tremors implies that the worst is over. But the analysis of seismologists suggests otherwise.

The question tests your expertise in identifying the subject and ensuring that its verb agrees in number. It also tests usage of correct verb tense to express the intended meaning. Furthermore, it tests your skill in ensuring that all clauses must contain subject-verb pairs.


Error Analysis

The original sentence has Subject-Verb Number Disagreement. The subject is singular “decline” and hence it does not agree in number with the plural verb “have raised”. 

Answer Choices

A

have raised

This choice has Subject-Verb Number Disagreement as explained in sentence analysis.

B

had raised

Past perfect tense is incorrect since there is no other event in past. Past perfect is used to present earlier of the two related events that take place in the past. 

C

has raised

Correct

D

raising

This choice leads to fragment since there is no verb for the subject “decline”. 

E

have been raising

This choice has 2 errors.
1: Subject-Verb Number disagreement since singular subject “decline” does not agree with plural verb “have been raising”.
2: Verb tense - The verb tense is incorrect since the action of "raising" hope is not a continuing action. The action has been completed in the past, but its effect is still felt and hence, the use of present perfect tense is suitable.

QUESTION: 10

The team studying genes responsible for taste receptors in mammals discovered that all three species of vampire bats, as bottlenose dolphins, have an extremely reduced ability to taste bitterness and sweetness, resulting from the garbled sequences of some specific genes.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

  • The team studying genes responsible for taste receptors in mammals discovered
    • that all three species of vampire bats, as bottlenose dolphins, have an extremely reduced ability to taste bitterness and sweetness,
  • resulting from the garbled sequences of some specific genes.       

 

This sentence tells us about a discovery made by the team that was studying the genes responsible for taste receptors in mammals. The discovery is that all the species of vampire bats have a very low ability to taste bitterness and sweetness. This low ability is because of the random sequences of some particular genes.   Note that the sentence uses the phrase “as bottlenose dolphins”.  The wording of this phrase is such that it appears that the vampire bats function as dolphins.  This is illogical.  From the context of the sentence, it seems logical to infer that the author intends to present a similarity between the vampire bats and bottlenose dolphins – that both have an extremely reduced ability to taste bitterness and sweetness.

Error Analysis

  1. “As” is used incorrectly to compare two nouns, leading to the illogical meaning that vampire bats function as bottlenose dolphins.
  2. The comma + verb-ing modifier “resulting” does not make sense with the subject of the preceding clause since the three species of vampire bats cannot result from the garbled sequences of genes.   Logically, it is the reduced ability to taste the two tastes that is a result of the garbled sequences of some specific genes.

Answer Choices

A

that all three species of vampire bats, as bottlenose dolphins, have an extremely reduced ability to taste bitterness and sweetness, resulting from the garbled

Incorrect:

This choice has the errors pointed out in the error analysis. 

B

all three species of vampire bats, like bottlenose dolphins, that have an extremely reduced ability to taste bitterness and sweetness, which are the result of the garbled

Incorrect:

  1. This choice incorrectly suggests that the team discovered all three species of vampire bats. This is not correct since the team discovered something about these species.
  2. The modifier “which” incorrectly modifies the preceding noun entity “bitterness and sweetness”. These tastes are not the result of garbled gene sequences; the reduced ability is. 

C

that all three species of vampire bats, as bottlenose dolphins, have the ability to taste bitterness and sweetness, which have reduced extremely as a result of the garbling of

Incorrect:

  1. This choice conveys the incorrect meaning that the species have ability to taste bitterness and sweetness. This is not what the team discovered about the vampire bats.
  2. The relative pronoun modifier “which” refers to “bitterness and sweetness,” incorrectly indicating that these tastes have reduced.  
  3. Also, “the garbling of” indicates that someone is responsible for the garbling of the genes. This meaning is not logical since the genes were not deliberately garbled by anyone.
  4. This choice also retains the “as” comparison error of option A.

D

all three species of vampire bats, like bottlenose dolphins, that have the ability to taste bitterness and sweetness, which have reduced extremely, resulting from the garbling of

Incorrect:

  1. This choice repeats the first meaning error of choice B.
  2. It has the same modifier error as in choice A.
  3. It has the same illogical meaning error in “the garbling of” as in choice C.

E

that all three species of vampire bats, like bottlenose dolphins, have an extremely reduced ability to taste bitterness and sweetness, as a result of the garbled

Correct:

This choice conveys the intended meaning perfectly. The modifier “as a result of…” makes clear the reason behind the reduced ability to taste sweetness and bitterness.

QUESTION: 11

The magazine’s managerial board proposed that dissolution of the company’s remote offices, which are no longer necessary since most employees work from home, be initiated at the earliest. 

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

  • The magazine’s managerial board proposed
    • that dissolution of the company’s remote offices,
      • which are no longer necessary 
        • since most employees work from home,
    • be initiated at the earliest.

The sentence talks about a proposal made by a magazine’s managerial board. As per the proposal, the company’s remote offices should be dissolved as soon as possible because most employees work from home. 

Error Analysis

1)    In this sentence, “proposed” requires the use of the subjunctive form. Hence, use of “be initiated” is correct.

2)    The relative pronoun modifier “which” correctly modifies the preceding noun entity “the company’s remote offices”.

3)    There are no errors in this sentence. 

Answer Choices

A

that dissolution of the company’s remote offices, which are no longer necessary since most employees work from home, be  

Correct: This choice has no errors as found in the error analysis.  

