Test: Subject Verb Agreement- 2


20 Questions MCQ Test Verbal for GMAT | Test: Subject Verb Agreement- 2


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QUESTION: 1

Unconventional forms of artistic expression such as graffiti, gaining a newfound status in the years following postmodernism, which exploded as a movement unprecedented in its multidisciplinary application.

Solution:

Unconventional forms of artistic expression such as graffiti, gaining a newfound status in the years following postmodernism, which exploded as a movement unprecedented in its multidisciplinary application.

Meaning Analysis

  • Unconventional forms of artistic expression such as graffiti, gaining a newfound status in the years following postmodernism,
    • which exploded as a movement unprecedented in its multidisciplinary application.

The sentence tells us some facts about the non-traditional forms of art such as graffiti.  These forms of art have gained a new status during certain time frame.  This time frame is years after postmodernism. It also describes postmodernism as a movement that was new in its multidisciplinary application. 

Error Analysis

There is no verb for the subject “Unconventional forms… expression” in the main clause.   

Answer Choices

A

Unconventional forms of artistic expression such as graffiti, gaining a newfound status in the years following postmodernism, which exploded as a movement unprecedented in its multidisciplinary application.

Incorrect:

This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis. 

B

Unconventional forms of artistic expression, in the years that had followed the explosion of postmodernism as a movement unprecedented in its multidisciplinary application, gained a newfound status, such as graffiti.

Incorrect:   

1)     The past perfect tense “had followed” is incorrect in this sentence since there no other related event from the past is mentioned in the sentence. Note that the action “gained” is not related to the action “followed”. 

2)     The placement of the phrase “such as graffiti” is incorrect in this choice. As per this choice, graffiti is an example of “a newfound status”.  This meaning makes no sense.

 

C

A movement that was unprecedented in its multidisciplinary application, unconventional forms of artistic expression such as graffiti had gained a newfound status in the years that followed the explosion of postmodernism.

Incorrect:         

1)     The past perfect tense verb “had gained” is incorrect in this choice since there is no other related event from the past.  

2)     The opening modifier “a movement…” incorrectly modifies the subject of the following clause “unconventional form of artistic expression”. This is incorrect because the forms of artistic expression were not a movement. This modifier should describe postmodernism.

D

In the years following the explosion of postmodernism as a movement that was unprecedented in its multidisciplinary application, unconventional forms of artistic expression such as graffiti gained a newfound status.

Correct: 

This choice corrects the error of the original sentence – missing verb by changing “gaining” to past tense verb “gained”. It communicates the intended meaning by using a slightly different sentence structure. 

Structure of original sentence: subject – verb – verb modifier explaining the time frame of when the verb happened

Structure of this choice: Verb modifier explaining the time frame of when the verb happened – subject – verb.

E

A movement that had been unprecedented in its multidisciplinary application in the years following the explosion of postmodernism, unconventional forms of artistic expression such as graffiti gained a newfound status.

Incorrect:     

1)     The past perfect tense “had been unprecedented” is incorrect since this sentence does not have any related past events that need sequencing.  

2)     The modifier “in the years following…” incorrectly modifies the verb “had been unprecedented”. As per the intended meaning, it should modify the verb “gained” since the artistic expression gaining the new status happened in these years.

3)     The opening modifier “a movement” illogically modifies “unconventional… expression”.

4)     This choice also distorts the intended meaning by suggesting that “a movement” and “postmodernism” are two different things. According to the intended meaning, postmodernism itself is this movement.

QUESTION: 2

Pilots who do not have over 5,000 hours of flying experience makes it unlikely for them to be chosen as flight commanders for transatlantic flights.   

Solution:

Pilots who do not have over 5,000 hours of flying experience makes it unlikely for them to be chosen as flight commanders for transatlantic flights.   

Meaning Analysis

  • Pilots
    • who do not have over 5,000 hours of flying experience
  • makes it unlikely for them to be chosen as flight commanders for transatlantic flights.   

This sentence presents a fact about certain pilots. It states that it is unlikely for pilots who do not have more than 5,000 hours of flying experience to be chosen as flight commanders for certain flights.

Error Analysis

  1. The plural subject “pilots” does not agree with the singular verb “makes”.
  2. This sentence conveys the illogical meaning that the pilots make something unlikely for themselves. It is the fact that the pilots don’t have more than 5,000 hours of work experience that makes it unlikely for them to be chosen as flight commanders.    

Answer Choices

A

Pilots who do not have over 5,000 hours of flying experience makes it unlikely for them  

Incorrect:

This choice has the errors pointed out in the error analysis. 

B

Pilots who do not have over 5,000 hours of flying experience are unlikely

Correct:

This choice conveys a perfectly logical meaning. It says that the pilots who don’t meet certain criteria are unlikely to be chosen as flight commanders.        

C

Not having over 5,000 hours of flying experience makes it unlikely for pilots

Incorrect:

The meaning of the phrase “not having” is not clear. This choice does not clearly state who does not have 5,000 hours of flying experience.

D

Not having over 5,000 hours of flying experience, pilots are unlikely to

Incorrect:

The phrase “not having….” suggests that no pilot has the required experience of 5,000 hours and hence is not likely to be chosen as flight commander. The intended meaning of the sentence is not that all pilots don’t have 5,000 hours of experience.  

E

Pilots not having over 5,000 hours of flying experience makes it unlikely for them

Incorrect:    

This choice has the same subject verb number agreement error and the illogical meaning error as in choice A. 

QUESTION: 3

A number of innovations shaped the course of the decade long World War II; however the invention that was the most important among all inventions were the atomic bomb that demonstrated the superiority of firepower of allied forces.

Solution:

A number of innovations shaped the course of the decade long World War II; however the invention that was the most important among all inventions were the atomic bomb that demonstrated the superiority of firepower of allied forces.

Meaning Analysis

The sentence states a comparison between several innovations that shaped the course of WWII and the innovation of atomic bomb in that the latter was the most important of all.

The question tests your expertise in identifying the subject and ensuring that its verb agrees in number. It also tests usage of correct verb tense to express the intended meaning.


