Environment - Practice Test (2)

30 Questions MCQ Test Environment and Additional Topics for UPSC Prelims | Environment - Practice Test (2)

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Consider the following statements

1. The percentage of Open forest in India is more than Moderately Dense forest
2. Area covered under Plantation is more than very Dense forest
3. Shifting Cultivation has increased over the years and shares more land use as compared to Non-Forestry Plantation.

Select the correct code-


According to Indian State of Forest report 2013
Open Forest- 8.28% of Recorded Forest Area
Moderately dense forest- 33.91%
Plantation/Young crops-7.95
Shifting Cultivation-0.81%
Non-Forestry Plantation-1.22


Soil erosion is one of the major reasons for depleting forest covers of India. Consider the following statements w.r.t this-
1. Excessive erosion of bottom soil reduces both the fertility and water holding capacity of the soil.
2. Major part of Indian forest cover has undergone heavy soil erosion amounting almost 30% of Recorded Forest Area.

Select the correct code-


Excessive erosion of TOP soil, not Bottom soil. Erosion takes place on the top surface of soil. Major forest cover of India has undergone Mild Erosion amounting 63% of RFA. Heavy Soil erosion amounts to 2.24 % of RFA


Which of the following is/are artificial methods of ‘Forest Regeneration’?
1. Taungya System
2. Silviculture System

Select the correct code-


Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. The name comes from the Latinsilvi- (forest) + culture (as in growing). The study of forests and woods is termed silvology. Silviculture also focuses on making sure that the treatment(s) of forest stands are used to preserve and to better their productivity.

The taungya is a system whereby villagers and sometimes forest plantation workers are given the right to cultivate agricultural crops during the early stages of forest plantation establishment. Taungya means hill cultivation, it was introduced into-India by Dr. Brandis in 1890 and the first Taungya plantation was raised in 1896 in north Bengal. It is practiced in Kerala, West Bangal, U.P., and to lesser extent in Tamil Nadu, A. P. Orissa and the north eastern hill regions. In southern India the system is called KUMARI; it is practiced in a areas with an assured annual rainfall of over 1200-1500mm.
This is a modified term of shifting cultivation in which labour is permitted to raise crop in an area but only side by side with the forest species planted by them. The practices consist of land preparation, tree planting, growing agricultural crop for 1 to 3 years until shade becomes the dense and then moving on to repeat the cycle in a different area.


Consider the statements regarding ‘Coral bleaching’
1. It is the loss of zooxanthellae through either expulsion or loss of algal pigmentation.
2. It happens due to increase in ocean temperature
3. All the corals undergoing bleaching are dead corals

Select the correct code-


First statement is true. Coral bleaching not only happens because of warm temperature but can also happen due to Cold temperature. Not all bleaching events are due to warm water. In January 2010, cold water temperatures in the Florida Keys caused a coral bleaching event that resulted in some coral death. Water temperatures dropped 12.06 degrees Fahrenheit lower than the typical temperatures observed at this time of year.
Researchers will evaluate if this cold-stress event will make corals more susceptible to
disease in the same way that warmer waters impact corals.
When a coral bleaches, it is not dead. Corals can survive a bleaching event, but they are under more stress and are subject to mortality.


Rhodiola has been a significant herb of research interests among the scientist all over the world. Consider the statements w.r.t Rhodiola
1. It has immunomodulatory, adaptogenic and radio-protecting abilities.
2. The root part is used by local people as vegetables
3. It is found in cold regions of the world

Which of the following statements is /are correct


The leafy part is used as vegetables. The root is used as Medicine


Germany is investing in an emission reduction project in India as an alternative to reducingemissions domestically. It will be called as-


The definition given is of Joint Implementation but India cannot be its
beneficiary since it applies among Annex 1 countries only. CDM applies to developing


Identify the correct statement
1. The Bio-safety protocol deals with genetically modified organism
2. The Bio-safety protocol is also called as Nagoya Protocol
3. Both Nagoya and Cartagena Protocol deals with genetic resources

Select the correct code


The Bio-safety protocol is Cartagena not Nagoya. Rest are correct


The formation of ozone hole in the Antarctica region has been a cause of concern. Whatcould be the reason for the formation of this hole?