B

dissolution of the company’s remote offices that have been no longer necessary since most employees work from home

Incorrect:

1)    Use of the present perfect tense verb “have been” is incorrect because this action is a general fact from the present and hence must be written in the simple present tense.

2)    Also, this choice has sentence structure error.  This choice has the construction – A proposed dissolution of B.  By itself this construction is perfectly correct.  However, this is not the structure of the complete sentence.   The non-underlined portion contains “initiated at the earliest”, which seems to have no link to the rest of the sentence.  As discussed in the meaning analysis, the sentence should have the following structure – A proposed that dissolution of B be initiated. 

A note to remember – always consider the entire sentence and not just the underlined portion. 

C

that dissolution of the company’s remote offices are no longer necessary since most employees work from home is  

Incorrect:

1)    This choice completely distorts the meaning of the sentence by saying that “dissolution… are no longer necessary”. Also, the subject “dissolution” does not even agree in number with “are”.

2)    The verb “is” has no subject.  

 

D

that dissolution of the company’s remote offices, which is no longer necessary since most employees work from home, be

Incorrect:

The singular verb “is” does not agree in number with the plural subject “the company’s remote offices”. This verb seems to be the verb for “dissolution”. This SV pair makes no sense since the meaning of the sentence is exactly the opposite: that dissolution IS required. 

From grammar standpoint, the modifier “which is no longer necessary…” should modify the singular noun – dissolution.  If this reference is correct, then this choice leads to an illogical meaning.  Here is the meaning communicated by this choice –

  • The board proposed dissolution of A be initiated right away. 
  • This dissolution is no longer necessary. 

As you can see this modification leads to an illogical meaning. 

Alternatively one could argue that to the modifier in question modifies “offices”.  While this modification is logical, it leads to SV Number Disagreement Error since the noun “offices” is plural but the verb “is” is singular. 

Thus, whichever way we look at this choice, it is incorrect.

E

the dissolution of the company’s remote offices, which are no longer necessary since most employees work from home and which should be

Incorrect:

The relative pronoun modifier clause “which should be…” preceded by “and” is now parallel to “which are no longer…”, suggesting that “the company’s remote offices” should be initiated. This meaning is nonsensical.   

QUESTION: 12

In January this year, a chemical used in the processing of coal leaked from a ruptured storage tank into the Elk River, an accident that interrupted water supply for days because of water pollution, and this called for immediate action from the authorities.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

  • In January this year, a chemical used in the processing of coal leaked from a ruptured storage tank into the Elk River, 
    • an accident
      • that interrupted water supply for days because of water pollution,
      • and this called for immediate action from the authorities.  

This sentence tells us that a chemical that is used in the processing of coal leaked into the Elk River. This accident disrupted the water supply for several days because of the water pollution. The situation demanded immediate action from the authorities.

Error Analysis

“This” is a demonstrative pronoun that must be followed by the noun it refers to. Because of the missing noun, it is not clear what required immediate action.

Answer Choices

A

an accident that interrupted water supply for days because of water pollution, and this called

Incorrect:    

This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.

B

an accident that interrupted water supply for days because of water pollution, calling

Correct:       

The comma + verb-ing modifier “calling” now correctly modifies the preceding clause.

C

interrupted water supply for days because of water pollution and called

Incorrect:      

As per this choice, the “chemical” interrupted the water supply and called for immediate action. The forced parallel list distorts the intended meaning of the sentence.

D

which interrupted water supply for days because of water pollution, calling

Incorrect:

The relative pronoun modifier “which” illogically suggests that the Elk River interrupted the water supply.

E

which, interrupting water supply for days because of water pollution, called

Incorrect:    

The relative pronoun modifier “which” illogically suggests that the Elk River interrupted the water supply and called for immediate action.

QUESTION: 13

Nicknamed the Napoleon of the dinosaur kingdom, N. Hoglundi seemed as armed with a smaller body to adapt to their Cretaceous Arctic environment that experienced seasonal temperature extremes and variations in available food sources.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

  • Nicknamed the Napoleon of the dinosaur kingdom,
  • N Hoglundi seemed as armed with a smaller body to adapt to their Cretaceous Arctic environment
    • that experienced seasonal temperature extremes and variations in available food sources.   

This sentence talks about N Hoglundi, which is nicknamed the Napoleon of the dinosaur kingdom.  It says that it appears that these dinosaurs were armed with a smaller body to adapt to their Cretaceous Arctic environment. This environment experienced temperature extremes seasonally and variations in the food sources that were available.

Error Analysis

1)     The plural pronoun “their” does not agree in number with the singular noun “N Hoglundi”.

2)     The simple past tense “seemed” is incorrectly used to present a universal truth. Note that even though the dinosaurs existed in the past, this statement is made in the present context to show that the author is trying to draw a conclusion about the dinosaurs.  Simple present tense verb “seems” is the correct tense.  This is so because the sentence expresses some information about the dinosaurs that is true at the current time: i.e., from our present perspective, the dinosaurs appear a certain way. 

3)     There is an idiom error in this sentence since “seem” should be followed by “to”, not “as”.  Furthermore, the phrase “to have been armed” should be used to convey that the dinosaurs were armed in the past.

Answer Choices

A

seemed as armed with a smaller body to adapt to their Cretaceous Arctic environment that

Incorrect:   

This choice has the errors pointed out in the error analysis.

B

seemed to have been armed with a smaller body to adapt to its Cretaceous Arctic environment that had

Incorrect:        

The past perfect tense verb “had experienced” is incorrect in this context since this action did not take place before any related event from the past.