Error Analysis

The original sentence has Subject-Verb Number Disagreement. The subject is singular “that (refers to invention)” and hence, it does not agree in number with the plural verb “were”. 

Answer Choices

A

were

The original sentence has Subject-Verb Number Disagreement as explained in sentence analysis. 

B

was

Correct

C

is

Use of simple present tense ‘is’ is incorrect since the sentence is set up in simple past tense and states facts that were true in the past.

D

are

The singular subject ‘that (refers to invention)’ does not agree with plural ‘are’. Also, simple present tense is incorrect. 

E

had been

Use of past perfect tense is incorrect since there is no intention of stating sequencing of events in the past.

QUESTION: 4

Planned reduction in orders for components for the iPhone 5 is due to weaker-than-expected demand because Apple’s share of world-wide smartphone shipments have declined from 23% to 14% since last year while Samsung’s share has steadily increased from 8.8% to 31% during the same period.  

Solution:

Planned reduction in orders for components for the iPhone 5 is due to weaker-than-expected demand because Apple’s share of world-wide smartphone shipments have declined from 23% to 14% since last year while Samsung’s share has steadily increased from 8.8% to 31% during the same period.  

Meaning Analysis  

  • Planned reduction in orders for components for the iPhone 5 is due to weaker-than-expected demand:
  • Apple’s share of world-wide smartphone shipments have declined from 23% to 14% since last year
    • while Samsung’s share has steadily increased from 8.8% to 31% during the same period.                          

The sentence says that Apple has reduced orders for iPhone 5 components. The reason for this decision is weaker-than-expected demand. Since last year, Apple’s share has declined from 23% to 14%. However, Samsung’s share has increased from 8.8% to 31%.  

 

Error Analysis

The plural verb “have declined” does not agree in number with the singular subject “Apple’s share”. 

Answer Choices

A

due to weaker-than-expected demand because Apple’s share of world-wide smartphone shipments have declined 

Incorrect: This choice has the errors pointed out in the error analysis.

B

because of weaker-than-expected demand: Apple’s share of world-wide smartphone shipments declined 

Incorrect:    

1)    Use of “because of” is incorrect because it modifies the noun entity “Planned reduction”. “Due to” should be used to modify nouns.

2)    Use of the simple past tense verb “declined” is incorrect because the word “since” has been used to show that the decline in shipments started in the recent past and may still be continuing. Hence we need the present perfect tense.

C

due to weaker-than-expected demand: Apple’s share of world-wide smartphone shipments has declined 

Correct:        

This choice clearly conveys the intended logical meaning of the sentence.   

D

because of weaker-than-expected demand: Apple’s share of world-wide smartphone shipments have been declining

Incorrect:

1)    This choice repeats the idiom error of Choice B. 

2)    This choice also repeats the subject-verb agreement error of option A since the plural verb “have” does not agree in number with the singular subject “Apple’s share”. 

E

due to weaker-than-expected demand that decreased Apple’s share of world-wide smartphone shipments

Incorrect:

1)    This choice states that weaker-than-expected demand decreased Apple’s share of shipments. This is not the logical intended meaning.

2)    Use of the simple past tense verb “decreased” is not correct. As explained in the POE for Choice B, we need the present perfect tense here.

QUESTION: 5

The group of the Pleiades, although lying outside the main course of the galaxy, are connected to it by a faint loop and is the scene of the most remarkable association of stars and nebulous matter known in the visible universe. 

Solution:

The group of the Pleiades, although lying outside the main course of the galaxy, are connected to it by a faint loop and is the scene of the most remarkable association of stars and nebulous matter known in the visible universe. 

Meaning Analysis  

  • The group of the Pleiades,
    • although lying outside the main course of the galaxy,
  • are connected to it by a faint loop and
  • is the scene of the most remarkable association of stars and nebulous matter
    • known in the visible universe.                              

The sentence says the group of the Pleiades lies outside the main course of the galaxy. However, it is connected to the galaxy by a faint loop. It also is the scene of the most impressive association of stars and nebulous matter that are known in the visible world. 

Error Analysis

The plural verb “are” does not agree in number with its singular subject “The group of the Pleiades”. This is the only error in the sentence.  

Answer Choices

A

are connected to it by a faint loop, and is 

Incorrect: This choice has the error stated in the error analysis.   

B

are connected to them by a faint loop and are 

Incorrect: 

1)     Both uses of the plural verbs “are” are incorrect as they do not agree in number with their singular subject “the group of the Pleiades”.  

2)     The plural pronoun “them” does not agree in number with its singular noun antecedent “the main course of the galaxy”.    

C

is connected to it by a faint loop and is

Correct:  

This choice corrects the verb tense error of the original sentence and is the correct answer.    

D

is connected to them by a faint loop and they are    

Incorrect: 

1)     This choice repeats the pronoun error of Choice B.  

2)     The plural pronoun “they” does not agree in number with its singular noun antecedent “the main course of the galaxy”. Subsequently, use of the plural verb “are” is also incorrect. 

E

is connected to it by a faint loop, which is 

Incorrect: 

The relative pronoun modifier “which” incorrectly refers to the preceding noun entity “a faint loop”, suggesting that the loop is the scene of the most remarkable group of stars. But it the group of the Pleiades that is the scene.    

QUESTION: 6

Residents of several Mexican villages have risen up in armed revolt against local drug traffickers terrorizing the region and against the government that residents say of as incapable to protect them from organized crime.

Solution:

Residents of several Mexican villages have risen up in armed revolt against local drug traffickers terrorizing the region and against the government that residents say of as incapable to protect them from organized crime.

Meaning Analysis

Many Mexican villagers have started armed revolution against:

  1. local drug traffickers who have terrorized the region.
  2. the government who the people think is not capable of protecting them. 

Error Analysis

  • Clause 1: Residents of several Mexican villages have risen up in armed revolt against local drug traffickers terrorizing the region and against the government
  • Clause 2: that
  • Clause 3: residents say
  • Cont. of Clause 2: of as incapable to protect them from organized crime.

Error 1 – Relative Pronoun “that” starts a dependent clause. It acts as a subject and stands for “the government”. However, there is no verb for this subject. This leads to fragment error.