Solution: The severe depletion of the Antarctic ozone layer known as the “ozone hole” occurs because of the special atmospheric and chemical conditions that exist there and nowhere else on the globe. The very low winter temperatures in the Antarctic stratosphere cause polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) to form more readily in the extreme cold of the Antarctic stratosphere and chlorofluoro carbons are present everywhere in stratosphere.This is why ozone holes first formed, and are deeper, over Antarctica.

Consider the following statements regarding Bio-asphalt
1. It is eco-friendly to use bio-asphalt for surfacing of the roads
2. Unlike traditional asphalts, bio-asphalts is not based on fossil fuels.
3. Bio-asphalt can be made from organic waste materials.
4. Bio-asphalt can be made from non-renewable resources

Select the correct code-


Except fourth statement, all are correct.


Which bacterial strain, developed from natural isolates by genetic manipulations, canbe used for treating oil spills?


Oil eating bacteria is an aerobic bacterium. The genetic name Pseudomonas
created for organisms like oil eating bacteria was


Consider the following statements
1. It is world’s most problematic aquatic weed
2. It is also called Terror of Bengal

Above statements fits for?


You may have seen the beautiful mauve-colored flowers found on very appealingly-shaped floating plants in water bodies. These plants which were introduced into India for their lovely flowers have caused havoc by their excessive growth by causing blocks in our waterways. They grow faster than our ability to remove them. These are plants of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), the world’s most problematic aquatic weed, also called ‘Terror of Bengal’. They grow abundantly in eutrophic water bodies, and lead to animbalance in the ecosystem dynamics of the water body.


Consider the following statements
1. The Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is the measure of organic matter present in the water.
2. Greater the BOD, lesser is the polluting potential.
3. Microbes in sewage treatment plants increases the BOD of the effluent

Which of the above are NOT correct?


Greater the BOD more is the polluting potential. Actually, in secondary treatment orbiological treatment of sewage water in plant, the primary effluent is passed into largeaeration tanks where it is constantly agitated mechanically and air is pumped into it. Thisallows vigorous growth of useful aerobic microbes into flocs (masses of bacteria associatedwith fungal filaments to form mesh like structures). While growing, these microbes consumethe major part of the organic matter in the effluent. This significantly reduces the BOD(biochemical oxygen demand) of the effluent. BOD refers to the amount of the oxygen thatwould be consumed if all the organic matter in one litre of water were oxidised by bacteri


Match the following list of bioactive substances and their roles:



Consider the following
1. Azotobacter
2. Pseudomonas
3. Nostoc
4. Anabaena
5. Thiobacillus

Which of the above is NOT a nitrogen fixing organism?


and 5 are denitrifying bacteria and rest are nitrogen fixing organism


Methanogens are common in Wetlands and are responsible for marsh gas. Consider the following w.r.t it
1. They are also found in ruminants of animals but not in human
2. They play significant role in aerobic wastewater treatment
3. They produce oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and methane

Choose the correct options


They are common in wetlands, where they are responsible for marsh gas, and in the digestive tracts of animals such as ruminants and humans, where they are responsible for the methane content
of belching in ruminants and flatulence in humans.
Moreover, the methanogenic archaea populations play an indispensable role in anaerobic wastewater treatments.
They are anaerobic organisms and cannot function under aerobic conditions


Match the items in Column ‘A’ and Column ‘B’ and choose correct answer.

The correct answer is:


Lady bird and Butterflies are used to get rid of Aphids. Fungi are also known to form
symbiotic associations with plants (mycorrhiza). Many members of the genus Glomus form mycorrhiza. A biological control being developed for use in the treatment of plant disease is the fungus Trichoderma. Trichoderma species are free-living fungi that are very common in the root ecosystems. They are effective biocontrol agents of several plant pathogens. Methanobacterium is related to Biogas


Use of certain chemicals and radiation to change the base sequence of genes of crop plant is termed as


Use of certain chemicals and radiation to change the base sequences of genes of crop plants is termed as mutation breeding. Mutations is induced artificially through use of chemicals or radiations like gamma radiations.


If your COW is producing average MILK as compared to the cow of other breed, the bestmethod to increase its efficiency would be?