C

seems as armed with a smaller body to adapt to its Cretaceous Arctic environment that

Incorrect:

This choice repeats the idiom error of choice A.

D

seems to have been armed with a smaller body to adapt to its Cretaceous Arctic environment that

Correct: 

1)     This choice rectifies all the errors of the original sentence. The expression “seems to have been armed” correctly presents a conclusion drawn in the present about a past event. 

2)     Also, this choice replaces the pronoun “their” with the singular pronoun “its”, which agrees with the antecedent “N Hoglundi” in number.

E

seems to be armed with a smaller body to adapt to its Cretaceous Arctic environment that had 

Incorrect:      

1)     The verb phrase “seems to be armed” is set in the present context. It conveys the meaning that the dinosaur is armed with a smaller body. This is incorrect since the dinosaurs don’t exist anymore.        

2)     The past perfect tense “had experienced” is incorrectly used in this sentence since there is no other related event presented here that happened after this one. 

QUESTION: 14

. Many technologies changed the manner in which we use cell phones; however, the impact of none that had been more profound than that of touch screen technology that brought usable internet to portable devices

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

The sentence states a comparison between several technologies that affected how we use cell phones and the touch screen technology in that the latter had the most profound effect.

The question tests your skills in using appropriate verb tense. It also tests your expertise in eliminating wordy or awkward choices.
Error Analysis

The original sentence has 2 errors.
1: Verb Tense - The use of past perfect tense ‘had been’ is incorrect since it non-sensically links two otherwise unrelated events. Events ‘had been more profound’ and ‘brought’ are not related to each other; hence use of past perfect tense is incorrect. Simple past tense ‘was’ should be used to indicate an action that completed in the past. In addition, present perfect tense may also be considered correct since it expresses an event that completed in the past but whose effect continues in the present – in this case the impact of touch screen was more profound and is still more profound. 
2: Fragment - The use of ‘that’ creates a fragment since now “impact” is left without any verb. 

Answer Choices

A

the impact of none that had been

The original sentence has 2 errors – verb tense and fragment as explained in error analysis.

B

the impact of none is

The use of simple present 'is' is incorrect in the context of this sentence since this sentence is set in past tense. The touch screen technology is described as a technology that "brought" usable internet, and hence this action is completed. Thus, simple past tense 'was' must be used to express the comparison of the "impacts".

C

the impact of none was 

Correct

D

it is the impact of none that has been

Notice here, that the verb 'has been' is in present perfect tense and is correct. However this choice is more wordy than choice C because of the use of 'it is the'.

E

it may be that the impact of none that was

This choice is also wordy because of the use of 'it may be’. Also, this choice changes the meaning of the sentence since it states a possibility of the comparison instead of stating the comparison as a certainty.

QUESTION: 15

After not being actively engaged in a large overseas conflict for several years, 1969 saw the instatement of a draft lottery for those born between 1944 and 1950 in the United States and thus eligible for military service.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

  • After not being actively engaged in a large overseas conflict for several years,
  • 1969 saw the instatement of a draft lottery for those
    • born between 1944 and 1950 in the United States
    • and thus eligible for military service.               

Because of the incorrect construction, this sentence fails to communicate logical meaning.  Thus, we will need to infer the meaning by putting together the meaning from various segments of this sentence. 

The sentence begins with saying that some entity has not been actively engaged in large overseas conflict for several years.  This modifier is followed by “1969”.  Clearly 1969 cannot be that entity.  So we need to figure out what entity in the sentence logically can be modified by this modifier.

Next the sentence says that in 1969, there was instatement of a draft lottery.  This was for a certain segment of people.  This segment was born between 1944 and 1950.  Next the sentence says that this instatement happened in the US.

Lastly the sentence says that this step made these people eligible for military service.

So clearly of all the nouns in the sentence, it makes sense for US to be modified by the opening description.  i.e. it makes sense to say that US was not actively engagement in the said conflict for several years and after years of inactivity it instated a draft lottery system in the year 1969.

 

Error Analysis

The modifier “after not being…” illogically modifies “1969,” the subject of the following clause. It was not “1969” that was not actively involved in an overseas conflict; it was the United States.   

Answer Choices

A

1969 saw the instatement of a draft lottery for those born between 1944 and 1950 in the United States and thus eligible

Incorrect:

This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.

B

the United States’ instatement of a draft lottery in 1969 made those born between the time of 1944 and 1950 eligible 

Incorrect:     

1)     The modifier “after not being…” illogically refers to the subject “the United States’ instatement.” It was not the instatement that was not actively involved in an overseas conflict; it was the United States.

2)     The phrase “the time of” is redundant since the choice already makes clear that it’s talking about the people who were born between 1944 and 1950.      

C

a draft lottery was instated in 1969 for those born between 1944 and 1950 in the United States, making them eligible   

Incorrect:     

The modifier “after not being…” illogically modifies the subject of the following clause “the draft lottery”. It was not the draft lottery that was not actively involved in an overseas conflict; it was the United States. 

D

the year 1969 saw the instatement of a draft lottery, making eligible those born in the United States between 1944 and 1950

Incorrect:     

1)     This choice contains the same modifier error as Choice A does.

2)     Further, the verb-ing modifier “making” does not make sense with the subject of the preceding clause. The year 1969 did not make people eligible; the instatement of the draft lottery by the United States did.

E

the United States in 1969 instated a draft lottery for those born between 1944 and 1950 and thus made them eligible

Correct:

This choice makes “the United States” the subject of the clause. Now, the modifier “after not being…” correctly modifies this subject.