Error 2 – “to protect” is not the correct expression here. The sentence wants to convey that the government does not have the ability. Hence, the correct expression here should be “of protecting”. Study the usage of “capable of” in the following correct official sentence:

Even though many of her colleagues were convinced that genes were relatively simple and static, Barbara McClintock adhered to her own more complicated ideas about how genes might operate, and in 1983, at the age of 81, was awarded a Nobel Prize for her discovery that the genes in corn are capable of moving from one chromosomal site to another.

Answer Choices

A

terrorizing the region and against the government that residents say of as incapable to protect

Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

B

terrorizing the region and the government that residents say to be incapable to protect

Incorrect.

Error 1 – Per this choice, the list is no longer clear. In the absence of “against” before the second element “the government”, the sentence may be construed to mean the following:

The villagers have started armed revolution against traffickers who have terrorized:

a. the region

b. the government.

This is certainly not the intended meaning of the sentence.   Thus to avoid ambiguity in meaning, we need to repeat “against” before “the government” the way we have it before “local drug traffickers”.

Error 2 – Same fragment error as in Choice A.

Error 3 – Same expression error as in Choice A.

C

who have terrorized the region and the government who residents say it is incapable to protect

Incorrect.

Error 1 – Same illogical parallelism error as in Choice B.

Error 2 – Presence of pronoun “it” is incorrect because relative pronoun “that” is already present in the sentence that stands for “the government”.

Error 3 – Same expression error as in Choice A.

D

who have terrorized the region and against the government that residents say is incapable of protecting

Correct. Verb “is” is the verb for the relative pronoun subject “that”. 

E

that terrorized the region and against the government that residents say incapable of protecting

Incorrect.

Error 1 – Local drug traffickers are people. Hence we should use relative pronoun “who” for them and not “that”.

Error 2 – Same fragment error as in Choice A.

QUESTION: 7

The production of goods for export that accounted for about one-third of China’s air pollution in 2006 and the outsourcing of manufacturing by the US helps explain how China has become the largest total contributor to climate change, overtaking the US. 

Solution:

The production of goods for export that accounted for about one-third of China’s air pollution in 2006 and the outsourcing of manufacturing by the US helps explain how China has become the largest total contributor to climate change, overtaking the US. 

Meaning Analysis

  • The production of goods for export
    • that accounted for about one-third of China’s air pollution in 2006
  • and the outsourcing of manufacturing by the US helps explain
    • how China has become the largest total contributor to climate change,
    • overtaking the US.

The sentence says the production of goods for export and the outsourcing of manufacturing by the US help explain something about China. We also get to know that the production of goods that are produced for export was responsible for about one-third of China’s air pollution in 2006. The two mentioned factors are the reason that China has become the largest total contributor to climate change and as a result has overtaken the US.

 

Error Analysis

There are two entities that form the subject of the first clause: “the production of goods for export” and “the outsourcing of manufacturing by the US”. So we have a plural subject here. However, the singular verb “helps” does not agree in number with this plural subject. So we have an SV number agreement error in this sentence. This is only error in this sentence.

Answer Choices

A

2006 and the outsourcing of manufacturing by the US helps explain how China has become the largest total contributor to climate change, overtaking

Incorrect: This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis. 

B

2006, combined with the outsourcing of manufacturing by the US, help explain how China has become the largest total contributor to climate change, and overtook

Incorrect:  

1)    This choice again has a SV number agreement error. Notice that the second factor “the outsourcing of manufacturing by the US” has been turned into a modifier. Hence, as per this choice, the subject is singular - “the production of goods for export”. Therefore, use of the plural verb “help” is incorrect here.

2)    Also, use of “overtook” is incorrect for two reasons.

  1. First, it indicates a slight change in the intended meaning of the sentence. The verb “overtook” is parallel to the verb “has become,” indicating that the two actions are independent of each other. In the original sentence, the verb-ing modifier “overtaking” modifies the clause “China has become…”, indicating that the two actions are related.  
  2. Second, use of the simple past tense is incorrect in this context because according to the intended meaning China is currently the largest total contributor to climate change.

C

2006, combined with the outsourcing of manufacturing by the US, helps explain how China has become the largest total contributor to climate change, overtaking

Correct:  This choice correctly uses the singular verb “helps” for the singular subject “the production of goods for export”.  

D

2006, combined with the fact that the US has been outsourcing its manufacturing, help explain how China has become the largest total contributor to climate change, overtaking

Incorrect: 

1)    This choice repeats the subject-verb agreement error of Choice B.

2)    Use of “the fact that… manufacturing” makes the choice unnecessarily wordy.

E

2006 and the outsourcing of manufacturing by the US helps in explaining China as the largest total contributor to climate change, overtaking

Incorrect:

1)     This choice repeats the SV number agreement error of Choice A. 

QUESTION: 8

Reduced-impact logging, a timber-harvesting technique used in the rainforests of Guyana, although it involves more cumbersome methods of felling trees than conventional logging, it kills fewer trees and encourages the natural growth of seedlings without the need to replant.

Solution:

Reduced-impact logging, a timber-harvesting technique used in the rainforests of Guyana, although it involves more cumbersome methods of felling trees than conventional logging, it kills fewer trees and encourages the natural growth of seedlings without the need to replant.

Meaning Analysis

  • Reduced-impact logging,
    • a timber-harvesting technique used in the rainforests of Guyana,
    • although it involves more cumbersome methods of felling trees than conventional logging –
  • it
    • kills fewer trees
    • and encourages the natural growth of seedlings without the need to replant.  

                   

This sentence talks about reduced-impact logging, which is a timber-harvesting technique used in the rainforests of Guyana. It states that although this technique has more cumbersome methods of felling trees than conventional logging has, this practice kills fewer trees and furthers the natural growth of young plants.

Error Analysis

There is no verb for the subject “reduced-impact logging”.   

Answer Choices

A

Reduced-impact logging, a timber-harvesting technique used in the rainforests of Guyana, although it involves more cumbersome methods of felling trees than conventional logging

Incorrect:    

This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.

B

A timber-harvesting technique used in the rainforests of Guyana, reduced-impact logging involves more cumbersome methods of felling trees than conventional logging,

Incorrect:       

1)     The contrast is missing in this choice.       