This is the practice of mating of animals within the same breed, but having no commonancestors on either side of their pedigree up to 4-6 generations. The offspring of such amating is known as an out-cross. It is the best breeding method for animals that are belowaverage in productivity in milk production, growth rate in beef cattle, etc.


Which one of the following is not a fungal disease?


Black rot is caused by a bacteria, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, that can infectmost crucifer crops at any growth stage. This disease is difficult for growers to manage andis considered the most serious disease of crucifer crops worldwide


Consider the statements
1. Dinitrogen and dioxygen are main constituents of air but do not react at normal temperature
2. Nitrous oxide does not contribute to Green House Gases but excess of nitrogen dioxide can retard the rate of photosynthesis.

Select the WRONG statement/s


They contribute to GHGs


Match the following

Select the correct code


Which of the following departments come under Ministry of Finance?
1. Disinvestment
2. Revenue
3. Expenditure
4. Consumer Affairs
5. Commerce

Select the correct code


Consider the following statements
1. Phillips curve is direct relation of unemployment and inflation.
2. It explains deflation and hyperinflation much better than stagflation

Which of the above is/are NOT correct?


Inverse relation between unemployment and inflation- Phillips curveStagflation is the combination of high unemployment and economic stagnation withinflation.


Consider the following statements
1. The highest population of Scheduled Tribes in India lives in Andhra Pradesh
2. There are more Scheduled Tribe’s in India than Scheduled Caste’s

Select the correct statement/s


Highest population of ST’s- MP
More SC’s than ST’s


Heinz Award is given in the field of
1. Art
2. Environment
3. Public Policy
4. Mathematics
5. Technology

Select the correct code


It is awarded in - Arts and Humanities; Environment; Human Condition; Public Policy; and Technology, the Economy and Employment.


Consider the statements
1. West Bank is more close to Mediterranean Sea while Gaza Strip is far
2. Gaza strip is more close to Mediterranean Sea than Dead sea
3. West Bank is close to Dead Sea than Mediterranean Sea
4. Gaza Strip is close to Dead Sea than Mediterranean Sea

Identify the correct statement/s


GAZA Strip is adjacent to Mediterranean Sea and West Bank is close to Dead Sea


Fogs are formed due to
1. Conduction
2. Radiation
3. Mixing of warm and cold air masses

Select the correct codes from above


All of the above phenomenons are responsible for the formation of FOG.


Which of the following are associated with natural processes of Nitrogen Fixation?
1. Lightening
2. Cloud Bursting
3. Bacteria
4. Blue-green Algae
5. Fungi

Select the correct codes


There are only two major pathways of natural nitrogen fixation and they are lightening and by bacteria and blue green algae


Consider the following
1. Sound waves
2. Light waves
3. Electromagnetic waves

Temperature inversion will affect?


Besides trapping smog, inversions also trap sound waves. Because of this, the loud soundsof things like airplanes taking off will seem louder as the sound waves refract off theinversion layer and back down to the ground.But sound waves aren't the only thing that gets refracted by weather inversions. Light canbe bent by the inconsistency of the temperature. When an inversion is not present, but theground temperature is significantly hotter than the air higher up like in the desert, thebending of light causes mirages in the form of thinking that there is a lake or puddle upahead. Really, it is the sky reflecting off of the ground because of the extreme change intemperatureWhen there is a temperature inversion, the affect is just the opposite. If the inversion isstrong enough, it can cause far off objects to look like they are floating above the ground. Ifthings are far enough they are past the curvature of the earth, they may become visible.This reverse or "superior" mirage is called looming.Very high frequency radio waves can be refracted by inversions, making it possible tohear FM radio or watch VHF low-band television broadcasts from long distances on foggy nights. The signal, which would normally be refracted up and away from the groundbasedantenna, is instead refracted down towards the earth by the temperature-inversionboundary layer. This phenomenon is called tropospheric ducting.


Tropospheric Ozone consists of
1. Sulphur Dioxide
2. Methane
3. Nitrogen Oxides
4. Volatile Organic Compounds
5. Carbon Monoxide

Choose the correct options


CO, VOCs and NO are called Ozone precursors. VOCs include methane also.

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