QUESTION: 16

While the average age of its population is below 40 years, the annual GDP of a nation is expected to rise at a rate above 5 percent annually and then as the average age of its population increases beyond 40 years, stabilizing at 3 percent, a growth rate that will mainly be driven by addition of higher quality services

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

This sentence shows the difference between the growth of GDP when the average age of the population is below 40 years and when the average age of the population is above 40 years.

This question tests your knowledge of modifiers and parallelism.

Error Analysis

The original sentence has parallelism error. Since this sentence compares the trends in GDP based on different values of the average age of population, the trends should be stated in similar manner. Notice that trend 1 when average age is less than 40 years, is stated as “expected to rise”. Thus, trend 2 when average age is more than 40 years, should be stated as “expected to stabilize” or by taking expected common as - “to stabilize”. “Stabilizing” is thus, incorrect 

Answer Choices

A

stabilizing at 3 percent, a growth rate that will mainly be driven by

This choice has parallelism error as explained in the overall feedback. 

B

to stabilize at 3 percent, a growth rate that will mainly be driven by

Correct

C

and then to stabilize at 3 percent, with such a growth rate, driving

This choice has multiple errors – Parallelism error due to incorrect use of "and" and awkward placement of modifiers.

1: Parallelism – List identified is not correct – Since "and then" is used, a non-sensical list is created. The sentence now implies that "as average age goes beyond 40 years and then to stabilize at 3 percent" – this means that average age stabilizes at 3 percent. This is non-sensical and clearly not the intent of the original sentence.

2: Furthermore, the modifier "with such a growth rate" is awkward. It now implies that average age of population with such a growth rate….This is non-sensical because per the intended meaning, growth rate is associated with the growth rate of GDP and not with the average population age

D

stabilizing at 3 percent, that results in a growth rate that will mainly be driven by

This choice has two errors - parallelism & modifier. Parallelism error as explained in Choice A.

Modifier error – "that results in ..." modifies 3 percent which is non-sensical. 

E

to stabilize at 3 percent, which will result in a growth rate that will mainly be driven by 

This choice has modifier error as in Choice D. In this choice which modifier refers to 3 percent which is non-sensical. 

QUESTION: 17

The tombs in the Valley of the Kings, constructed to house deceased pharaohs and nobles, were first explored in the late 18th century by members of Napoleon’s Egyptian expedition and has been found to contain more than 63 tombs and chambers. 

Solution:

Meaning Analysis  

  • The tombs in the Valley of the Kings,
      • constructed to house deceased pharaohs and nobles from the New Kingdom,
    • were first explored in the late 18th century by members of Napoleon’s Egyptian expedition
    • and has been found to contain more than 63 tombs and chambers.                                        

This sentence talks about the tombs in the Valley of the Kings, which were for the dead pharaohs and nobles. The author tells the following two things about these tombs:

  1. Members of Napoleon’s Egyptian expedition were the first ones to explore these tombs in the late 18th century. 
  2. These tombs have been found to comprise of more than 63 tombs and chambers.  

 

Error Analysis

The singular verb “has been found” does not agree in number with the plural subject “the tombs”. 

Answer Choices

A

were first explored in the late 18th century by members of Napoleon’s Egyptian expedition and has been

Incorrect:

This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.

B

was first explored in the late 18th century by members of Napoleon’s Egyptian expedition, and is

Incorrect:   

The singular verbs “was” and “is” do not agree with the plural subject “the tombs” in number.      

C

first explored in the late 18th century by members of Napoleon’s Egyptian expedition, and have been

Incorrect:

The verb-ed modifier “explored” is not grammatically parallel to the verb “have been found.” 

D

were first explored in the late 18th century by members of Napoleon’s Egyptian expedition, and have been

Correct:

This choice corrects the only error of the original sentence by changing the singular verb “has” to “have”.

E

first explored by members of Napoleon’s Egyptian expedition in the late 18th century, and are

Incorrect:     

1)     This choice repeats the parallelism error of Choice C.  

2)     The simple present tense “are found” is incorrect since the tombs have been found over a period of time. So, we need the present perfect tense to show that this action started in the past and is continuing even now. 

QUESTION: 18

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, known as PTSD, is usually caused by an individual’s exposure to extremely traumatic events and, in particular if the incident is extreme, can occur as a result of the mind’s attempting to sort through memories involving stressful events.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis  

  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder,
    • known as PTSD,
  • is usually caused by an individual’s exposure to extremely traumatic events and,
    • in particular if the incident is extreme,
  • can occur as a result of the mind’s attempting to sort through memories involving stressful events. 

The sentence presents information about Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. It:

  1. is known as PTSD.
  2. is generally caused when a person is exposed to extremely traumatic events.
  3. can happen when the mind tries to sort through memories about stressful events.

 

Error Analysis

The phrase “mind’s attempting” is not correct. When the sentence requires usage of a noun, then the conventional noun form of the word must be used, and not the verb-ing noun form. In this case, use of the noun form is mandatory since “mind’s” is a possessive form; hence, it is an adjective that must be followed by a regular noun. This error can be rectified by replacing “attempting” with its conventional noun form “attempt”.  This is the only error in the sentence.

Answer Choices

A

attempting to sort through memories involving

Incorrect: This choice has the error stated in the error analysis.

B

attempt to sort through memories, involving 

Incorrect:

Use of comma + verb-ing modifier “involving…” is incorrect as it illogically modifies the actions of the preceding clause. This modifier should logically modify only the preceding noun entity “memories” and hence must be used without a comma preceding it.         