2)     This choice also contains a sentence structure error. It uses only a comma to join two independent clauses: “reduced-impact logging involves…” in the underlined portion and “it kills…” in the non-underlined portion.

C

Although it involves more cumbersome methods of felling trees than conventional logging, reduced-impact logging is a timber-harvesting technique used in the rainforests of Guyana,

Incorrect:      

1)     This choice presents a different contrast from what was intended in the original sentence. Contrast per this choice is - Although the reduced-impact logging involves certain methods, it is a timber-harvesting technique.

2)     This choice repeats the sentence structure error of choice B.

D

Although reduced-impact logging, a timber-harvesting technique used in the rainforests of Guyana, involves more cumbersome methods of felling trees than conventional logging,

Correct: 

This choice rectifies the error of the original sentence and presents the intended contrast correctly.

E

Although involving more cumbersome methods of felling trees than conventional logging, reduced-impact logging, a timber-harvesting technique used in the rainforests of Guyana,

Incorrect:    

There is no verb for the subject “reduced-impact logging”. 

QUESTION: 9

The German Chancellor Angela Merkel took credit for the revival of German economy in the midst of European and worldwide recession, claiming that her emphasis on policies promoting innovation have boosted exports to booming economies of Asia despite stronger Euro.

Solution:

The German Chancellor Angela Merkel took credit for the revival of German economy in the midst of European and worldwide recession, claiming that her emphasis on policies promoting innovation have boosted exports to booming economies of Asia despite stronger Euro.

Meaning Analysis

The sentence states something about German Chancellor Angela Merkel. It states that she took credit for the revival of German economy in the middle of worldwide recession. She claimed that her policies boosted German exports, leading to revival of the economy.

The question tests your understanding of verb-ing modifiers and subject-verb agreement.


Error Analysis

“have”, a plural verb, in the underlined portion has the corresponding singular subject “emphasis”. So, there is subject-verb disagreement.

Answer Choices

A

recession, claiming that her emphasis on policies promoting innovation have

Incorrect. SV disagreement: This choice has subject verb error – a plural verb "have" for the singular subject "emphasis".

B

 recession to claim that her emphasis on policies that promote innovation have

Incorrect. This choice has two errors:
 

  1. Meaning: “to” is a purpose word. This option statement changes the intended meaning of the original sentence. By replacing “claiming” with “to claim”, the meaning of the sentence changes to: Ms. Merkel took credit with a purpose to claim that her emphasis… The claim was made to support her taking credit, not the other way round.

 

      2. SV disagreement: Plural verb “have” is used with singular verb “emphasis”.

C

recession, claiming that her emphasis on policies promoting innovation has

Correct: This corrects the SV error in the original sentence. 

D

recession that claiming her emphasis on policies promoted innovation and

Incorrect. This choice has three errors:
 

  1. Meaning: Per this choice, “claiming” is not a modifier but the subject of the clause it starts. This distorts the meaning of the sentence

 

      2. SV illogical: “promoted” & “boosted” do not make sense with the subject “claiming on policies”.

 

      3. Modifier – Illogical modification: “that” illogically modifies “recession”

E

recession, claiming that her emphasis on policies have promoted innovation and have

Incorrect. This choice has two errors:
 

  1. SV error: “have promoted” &“have boosted” do not agree in number with “emphasis”

     2. Meaning: By joining “have promoted innovation” and “have boosted exports” through conjunction “and”, this option statement distorts the original meaning                which was that promoting innovation led to boost of exports.

QUESTION: 10

Companies conducting offshore drilling operations in the northern Artic region maintain that their compliance with regulations that pertain to the safety of marine life in the area are responsible for the decrease in pollution levels in the region.   

Solution:

Companies conducting offshore drilling operations in the northern Artic region maintain that their compliance with regulations that pertain to the safety of marine life in the area are responsible for the decrease in pollution levels in the region.   

Meaning Analysis

  • Companies conducting offshore drilling operations in the northern Artic region maintain

 

  • that their compliance with regulations
    • thatpertain to the safety of marine life in the area
    • are responsible for the decrease in pollution levels in the region.   

 

This sentence talks about the companies that carry out their offshore drilling operations in the northern Artic region. These companies assert that the pollution levels in the region have decreased because these companies comply with certain regulations. These regulations refer to the safety of marine life in the area.

Error Analysis

The plural verb “are” does not agree with the singular subject “their compliance”.  This is the only error in the sentence. This error can be rectified by changing “are” to “is”.  

Answer Choices

A

region maintain that their compliance with regulations that pertain to the safety of marine life in the area are  

Incorrect:

This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.

B

region, maintaining that their compliance with regulations pertaining to the safety of marine life in the area, are

Incorrect:  

1)     The subject “their compliance” doesn't have a verb.

2)     ‘That’ should introduce a dependent clause here. It is followed by the noun “their compliance”, but there is no verb for “their compliance”.

3)     According to this choice, the companies are responsible for the decrease in pollution levels. This is not the intended meaning of the original sentence.

C

region maintain that their compliance with regulations pertaining to the safety of marine life in the area is

Correct:

This choice changes the plural verb “are” to “is”, rectifying the only error in the original sentence. Also, the verb-ing modifier “pertaining” conveys the same meaning that is conveyed by “that pertain” in the original sentence since it correctly refers to the preceding noun “regulations”.

D

region that maintain that their compliance with regulations pertaining to the safety of marine life in the area is

Incorrect:  

1)     This choice introduces a new clause by putting the dependent marker “that” after “region”. Now, there is no verb for the subject - “companies”.

E

region maintain that their compliance with regulations that pertain to the safety of marine life in the area, which is

Incorrect:    

1)     There is no verb for the subject “their compliance”.

2)     The referent of the “which” modifier is not clear. It illogically seems to refer to “safety of marine life in the area”.    

QUESTION: 11

Integrated into workplace safety training programs, standard regulations for operating heavy machinery protects the company from possible lawsuits.

Solution:

Integrated into workplace safety training programs, standard regulations for operating heavy machinery protects the company from possible lawsuits.

Meaning Analysis

  • Integrated into workplace safety training programs, standard regulations for operating heavy machineryprotects the company from possible lawsuits.    