C

attempt to sort through memories involving 

Correct:

This choice rectifies the idiom error of the original sentence.   

D

attempting and sorting through memories that involve

Incorrect:

1)     This choice repeats the idiom error of Choice A.

2)     The forced parallelism between “attempting” and “sorting” changes the intended meaning of the sentence. These two actions are now independent of each other while per the original sentence, the mind attempts to sort certain memories. 

E

attempting of memories, which involve sorting of

Incorrect:    

  1. This choice also repeats the idiom error of Choice A.
  2. This choice completely distorts the intended meaning of the sentence. Per this sentence, the relative pronoun modifier “which” modifies “attempting of memories” that involve sorting of stressful events. This is certainly not the intended meaning explained in the meaning analysis. 
QUESTION: 19

The creator of Xamaleon awaits the patent for his creation, an exotic ice cream that changes color with variations in temperature, tastes similar to “tutti-frutti”.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

  • The creator of Xamaleon awaits the patent for his creation,
    • an exotic ice cream
      • that changes color with variations in temperature, tastes similar to “tutti-frutti”.

This sentence presents information about Xamaleon. Its creator is waiting for the patent of this product. Xamaleon is an exotic ice-cream. It changes color when the temperature changes.  It tastes like “tutti-frutti”.

Error Analysis

Since “changes” and “tastes” present two qualities of Xamaleon, they should be parallel to each other. Although they are grammatically as well as logically parallel to each other, the missing “and” that must connect these two parallel entities leads to a parallelism error. This is the only error in this sentence.  

Answer Choices

A

Xamaleon awaits the patent for his creation, an exotic ice cream that changes color with variations in temperature, tastes similar to “tutti-frutti”

Incorrect:

This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.

B

Xamaleon, an exotic ice cream that changes color with variations in temperature and tastes similar to “tutti-frutti”, awaits the patent for his creation

Correct:  

This choice corrects the only error in the sentence by placing “and” before “tastes”.

C

Xamaleon, an exotic ice cream that changes color with variations in temperature, tasting similar to “tutti-frutti”, awaits the patent for his creation

Incorrect:

This choice changes the intended meaning. The comma + verb-ing modifier “tasting…” does not make sense in modifying the clause “that changes color”. According to the intended meaning, the color and taste of the ice cream are parallel items describing the ice cream. This meaning should be retained in the correct choice.    

D

Xamaleon, an exotic ice cream, awaits the patent for his creation, changing color as the temperature varies and tasting similar to “tutti-frutti”

Incorrect:

This choice conveys a completely illogical meaning as the entities in the unintended parallel list – “comma + changing… and tasting…” make no sense in modifying the preceding clause “The creator …awaits the patent”.

E

Xamaleon, an exotic ice cream changing color with variations in temperature and tastes similar to “tutti-frutti”, awaits the patent for his creation

Incorrect:    

Since the verb “changes” has been changed into the verb-ing modifier “changing”, there is nothing that the verb “tastes” preceded by “and” is parallel to in the preceding part of the sentence. Hence, this choice has a parallelism error.  

QUESTION: 20

Steganography, the art of concealing a message, image, or file within another piece of communication, especially within its alphabet, color, and other transport layers.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis  

  • Steganography,
    • the art of concealing a message, image, or file within another piece of communication,
      • especially within its alphabet, color, and other transport layers. 

The sentence explains what steganography is. It is the art of hiding a message, an image or a file within another piece of communication, especially within its own alphabet, color, and other layers.

 

Error Analysis

The subject “steganography” does not have a verb. This is the only error in the sentence.  

Answer Choices

A

Steganography, the art of concealing a message, image, or file within another piece of communication,

Incorrect: This choice has the error stated in the error analysis.

B

Concealing a message, image, or file within another piece of communication is steganography, which is an art,

Incorrect:      

This choice distorts the meaning of the sentence. The modifier “especially within…” illogically modifies “which is an art”. As per the original sentence, it should modify “the art of concealing…” since it provides more information about where the messages are concealed            

C

Steganography is the art of concealing a message, image, or file within another piece of communication,

Correct:

This choice is the correct answer as it has the verb “is” for the subject “steganography”. 

D

The art of concealing a message, image, or file within another piece of communication is steganography,

Incorrect:      

The modifier “especially within its…” in the non-underlined portion of the sentence should modify “the art of concealing…” and not “steganography”.   

E

Steganography, the art of concealing a message, image, or file within another piece of communication, is

Incorrect:      

The subject “steganography” does not make sense with its verb “is”. Steganography is not located within its alphabet, color, and other transport layers. These are the places where the hidden messages are located.  

QUESTION: 21

Despite the fact that they form the fifth largest desert of the world, the Gobi dunes are neither sandy nor are they hot.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

  • Despite the fact that they form the fifth largest desert of the world,
  • the Gobi dunes are
    • neither sandy
    • nor are they hot.

This sentence presents a contrast. The Gobi dunes form the fifth largest desert of the world. But still these dunes are neither sandy nor hot.

Error Analysis

The sentence uses the idiom “neither X nor Y” in which X and Y should be grammatically as well as logically parallel. Here the adjective “sandy” is not parallel to the clause “are they…”

Answer Choices

A

Despite the fact that they form the fifth largest desert of the world, the Gobi dunes are neither sandy nor are they hot.

Incorrect: This choice has error pointed out in the error analysis.

B

Forming the fifth largest desert of the world, the Gobi dunes are neither sandy nor hot.

Incorrect:

The intended contrast is missing from this choice.

C

Although forming the fifth largest desert of the world, the Gobi dunes are neither sandy nor are they hot.

Incorrect:

This choice repeats the parallelism error of Choice A.

D

Despite forming the fifth largest desert of the world, the Gobi dunes are neither sandy nor are hot.

Incorrect:

This choice has a parallelism error since the adjective “sandy” is not grammatically parallel to the verb “are.”

E

Although they form the fifth largest desert of the world, the Gobi dunes are neither sandy nor hot.

Correct:

This choice corrects the parallelism error of the original sentence and clearly presents the contrast.  

QUESTION: 22

High inflation if not followed by correspondingly increasing of lending rates lead to devaluation of currency.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

This sentence shows the condition under which the high inflation leads to devaluation of currency.

This question tests your knowledge of subject verb number agreement, usage of adverbs vs. adjectives, and pronoun reference.


Error Analysis

The original sentence has two errors:
1: SV-Number – The subject – high inflation – should have singular verb – leads
2: Modifier – The modifier “correspondingly” modifies the noun “increasing of lending rates”. Thus, this should be written as an adjective instead of as an adverb. Thus ‘corresponding increase of lending rates’ is the correct expression.

Answer Choices

A

if not followed by correspondingly increasing of lending rates lead

This choice has two errors – SV-number and usage of adverb when adjective should be used as explained in error analysis.

B

when not followed by increase in lending rates can correspondingly lead

This choice has two errors:
1: Meaning – the use of word "when" changes the intended meaning since now it implies that whenever high inflation is not followed by increase in lending rates, the effect will take place. This is not the intended meaning since the original sentence mentions this as a condition
2: Use of correspondingly – Per the original sentence "corresponding" should be used with “increasing of lending rate”. This is so because per the condition, there should be relative increase in lending rate based on the high inflation and not any increase. However, in this choice, it is used with the verb "lead", and hence no longer communicates this meaning.

C

if it is not correspondingly followed by increase in lending rates leads

This choice has 2 errors
1: Awkward construction - Due to the use of pronoun "it" the sentence has a very awkward and imprecise construction.
2: Use of correspondingly – This choice uses correspondingly in incorrect manner as in choice B.

D

if not followed by corresponding increase in lending rates can lead

Correct

E

not being followed by increase in corresponding lending rates can lead

This choice is awkward in construction and uses corresponding in incorrect manner as in Choice C.

QUESTION: 23

Articulate started the e-learning blog, where the theory was simple – consumers showing a greater willingness to buy its tools if they find multiple uses for them.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

The sentence states a fact about the theory behind the e-learning blog started by Articulate.

This question tests your ability to use modifiers appropriately to express the intended meaning.

Error Analysis

The original sentence has a two errors:

1: Modifier error – the modifier “where” can be used to describe places only. In this case where is used to describe a blog, and this is incorrect.

2: Fragment error in the If..then Statement – The if clause is in the non-underlined portion of the sentence and is listed in simple present tense. Then clause is in the underlined portion of the sentence and lacks the verb for the subject “consumers”, resulting in a fragment.

Answer Choices

A

where the theory was simple – consumers showing

This choice has two errors - Modifiers and Fragment - as explained in error analysis.

B

which had the simple theory of consumers showing

Fragment Error in the if…then statement – as in Choice A

C

with a simple theory of consumers showing

This choice two errors:

1: This choice has awkward wording because blog with simple theory implies that simple theory is a characteristic of blog. In parallel terms – "dog with white whiskers"

2: Fragment Error in the if...then statement – as in Choice A.

D

whose theory was simple – consumers show

Correct

E

with a theory that is a simple one – consumers show

This choice has awkward wording as in Choice C.

QUESTION: 24

In the past considered impossible to detect because of its ethereal nature, studying neutrino now represents a unique window into an otherwise invisible universe, a method offering clues about the missing mass called dark matter, whose presence can be inferred only by its gravitatio.nal influence on stars and galaxies

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

This sentence states a fact about neutrino. It states that in the past neutrino was impossible to detect but now it represents a unique opportunity. This opportunity can offer clues about dark matter.

The question tests your understanding of how modifiers are used in a sentence. It also tests your skills to identify all subject-verb pairs.

Error Analysis

This sentence has modifier error. The modifier “considered impossible to detect…” is intended to modify the noun – neutrino. But since the immediate noun phrase following this modifier is “studying neutrino”, it nonsensically modifies “studying neutrino”. Thus the correct choice should be worded so that “neutrino” is modified by this modifier.

Answer Choices

A

studying neutrino now represents a unique window into an otherwise invisible universe, a method offering

This choice has modifier error as explained in error analysis.

B

neutrino now represents a unique window into an otherwise invisible universe, offering

Correct

C

study of neutrino now represents a unique window into the universe which is otherwise invisible, as a means to offer

This choice has modifier error as explained in sentence analysis. 

D

neutrino now representing a unique window into an otherwise invisible universe for offering of

The subject “neutrino” has no verb. "representing" cannot be the verb since it is not preceded by is/was. The expression "for offering of" is wordy and does not make sense.

E

neutrino now represents a unique window into an otherwise invisible universe, which offering

This choice has fragment error since the subject "which" has no verb.

QUESTION: 25

First sold May 1, 1924, iodized salt that made its way in regular diet to reduce the incidence of goiter has also been found to play a crucial role in brain development, especially during gestation.