 This sentence tells us that standard regulations for operating heavy machinery are integrated into workplace safety training programs. These regulations protect the company from possible lawsuits.

 

Error Analysis

The singular verb “protects” does not agree in number with the plural subject “standard regulations”. 

Answer Choices

A

Integrated into workplace safety training programs, standard regulations for operating heavy machinery protects the company from possible lawsuits.

Incorrect:

This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.

B

Standard regulations for operating heavy machinery, which are integrated into workplace safety training programs, protect the company from possible lawsuits.

Correct:      

The plural verb “protect” correctly agrees in number with the plural subject “regulations”.

C

Protecting the company from possible lawsuits, workplace safety training programs integrate standard regulations for operating heavy machinery.  

Incorrect:

1)     The opening verb-ing modifier “protecting” refers to the subject “workplace safety training programs”. This meaning differs from the intended meaning of the sentence. According to the original sentence, standard regulations protect the company from possible lawsuits. According to this choice, workplace safety training programs protect the company from possible lawsuits.

2)     This choice conveys the meaning that the programs integrate the standard regulations on their own. This meaning is illogical since the programs do not integrate the regulations.   

 

D

Integrated into workplace safety training programs, the company is protected from possible lawsuits by standard regulations for operating heavy machinery.

Incorrect:

The opening verb-ed modifier “integrated” modifies “the company”, illogically suggesting that the company is integrated into programs.

E

The company is protected from possible lawsuits by standard regulations for operating heavy machinery and integrated into workplace safety training programs.  

Incorrect:    

Since “protected” and “integrated” are parallel entities here, this choice illogically states that the company is integrated into the programs. 

QUESTION: 12

As mentioned by several characters in William Shakespeare’s plays, notably by Marc Antony in Julius Caesar directly after Caesar's murder, “Havoc!,” a military signal from the Middle Ages, directing the soldiers to pillage and invoke chaos in order to causing of confusion among the enemy.

Solution:

As mentioned by several characters in William Shakespeare’s plays, notably by Marc Antony in Julius Caesar directly after Caesar's murder, “Havoc!,” a military signal from the Middle Ages, directing the soldiers to pillage and invoke chaos in order to causing of confusion among the enemy.

Meaning Analysis

    • As mentioned by several characters in William Shakespeare’s plays, notably by Marc Antony in Julius Caesar directlyafter Caesar's murder,
  • “Havoc!,”
    • a signal used in the Middle Ages,
  • directing the soldiers to pillage and invoke chaos in order to causing of confusion among the enemy.          

This sentence talks about the word “Havoc!”, which is mentioned several times in William Shakespeare’s plays and significantly by Marc Antony in Julius Caesar directlyafter Caesar's murder. “Havoc!” was a signal used in the Middle Ages. This signal was used to order the soldiers to loot goods and invoke chaos.  The intention behind these two activities was to cause confusion among the enemy.

Error Analysis

There is no verb for the subject “Havoc!”.   Also, the construction “in order to causing of” is incorrect.  It should be simply “in order to cause”.

Answer Choices

A

“Havoc!,” a military signal used in the Middle Ages, directing the soldiers to pillage and invoke chaos in order to causing of

Incorrect:       

This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.  

B

“Havoc!” was a military signal used in the Middle Ages, directing the soldiers to pillage and invoke chaos, causing

Incorrect:      

This choice distorts the intended meaning, according to which the purpose of creating chaos is to cause confusion among the enemy.  This choice on the other hand by using comma + causing fails to communicate that sense of intention.

C

“Havoc!” was a military signal used in the Middle Ages that directed the soldiers to pillage, invoke chaos, and cause

Incorrect:       

In this choice, since “cause” is parallel to “pillage” and “invoke,” it fails to convey the meaning that the intention behind pillage and invoking chaos was to cause the confusion.

D

“Havoc!,” a military signal used in the Middle Ages, directed soldiers to pillage, invoke chaos, and cause

Incorrect:  

This choice repeats the meaning error in option C.

E

“Havoc!” was a military signal used in the Middle Ages to direct soldiers to pillage and to invoke chaos in order to cause

Correct:       

This choice corrects the errors of the original sentence.

QUESTION: 13

An educational curriculum that originally catered to the children of globe-trotting diplomats making inroads in K-12 public schools across the U.S., boosting test results.

Solution:

An educational curriculum that originally catered to the children of globe-trotting diplomats making inroads in K-12 public schools across the U.S., boosting test results.

Meaning Analysis

The sentence talks of an educational curriculum which originally catered to the children of globe-trotting diplomats. The curriculum is now spreading to K-12 public schools and as a result is boosting results there.

The question tests your ability to follow the sentence structure and understand the intended meaning.


Error Analysis

There are two errors in the original sentence.

  1. SV pair: There is no verb for the subject “educational curriculum”
  2. Modifier error: “making” can modify either diplomats or children. In either of the cases, the modification is illogical. Neither children nor diplomats are making inroads in K-12 public schools.

Answer Choices

A

An educational curriculum that originally catered to the children of globe-trotting diplomats making inroads in K-12 public schools across the U.S., boosting

Incorrect. Errors as identified.

B

An educational curriculum originally catered to the children of globe-trotting diplomats makes inroads in K-12 public schools across the U.S. to boost

Incorrect. There are two errors in this option statement:
 

  1. Connection issue: Two verbs “catered” and “makes” for the subject “educational curriculum” are not connected properly.

     2.  Meaning: The option changes the intended meaning. Per this option, “to boost” is the objective or purpose. However, per the intended meaning, “boosting test           score” is a result of spread of the curriculum.

C

An educational curriculum originally catering to the children of globe-trotting diplomats and making inroads in K-12 public schools across the U.S. to boost

Incorrect. There are two errors in this option statement:
 

  1. SV pair: There is no verb for the subject “educational curriculum”

     2.  Same meaning error with “to boost” as in choice B.

D

An educational curriculum that originally catered to the children of globe-trotting diplomats is making inroads in K-12 public schools across the U.S., boosting

Correct. The subject "educational curriculum" has a verb "is making". "comma + boosting" correctly modifies the preceding clause.