Solution:

Answer Choices

A

First sold May 1, 1924, iodized salt that made its way in regular diet to reduce the incidence of goiter has also been found to play

Correct Choice

B

Iodized salt, which was first sold May 1, 1924, making its way for reducing the incidence of goiter, has also been found to play

Incorrect modification. Comma + verb-ing “making” modifies the preceding clause “which was first sold…”

C

Iodized salt first sold May 1, 1924, which made its way in regular diet for reducing the incidence of goiter, and has been found to

‘And’ is an indicator for a list. But there is no verb in the first entity of the list. 

D

First sold May 1, 1924, making its way in regular diet to reduce the incidence of goiter, iodized salt has also been found to play 

Incorrect modification. This seems to suggest that “making way” is a result of “Salt being first sold in 1924”. 

E

First sold May 1, 1924, iodized salt has made its way in regular diet to reduce the incidence of goiter, also playing

  1. Change in verb tense changes meaning. This choice now suggests that “Iodized salt has recently made its way into regular diet.”
  2. Comma + Verb-ing “playing” illogically modifies the preceding clause. 
QUESTION: 26

“Superhumans” who possess Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory claim from almost every day of their lives that they can recall very particular details such as what they had eaten on the 8th of September, 1983, or what the weather was like during their drive to the polls on election day 13 years ago.

Solution:
QUESTION: 27

According to the investigations of physiologists and psychologists, nervousness has been found to be not an organic disease but a functional one, which is a critical distinction, for an organic disease implies impairment of the tissues of an organ, while a functional disease indicates only a disruption of its role

Solution:

Meaning Analysis  

  • According to the investigations of physiologists and psychologists,
  • nervousness has been found to be not an organic disease but a functional one,
    • which is a critical distinction,
  • for an organic disease implies impairment of the tissues of an organ,
    • while a functional disease indicates only a disruption of its role.     

This sentence talks about the investigations conducted by physiologists and psychologists. These investigations have identified that nervousness is functional disease not an organic one. Whether a disease is an organic one or a functional one is a critical distinction since an organic disease indicates the damage of the tissues of an organ whereas a functional disorder means a disorder in the organ’s role.  

Error Analysis

Logically, the relative pronoun modifier “which” should refer to the clause “nervousness has been found to be…” However, “which” can refer only to nouns.

Answer Choices

A

nervousness has been found to be not an organic disease but a functional one, which is a critical distinction, for an organic disease implies impairment of the tissues of an organ, while a functional disease indicates only a disruption of its role  

Incorrect:       

This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.  

B

nervousness, found to be an organic disease rather than a functional one, a critical distinction, because an organic disease implies impairment of an organ’s tissues, while a functional disease indicates only a role disruption 

Incorrect:       

1)     There is no verb for the subject “nervousness”.   

2)     This choice incorrectly states that nervousness  is an organic disease. The original sentence states the opposite: that it has been found to be a functional disease.

3)     The phrase “a role disruption” does not make clear whose role disruption is being referred to.    

C

it has been found that nervousness is not an organic disease but rather is a functional one; while a functional disease indicates only a disruption of an organ’s role, an organic disease implies impairment of the tissues, a critical distinction  

Incorrect:       

1)     The idiom “not X but rather Y” requires X and Y to be parallel. In this choice, the noun “an organic disease” is not parallel to the verb “is”.

2)     The placement of “a critical distinction” fails to convey what the distinct entities are.     

D

nervousness has been found to be not an organic disease but a functional one; this distinction is critical, for an organic disease implies impairment of the tissues of the organ, while a functional disease indicates only a disruption of its role    

Correct:    

This choice corrects the only error of the original sentence by replacing the modifier “which” with “this distinction”. Now, it’s clear what distinction the author is talking about.        

E

nervousness was found to be not an organic disease but a functional one, a critical distinction, since impairment of the tissues of the organ is implied by an organic disease, while a functional disease indicates only a role disruption

Incorrect:       

1)     The simple past tense “was” is incorrectly used to present an action that has happened over a period of time.   

2)     The noun “impairment” is  not logically parallel to the noun “a functional disease”.  As per the intended meaning, “an organic disease” and “a functional disorder” should be parallel.

3)     This choice also repeats the “a role disruption” meaning error of Choice B.

QUESTION: 28

President Clinton spent significant money on the “No Child Left Behind” program in several school districts throughout the country, which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added thousands of jobs for teachers and support staff.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

  • President Clinton spent money on a particular program in several schools.
  • This spending has resulted in two things:
    • Boom in the school construction industry
    • Addition of jobs for teachers and support staff.


Error Analysis

  • Clause 1: President Clinton spent significant money on the “No Child Left Behind” program in several school districts throughout the country,
  • Clause 2: which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added thousands of jobs for teachers and support staff.

Error 1 – Per the meaning of the sentence, the action of spending resulted into two things. Here relative pronoun “which” has been used to mention the results of the action in the preceding clause. This is incorrect because “which” can only refer to a noun entity and not a clause.

Answer Choices

A

which led to a boom in the school construction industry and also added

Incorrect for the reasons as identified earlier.

B

which not only led to a boom in the school construction industry, but also added

Incorrect for the reasons as identified earlier.

C

not only leading to a boom in the school construction industry but also adding

Correct

D

leading to a boom in the school construction industry, which also added

Error 1 – Use of “which” is incorrect because it illogically modifies the preceding noun entity “the school construction industry”. Per this choice, the sentence means that the school construction industry added jobs for teachers and support staff.

E

leading to a boom in the construction industry of school, which added

Error 1 – Use of “which” is incorrect because it illogically modifies the preceding noun entity “construction industry of school”. Per this choice, the sentence means that the school construction industry added jobs for teachers and support staff.