E

Originally catering to the children of globe-trotting diplomats, public schools across US are using the educational curriculum to boost

Incorrect. There are two errors in this option statement:
 

  1. Meaning: Same meaning error with “to boost” as in choice B.

 

  1. Modifier: Per this option statement, public schools originally catered to the children of globe-trotting diplomats. This is not the intended meaning.
QUESTION: 14

Like traditional marketing, commonly defined as a form of marketing existing before the advent of technological means of accessing potential customers, digital marketing that utilizes available resources to collect data in order to estimate the characteristics of its target audience and to select pertinent avenues of advertising products.

Solution:

Like traditional marketing, commonly defined as a form of marketing existing before the advent of technological means of accessing potential customers, digital marketing that utilizes available resources to collect data in order to estimate the characteristics of its target audience and to select pertinent avenues of advertising products.

Meaning Analysis

  • Like traditional marketing,
    • commonly defined as a form of marketing existing before the advent of technological means of accessing potential customers,
  • digital marketing
    • that utilizes available resources to collect data in order
    • to estimate the characteristics of its target audience and
    • to select pertinent avenues of advertising products.

The sentence presents a comparison as indicated by the use of “like”. The comparison is between “traditional marketing” and “digital marketing”. The basis of comparison between the two is that they both use available resources for the following:

  1. to estimate the characteristics of its target audience.
  2. to select pertinent avenues of advertising products.

The sentence also presents some additional information about “traditional marketing”. It is defined as a form of marketing that existed before the introduction of technological ways of reaching potential customers. 

Error Analysis

The subject “digital marketing” does not have a verb. This is the only error in the sentence. 

Answer Choices

A

commonly defined as a form of marketing existing before the advent of technological means of accessing potential customers, digital marketing that utilizes

Incorrect: This choice has the error stated in the error analysis. 

B

a form of marketing that existed before the advent of technological means of accessing potential customers is commonly defined, and digital marketing utilizes

Incorrect: 

1)     This choice incorrectly compares “traditional marketing” with “a form of marketing”, which, in this choice, is the subject of the verb “is defined”. This comparison indicates that traditional marketing is not the same as “a form of marketing”, distorting the intended meaning of the sentence.

2)     Use of “and” before “digital marketing” is incorrect as it fails to establish the intended comparison.  Making this portion an independent clause suggests that there is no comparison between traditional and digital marketing.

3)     The construction of this choice is such that there is no comparison (similarity) presented after the use of “like”.   

C

a form of marketing existed before the advent of technological means of accessing potential customers that is commonly defined, with digital marketing utilizing

Incorrect:

1)     Like Option B, this choice indicates that “a form of marketing” is something different from traditional marketing.

2)     It is not clear which noun the relative pronoun modifier “that is commonly defined” is referring to.

3)     Like Option B, this choice does not retain the intended comparison between traditional and digital marketing. In this choice, the prepositional modifier “with” suggests that the information presented about digital marketing is extra information that is unrelated to the comparison made in the sentence.   

D

which is commonly defined as a form of marketing and which existed before the advent of technological means of accessing potential customers, digital marketing, utilizing

Incorrect: 

1)     This choice repeats the missing verb error of Choice A.            

2)     The modifier for “traditional marketing” does not indicate the same meaning that it does in the original sentence. The intended meaning is that traditional marketing is defined as a kind of marketing that existed before the advent of technological means of reaching customers. In this choice, because of the parallelism created by the inclusion of “and”, the original modifier is incorrectly split into two elements and does not preserve the intended meaning.

C

which is commonly defined as a form of marketing that existed before the advent of technological means of accessing potential customers, digital marketing utilizes

Correct:    

This choice corrects the only error in the original sentence. The subject “digital marketing” has the verb “utilizes”.   

QUESTION: 15

Steel is one of the most widely used construction metals, which is an alloy of carbon and iron and give foundations their strength.

Solution:

Steel is one of the most widely used construction metals, which is an alloy of carbon and iron and give foundations their strength.

Meaning Analysis  

  • Steel is one of most widely used construction metals,
    • which
      • is an alloy of carbon and iron and
      • give foundations their strength.                           

The sentence presents information about steel. Steel:

  1. is one of the most widely used construction materials. 
  2. is an alloy of carbon and iron.
  3. gives foundations their strength. 

 

Error Analysis

1)     The relative pronoun modifier “which” should logically refer to steel, but cannot jump over the preceding verb to modify the subject. 

2)     The plural verb “give” does not agree in number with the singular subject “steel”.

Answer Choices

A

Steel is one of the most widely used construction metals, which is an alloy of carbon and iron and give

Incorrect: This choice has the errors pointed out in the error analysis.

B

An alloy of carbon and iron, steel is one of the most widely used construction metals giving

Incorrect:

The verb-ing modifier “giving” refers to the preceding noun entity “construction materials” and distorts the meaning by suggesting that all construction materials give foundations their strength.  According to the intended meaning, only steel is identified as the material that gives foundations their strength.         

C

Steel, an alloy of carbon and iron, is one of the most widely used construction metals that give

Incorrect:

This choice presents the same distorted meaning as Choice B.

D

One of the most widely used construction metals is steel, which is an alloy of carbon and iron that give

Incorrect:      

The plural verb “give” does not agree in number with the singular subject “that”, which stands for the singular noun “an alloy”. Note that “that” cannot logically refer to “carbon and iron” since these items do not give foundations their strength; steel does. So, “of carbon and iron” is just a prepositional modifier that adds information to the noun “alloy,” which tells us what steel is made of.       

E

Steel, an alloy of carbon and iron, is one of the most widely used construction metals and gives

Correct:

This indeed is the correct answer as it conveys the intended meaning without any grammatical error.

QUESTION: 16

From various studies on behavioral economics, a branch of economics concerned with studying the impact of psychological factors on economic decision-making, are learned how consumers make buying decisions.     

Solution:

From various studies on behavioral economics, a branch of economics concerned with studying the impact of psychological factors on economic decision-making, are learned how consumers make buying decisions.     

Meaning Analysis

  • From various studies on behavioral economics,
    • a branch of economics concerned with studying the impact of psychological factors on economic decision-making,
  • are learned
  • how consumers make buying decisions.

 

The structure of this sentence is a little complicated so let’s understand it first. The sentence starts with a prepositional modifier, “from various studies on behavioral economics.” Then it has a long modifying phrase, “a branch of… decision-making,” that describes behavioral economics. The last part of the sentence gives us the subject-verb pair. The verb is “are learned” and the subject is the clause “how consumers make buying decisions.”

So, we have an inverted subject-verb pair in this sentence. It tells us that how consumers make buying decisions is learnt from various studies on behavioral economics. It also describes behavioral economics as a branch of economics that deals with studying the effect of psychological factors on economic decision-making.

 

Error Analysis

This sentence has one independent clause. The subject of this clause is a clause “how consumers make buying decisions”. Whenever a clause acts a subject in a sentence, it is always singular and hence takes a singular verb. Use of the plural verb “are learned” leads to a subject-verb number agreement error.

This is the only error in the sentence. The noun + noun modifier “a branch of economics concerned with…” correctly describes the noun “behavioral economics.” 

Answer Choices

A

From various studies on behavioral economics, a branch of economics concerned with studying the impact of psychological factors on economic decision making, are learned how consumers make buying decisions.

Incorrect: This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.  

B

Consumers make buying decisions and study the impact of psychological factors on economic decision-making by learning from various studies on behavioral economics, a branch of economics.

Incorrect:

This choice completely distorts the intended meaning of the sentence.

  1. It no longer talks about the factors that drive consumers to make a buying decision. Rather, it says that consumers make buying decisions.
  2. As per this choice, consumers study the impact of something. This information is not present in the original sentence.
  3. According to this choice, consumers learn from various studies on behavioral economics. This information is also not present in the original sentence. 

C

A branch of economics concerned with studying the impact of psychological factors on economic decision-making and various studies on behavioral economics are used to learn how consumers make buying decisions.

Incorrect:

Although grammatically correct, this choice again changes the intended meaning of the sentence. As per this choice, behavioral economics and the branch of economics concerned with studying the impact of psychological factors on economic decision-making are separate entities and both are used to understand how consumers make buying decisions. This is certainly not the intended meaning. According to the original sentence, behavioral economics is itself the branch of economics that is used in order to learn something. 

D

How consumers make buying decisions is learned from various studies on behavioral economics, a branch of economics concerned with studying the impact of psychological factors on economic decision-making.

Correct:

This is indeed the correct answer choice. Not only does this sentence correct the SV number error of the original choice but it also makes the structure of the sentence more comprehensible by starting the sentence with the subject.  

E

Various studies on behavioral economics, a branch of economics concerned with studying the impact of psychological factors on economic decision-making, learning how consumers make buying decisions.

Incorrect:

There is no verb for the subject “Various studies… economics”.       

QUESTION: 17

Because technological advances quickly surpassed and companies wanted to make large profits while they still can, many companies charge the maximum possible price for a product that represents a clear technological advantage over competing products.  

Solution:

Because technological advances quickly surpassed and companies wanted to make large profits while they still can, many companies charge the maximum possible price for a product that represents a clear technological advantage over competing products.   

   

Meaning Analysis

  • Because technological advances quickly surpassed
  • and companies wanted to make large profits
  • while they still can,
  • many companies charge the maximum possible price for a product
  • that represents a clear technological advantage over competing products.   

 

This sentence tells us that products that are technologically superior to competing products are sold at the maximum possible price by many companies. This is done because of the following two reasons:

  1. Technological advancements are quickly exceeded.
  2. Companies want to make large profits for as long as they can do so.

Error Analysis

  1. According to the meaning of the sentence it is clear that technological advances don’t surpass anything, but they themselves are surpassed. So, here we need the passive verb “are surpassed” to convey the intended meaning.
  2. The simple past tense verb “wanted” is incorrect.  Notice that all the verbs in the non-underlined portion of this sentence are written in simple present tense, thus the sentence is set up in present context. Accordingly, it is illogical to say that currently companies “charge” maximum price for the products because in the past they “wanted” to make large profits.  To present the meaning clearly and correctly, “wanted” should be written in simple present tense “want”.

Answer Choices

A

Because technological advances quickly surpassed and companies wanted  

Incorrect:

B

This choice has the errors pointed out in the error analysis.

Since technological advances are quickly surpassed and companies want 

Correct:  

This choice rectifies both the errors of the original sentence. The simple past tense verb “surpassed” is converted into the passive verb “are surpassed”, and the simple present tense verb “want” is used to present the fact that is currently valid - the companies want to make profits.

C

Technological advances quickly surpassed, companies want 

Incorrect:

  1. The cause and effect relationship is lost in this choice since it removes the dependent marker “because/since”.
  2. This choice contains 3 independent clauses (ICs).  These clauses have been connected to one another by just a comma.  Independent clauses must be connected using comma + FANBOYS or a semicolon.

D

Technological advances are quickly surpassed, and companies want 

Incorrect:

1)     The cause and effect relationship is lost in this choice since it removes the dependent marker “because/since”.

2)     Like choice C, this choice also connects two ICs by using just a comma.  

E

Since technological advances are quickly surpassed, companies wanting 

Incorrect:    

This choice is not grammatically correct.  The word “companies” does not have any verb.  Here is the high level structure – Since technological advances are surpassed, companies wanting to make large profits, many companies charge the maximum possible price.  This sentence could be corrected by removing “many companies”.  By doing that “charge” would be verb for first occurrence of companies.

QUESTION: 18

In the last decade, research in nanotechnology conducted at university-funded laboratories fell to a record low because grants for scientists who conducted independent research were not easily approved, but, because the necessary technical tools were rising in costs, those of expenses incurred during such research increased rapidly.

Solution:

In the last decade, research in nanotechnology conducted at university-funded laboratories fell to a record low because grants for scientists who conducted independent research were not easily approved, but, because the necessary technical tools were rising in costs, those of expenses incurred during such research increased rapidly.

Meaning Analysis

  • In the last decade, research in nanotechnology conducted at university-funded laboratories fell to a record low
    • because grants for scientists
      • whoconducted independent research
  • were not easily approved,
  • but, because the necessary technical toolswere rising in costs,
    • those of expenses incurred during such research increased rapidly.            