QUESTION: 29

When used repeatedly, financial tools such as Quantitative Easing may lose their ability to stimulate the economy; a potential reason is that as these tools are employed repeatedly, few select sectors of the economy learn to disproportionately exploit them, reaping greater benefits than the sectors that do not.

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

The sentence states that financials tools may lose their ability to stimulate the economy, if these tools are used repeatedly. The reason is that few sectors of the economy, which learn to exploit these tools reap greater benefits than sectors that do not learn to exploit these tools.

The question tests your ability to read the sentence carefully and understand how each clause is connected to other.

Error Analysis

There are no errors in the original sentence.

Answer Choices

A

When used repeatedly, financial tools such as Quantitative Easing may lose their ability to stimulate the economy; a potential reason is that as these tools are employed repeatedly, few select sectors of the economy learn to disproportionately exploit them

Correct

B

When used repeatedly, a potential reason that financial tools such as Quantitative Easing may lose their ability to stimulate the economy is that as these tools are employed repeatedly, few select sectors of the economy learn to disproportionately exploit them

Modifier error: In this option, "When uses repeatedly" incorrectly refers to "a potential reason".

C

When used repeatedly, a potential reason of financial tools such as Quantitative Easing losing their ability to stimulate the economy is that as these tools are employed repeatedly, disproportionately few select sectors of the economy learn to exploit them

There are two errors in this option:

  1. Modifier error: “When used repeatedly” incorrectly refers to “a potential reason”.
  2. Meaning: “disproportionately” modifies adjective “few” and distorts the intended meaning of the sentence.

D

Financial tools such as Quantitative Easing may lose their ability to stimulate the economy when used repeatedly; a potential reason is that with each repeated use few select sectors of the economy learn to disproportionately exploit the tools

There are two errors in this option:

  1. Modifier placement: Modifier “When used repeatedly” should be placed close to “financial tools”. In the current location, its use is ambiguous. It may refer to “economy” as well
  2. Meaning: “with each repeated use” distorts the intended meaning of the original sentence.

E

A potential reason of loss of ability of financial tools such as Quantitative Easing in stimulating the economy when these tools are used repeatedly may be that as these tools are employed repeatedly, few select sectors of the economy learn to 

Meaning: Per this choice, the loss of ability of the financial tools is a sure thing while the original sentence presents a possibility of the same.

QUESTION: 30

  The amount of annual precipitation received in the Amazon rainforest dropped to a new low this year and prompted fears that both the forests and the wildlife in the area would suffer as a result.   

Solution:

Meaning Analysis

  • The amount of annual precipitation received in the Amazon rainforest
    • dropped to a new low this year
    • and prompted fears
      • that both the forests and the wildlife in the area would suffer as a result.  

This sentence tells us that the rainfall in the Amazon rainforest was very low this year. This drop in the rainfall gave rise to the fears that the forest and the wildlife in the rainforest would suffer.

Error Analysis

The verb “prompted” conveys the meaning that the”amount of rain”  prompted the fears. This is incorrect. The fears were prompted because of the decrease in the amount of rain and not the amount itself.

Answer Choices

A

year and prompted

Incorrect:

This choice has the error pointed out in error analysis. 

B

year, prompting

Correct:      

The comma + verb-ing modifier “prompting” correctly shows the result of the action (drop in the rainfall) presented in the preceding clause.

    

C

year, and it prompted

Incorrect:

Since the pronoun “it” refers to “the amount of annual precipitation”, this choice conveys the same illogical meaning as in choice A.      

D

year, which prompted

Incorrect:

The modifier “which” incorrectly refers to the preceding noun “year”. Now, the sentence illogically suggests that the year prompted the fears.  

E

year; it prompted  

Incorrect:    

This choice has the same meaning error as in choice A. 

QUESTION: 31

To counter the popularity of Massively Open Online Courses, the University of Armedageon has proposed slashing the tuition cost per credit by as much as 15 percent this year, which results in a loss of $5M for the university and represents the reversal of a trend of increasing tuition costs over the past decade.

Solution:

Answer Choices

A

To counter the popularity of Massively Open Online Courses, the University of Armedageon has proposed slashing the tuition cost per credit by as much as 15 percent this year, which results in a loss of $5M for the university and represents

Relative pronoun “which” modifies

the preceding clause. 

B

To counter the popularity of Massively Open Online Courses, the University of Armedageon has proposed slashing the tuition cost per credit by as much as 15 percent this year, a reduction that results in a loss of $5M for the university and that represents

Correct Choice

C

The University of Armedageon has proposed slashing the tuition cost per credit by as much as 15 percent this year, countering the popularity of Massively Open Online Courses, resulting in a loss of $5M for the university, and representing

The forced parallel list of verb-ing modifiers changes the meaning of the sentence. 

D

Countering the popularity of Massively Open Online Courses, the University of Armedageon has proposed the slashing of the tuition cost per credit by as much as 15 percent this year,  resulting in a loss of $5M for the university and representing

The intended meaning “the proposal of slashing tuition cost is to counter the popularity of MOOC” is no longer communicated here. This sentence depicts “countering the popularity” as a result rather than as the “cause” for the action of “slashing the tuition costs.” 

E

Resulting in a loss of $5M for the university, the University of Armedageon has proposed slashing the tuition cost per credit by as much as 15 percent this year to counter the popularity of Massively Open Online Courses, representing

  1. Verb-ing modifier “Resulting” modifies the following clause.
  2. Comma + Verb-ing modifier incorrectly modifies the preceding clause.

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