This sentence tells us that the research in nanotechnology that is carried out at university-funded laboratories decreased significantly in the last decade. It further gives the following two reasons for this decrease:

  1. Grants for scientists conducting independent research were not approved easily.
  2. The expenses for independent researches increased because of the increasing costs of the necessary technical tools.

So, the sentence explains why nanotechnology research in university-funded laboratories decreased: grants were not easily approved while the expenses increased.

Error Analysis

1)      The two reasons have been connected using ‘but’, a contrast word.  This connection is not logical since there is no apparent contrast between the two reasons.  Both the reasons present rationale for why the research decreased – grants were not easily approved and at the same time the expenses increased.

2)      The phrase “those of” does not make much sense in the context of this sentence. Since “those” is a demonstrative pronoun, it should refer to a noun that has already been mentioned in the sentence. However, in this sentence, there is no logical antecedent for the pronoun “those.” So, the phrase “those of” should be removed from the sentence.

It is illogical to say that the tools were rising. The costs of the tools were rising, not the tools themselves. 

Answer Choices

A

who conducted independent research were not easily approved, but, because the necessary technical tools were rising in costs, those of

Incorrect:

This choice has the errors pointed out in the error analysis.

B

conducting independent research were not easily approved while, because of the rising costs of the necessary technical tools,

Correct:      

This choice corrects all the errors of the original choice.   

C

conducting independent research were not easily approved, because of the rising costs of the necessary technical tools, and those of

Incorrect:

1)     As in choice A, “those of” has no function in the sentence.

2)     This choice distorts the meaning of the sentence. The sentence now incorrectly states that grants were not easily approved because of two reasons:

  1. the rising costs of tools.
  2. the increase of expenses

3)     Furthermore, the two reasons mentioned are not parallel.  One is a phrase “rising costs…” and the other is a clause “expenses increased...”

D

that conducted independent research that was not easily approved; however, because the necessary tools were rising in costs,

Incorrect:

1)     There is no verb for the subject “grants for scientists”. 

2)     This sentence conveys a different meaning from that of the original sentence. It says that the research was not easily approved. However, according to the original sentence the grants for scientists were not easily approved.

3)     The relative pronoun modifier “that” is incorrectly used to refer to the scientists; “that” cannot be used to refer to people.

4)     It is illogical to say that the tools were rising. The costs of the tools were rising, not the tools.  

conducting independent research that was not easily approved, but, because of the rising costs of the necessary technical tools,  

Incorrect:    

1)     This choice changes the meaning in the same way as choice D does.

2)     There is no verb for the subject “grants for scientists”. 

3)     This choice contains the error pertaining to “but” as Choice A does.

QUESTION: 19

Due to Nokia, which sells more cell phones than any other company does, but also has the lowest average selling price, so it has lower profits than many companies that sell fewer phones.

Solution:

Due to Nokia, which sells more cell phones than any other company does, but also has the lowest average selling price, so it has lower profits than many companies that sell fewer phones.

Meaning Analysis

The statement primarily intends to provide reason for the fact that Nokia has lower profits than other companies that sell fewer phones than Nokia. The reason is that even though Nokia sells more cellphones, it has the lowest average selling price per phone, compared to all other phone companies.

The question tests your ability to understand the intended meaning of the sentence and the correct use of modifiers.


Error Analysis

The reason for lower profits of Nokia is not the company itself, rather the fact that it has the lowest average selling price. “Due to Nokia” communicates that the company (or the existence of company) is responsible for lower profits. This meaning is illogical.

Comma + FANBOYS join two ICs. The part after comma + So is an IC but not the part before it. There is no main verb for the first part of the sentence.

Function of “due to” is not clear.

Answer Choices

A

Due to Nokia, which sells more cell phones than any other company does, but also has the lowest average selling price, so it has lower profits than many companies that sell fewer phones.

Incorrect: Errors as stated above.

B

Selling more cell phones than any other company and having lowest average selling price, Nokia’s profits are lower than many companies that sell fewer phones.

Incorrect: This option has two errors:
 
1. Modifier: “Selling” and “having” modify “Nokia’s profits”. This modification is illogical. “Nokia’s profits” are not selling more cell phones; Nokia is.

 

2. Illogical comparison: “Nokia’s profits” are compared with “companies” – this comparison is illogical.

C

Nokia, which sells more cell phones than any other company does, also has the lowest average selling price, so it has lower profits than many companies that sell fewer phones.

Correct. This option correctly states that the reason for lower profits of Nokia is the fact that it has the lowest average selling price. There is no grammatical error in the option.

D

Nokia has lower profits than many companies that sell fewer phones because Nokia, which sells more cell phones than any other company does, and also has the lowest average selling price.

Missing verb: Use of a conjunction "and" before "has" suggests that the subject "Nokia" after "because" must have another verb that the conjunction can join with the other verb. But this verb is missing. Again, if "and" is moved, the sentence can be rectified.

E

Selling more cell phones than any other company and also having lowest average selling price, so Nokia has lower profits than many companies that sell fewer phones.

It’s not clear what "selling more..." modifies. Comma + So must join two ICs. But there is no clause before comma + so.

QUESTION: 20

Dark matter along with black holes, a region of space from which nothing can escape, estimated to contain three fourths of mass of the universe.

Solution:

Dark matter along with black holes, a region of space from which nothing can escape, estimated to contain three fourths of mass of the universe.

Meaning Analysis

The sentence describes a feature about dark matter and black holes. These contain 3/4ths of mass of universe.

The question tests your expertise in identifying the subject-verb pairs in the sentence. 
 

Error Analysis

The original sentence has fragment error since the subject “dark matter” does not have any verb. 

Answer Choices

A

estimated to

The original sentence has fragment error since the subject “dark matter” does not have any verb.

B

is estimated to

 Correct

estimated by some to

This choice results in a fragment since the subject “dark matter” does not have any verb.

D

some astronomers estimate they

This choice results in a fragment since the subject “dark matter” does not have any verb.

E

as estimated by astronomers to

This choice results in a fragment since the subject “dark matter” does not have any verb.

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